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(2,080 words)

Author(s): Ginat, Joseph
Punishment inflicted in return for an injury or offense, closely related to the concept of retaliation (q.v.), i.e. “to return like for like.” In some dozen qurʾānic passages the eighth verbal form of the Arabic root n-q-m is employed to describe God as “taking vengeance” upon sinners (i.e. q 30:47; 32:22; see sin, major and minor ), repeatviolators of the regulations relating to the pilgrimage (q.v.; i.e. q 5:95) and people who reject his signs (q.v.; i.e. Pharaoh [q.v.] and his people, cf. q 7:136; see also lie; belief and unbelief; gratitude and ingratitude). In addition to being an …