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Edfu

(296 words)

Author(s): Graefe, E.
(Ūdfū, Ūtfū), a town on the west bank of the Nile, the Apollonopolis Magna of the Greeks and Romans, about halfway between Thebes and Assuan, the capital of ¶ the district of Edfu in the province of Nubia. The name goes back to the Egyptian Tbōt, Coptic Atbō. The place is chiefly celebrated for its temple of Horus built in the Ptolemaic period but this, which in course of time became buried in ruins, is rarely mentioned in Muhammadan literature. An archaeological note is given by Maḳrīzī, who says that in the viiith century a female figure of stone was dug up there; she was represented…

al-Fāʾiz

(222 words)

Author(s): Graefe, E.
bi Naṣr Allāh, a Fāṭimid Caliph. Born in 544 (1149), he was the son of the Caliph ¶ al-Ẓāfir and his real name was Abu ’l-Ḳāsim ʿĪsā. After the assassination of his father (30th Muḥarram 549 = 16th April 1154) he was carried by the vizier ʿAbbās out on his shoulders and placed on the throne, being then only fine years old. The gruesome scenes of those days, particularly the sight of his uncles Yūsuf and Ḏj̲abrīl slain by the orders of ʿAbbās, are said to have so worked on the mind of the unfortunate boy that he was constantly affli…

G̲h̲arbīya

(222 words)

Author(s): Graefe, E.
, a province in the Delta of Egypt, lying between the Rosetta and Damietta arms of the Nile, bounded on the north by the sea, in the south by the Menūfīya [q. v.]. It has existed since the division of Egypt into aʿmāl (cf. Becker in the article Egypt, section 2 et seq.). According to Abū Ṣāliḥ it was divided into 149 districts, included 165 villages and yielded a revenue of 470,955 dīnārs. When the administrative units were increased in size, the Ḳūsanīya, Samanūdīya and Dand̲j̲āwīya were incorporated in the G̲h̲arbīya province, so that Ibn Ḏj̲īʿ…

Ḏj̲awhar

(761 words)

Author(s): Graefe, E.
, whose full name was Abu ’l-Ḥasan (Ḥusain) Ḏj̲awhar b. ʿAbdallāh, called al-Kātib, a Fāṭimid general. He was born in Byzantine territory whence his name “al-Rūmī” and was brought as a slave to Ḳairawān. After passing through the hands of several masters he was finally presented by the eunuch Ḵh̲afīf to the Caliph al-Manṣūr in this town, who made him his personal attendant. After receiving his freedom from his son and successor al-Muʿizz, he soon rose from secretary to the rank of a vizier and commanderin-c…

al-Ḥākim Bi Amri ’llāh

(1,679 words)

Author(s): Graefe, E.
, sixth Fāṭimid Caliph, his pre-accession name was Abū ʿAlī al-Manṣūr. To get as clear as possible an idea of the character of this enigmatical ruler three periods in his life must be sharply distinguished; first, the period of his minority, from his accession as an eleven-year-old boy till the assassination of Bard̲j̲awān in 390 = 1000; the second period runs from this event till 408 = 1017, when he declared bis divinity; and the last covers the period to his disappearance in 411 = 1021. 1. 386—390 (996—1000). On the very day that al-ʿAzīz died in Bilbls, his only son al-Manṣūr …

al-Daḳahlīya

(156 words)

Author(s): Graefe, E.
, also pronounced Daḳhelīye at the present day, is an Egyptian province of the Eastern Delta. It is called after the town of Daḳahla; Amélineau ( Géographie de l’Egypte) traces this name to the Coptic Tkehli. Abū Ṣāliḥ counted the Daḳahlīya as one of the provinces of Egypt, and estimates its revenue at 53,761 dīnārs; on the other hand Yāḳūt calls it a district ( kūra). In the time of Nāṣir b. Ḳalāʾūn it seems to have formed with Murtāḥīya the province of Us̲h̲mūm Ṭannāḥ. At the present day the Daḳahlīya province has, according to Boinet Bey, 9 districts and a…

al-Ḥāfiẓ

(678 words)

Author(s): Graefe, E.
, the eleventh Fāṭimid Caliph, whose real name was Abu ’l-Maimūn (al-Maimūn) ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd. He was born about the year 467 = 1074 (there is no general agreement about the exact date) at Ascalon, whither his father, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Muḥammad, a son of the Caliph al-Mustanṣir, had gone on account of the famine then raging in Egypt (Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, x. 468). But it was not till late in life that he began to play an active part in politics. He was a comparatively old man when in 524 = 1130 al-Āmir [q. v., i. 328k et seq.] fell a victim to the Assassins without leaving a male heir and he was elec…

Dāk̲h̲la

(365 words)

Author(s): Graefe, E.
, is one of the southern groups of oases in the Lybian Desert [cf. the article baḥrīye, p. 586]. The oasis of Farāfra, four days’ journey to the north, is also sometimes included in it. The Dāk̲h̲la at the present day forms part of the province of Asyūṭ; the most important place in it is Mūṭ with about 1300 inhabitants. Little is definitely known about the history of the oasis; the accounts we find are mostly fantastic tales of mythical rulers and all sorts of marvels. Thus the lake is located there into which …

Dongola

(1,212 words)

Author(s): Graefe, E.
(Dumḳula, Dunḳula) a district in Nubia, which lies along both banks of the Nile between 19° 42’ and 18° N. Lat. for a distance of about 170 miles; at the present day it is a Mudīrīya of the Anglo-Egyptian Sūdān. The population, ( Danāḳila, Danāgla, sing. Dongolāwī) numbers about 56,000; it has in course of time received a considerable infusion of Arab blood and speaks a dialect of Nubian. The capital is New Dongola or al-Urda with about 15,000 inhabitants. The district takes its name from the ancient capital of the Christian kingdom of Maḳurra (on the latter cf. Marquart, Benin, p. ccl. et seq.), …

Ḍirg̲h̲ām

(605 words)

Author(s): Graefe, E.
(“Lion”) a vizier of the last Fāṭimid al-ʿĀḍid [q.v., p. 137]; his full name was Abu ’l-As̲h̲bāl al-Ḍirg̲h̲ām b. ʿĀmir b. Sawwār. As to his origin, his pure Arab blood is emphasised and his epithets al-Lak̲h̲mī al-Mund̲h̲irī also seem to point to his descent from the ancient rulers of Ḥīra. He had risen from the corps of the Barḳīya, and was one of the confidants of Ṭalāʾiʿ b. Ruzzīk [q. v.], who appointed him generalissimo in 553 = 1158. In the same year he defeated the Christians near G̲h̲azza. In spite of his clo…

Ḏj̲adwal

(519 words)

Author(s): Graefe, E.
(Pl. d̲j̲aāswil) means firstly, “brook”, “watercourse”; it further means “table, plan” (in this meaning derived from schedula?). It thus becomes a special technical term in sorcery, synonymous with k̲h̲ātim; here it means quadrangular or polygonal, sometimes also circular figures, into which names and signs possessing secret magic powers are inserted in the most varied fashion. These are usually certain mysterious characters, Arabic letters and numerals, magic words, the names of God, the angels and demons, as well as of t…

Dahs̲h̲ūr

(179 words)

Author(s): Graefe, E.
, a place in the Egyptian province of Ḏj̲īza (district of al-ʿAyāṭ) on the west bank of the Nile southwest of Cairo. Dahs̲h̲ūr has been famed since ancient times for its pyramids, the building of which is ascribed by the Arab geographers to mythical kings (like Ḳafṭurīm and S̲h̲adāt̲h̲ b. ʿAd̲h̲īm). Abū Ṣāliḥ mentions a Christian monastery and a church of Moses there; the latter was afterwards turned into a mosque while the monastery was over-whelmed by the Nile. Before ¶ the making of the railway, the place was one of the stations for caravans going from the Faiyūm to Cair…

Dendera

(325 words)

Author(s): Graefe, E.
(the form Andara is also found) is a place in Upper Egypt on the left bank of the Nile, which now belongs to the district and province of Ḳenā. The name is derived from the Coptic Nitentōri (Greek Τεντυρα). Dendera is celebrated for its temple of Hathor to which all sorts of legends have been attached, as usual in Arabic literature. While the city is said to have been founded by “one of the daughters of the Copts” (Abū Ṣāliḥ) in the time of Manfāʾūs or by Ḳafṭurīm b. Miṣrāyim, the building of the …

Haram

(815 words)

Author(s): Graefe, E.
(plur. ahrām, ahrāmāt, and in the popular dialect of Egypt, ihrām, the latter also used as a singular), a Coptic loanword of doubtful origin = pyramid. In Muslim literature, although the pyramids of Saḳḳāra ( al-haram al-mudarrad̲j̲) as well as those of Abūṣīr, Dahs̲h̲ūr, Maidūm, etc., are well known, the ahrām are preeminently the pyramids of Cheops and Chephren, or sometimes also of Mycerinos, west of Ḏj̲īze. They have been mentioned and described times without number by the geographers, but as a rule their accounts have little value as origi…

Fāṭimids

(4,589 words)

Author(s): Graefe, E.
The origin of the Fāṭimid movement is to be sought among the Ismāʿīlis, whose centre was from about the middle of the third century a. h. the small town of Salamīya between Ḥamāt and Ḥimṣ. Among the dāʿīs [q. v., i. 895b et seq.], who went forth from here to the various Muslim countries, particularly to Mesopotamia, Persia and the Yemen, to engage in very successful missionary work, Abū ʿAbd Allāh [q. v., i. 74], who become famous under the name al-S̲h̲īʿī was the first to gain a firm footing in the ¶ Mag̲h̲rib among the Berber tribe of Kitāma (from the end of 272 — 895) and gradually …

al-Farāfra

(372 words)

Author(s): Graefe, E.
(al-Farāfira), an oasis in the Lybian desert, belonging to the Egyptian province of Minyā. It lies between the Wāḥāt Baḥrīye and the Wāḥāt Ḳiblīye [see the article baḥrīye, i. 586b et seq.] and is about 8 days journey by camel from Minyā. Among the earlier Arab geographers the name al-Farfarūn appears, for example in al-Bakrī, who mentions its great wealth in date-palms and the numerous villages inhabited by Christian Copts; he also knows of the alum and vitriol found there and mentions the hot springs of the oasis. We have no other direct not…

Haram

(730 words)

Author(s): Graefe, E. | Plessner, M.
(plur. ahrām , ahrāmāt , and in the popular dialect of Egypt, ihrām , the latter also used as a singular), a word of doubtful origin = pyramid. In Muslim literature, although the pyramids of Saḳḳāra ( al-haram, al-mudarrad̲j̲ ) as well as those of Abūṣīr, Dahs̲h̲ūr, Maydūm, etc., are well known, the ahrām are pre-eminently the pyramids of Cheops and Chephren, or sometimes also of Mycerinos, west of Ḏj̲īza (Giza). They have been mentioned and described times without number by the geographers, but as a rule their accounts have little value as origin…

Haram

(741 words)

Author(s): Graefe, E. | Plessner, M.
(A.; pl. ahrām, ahrāmāt et, dans le parler populaire d’Égypte, ihrām, traité aussi en singulier), terme d’origine douteuse désignant une pyramide. Dans la littérature islamique, bien que les pyramides de Saḳḳāra ( al-haram al-mudarrad̲j̲) ainsi que celles d’Abūṣīr, de Dahs̲h̲ūr, de Maydūm, etc. soient bien connues, les ahrām sont surtout les pyramides de Chéops et de Chephren et parfois aussi celle de Mycérinus, à l’Ouest de Ḏj̲īza (Gizeh). Elles sont mentionnées et décrites un nombre incalculable de fois par les géographes, mais leurs expos…

D̲j̲adwal

(877 words)

Author(s): Graefe, E. | MacDonald, D.B. | Plessner, M.
pl. d̲j̲adāwil , primarily “brook, watercourse”, means further “Ṭable, plan”. Graefe suggested that in this meaning it might derive from schedula ; but perhaps one should rather think of d̲j̲-d-l “to twist”, cf. S. Fraenkel, Die aramäischen Fremdwörter im Arabischen , 224, and the similar development of the meaning of zīd̲j̲ , as stated by E. Honigmann, Die sieben Klimata , 1929, 117 ff. In this second sense the word becomes a special term in sorcery, synonymous with k̲h̲ātim here it means quadrangular or other geometrical figures, into which names a…

Ḏj̲adwal

(901 words)

Author(s): Graefe, E. | MacDonald, D.B. | Plessner, M.
(plur. d̲j̲adāwil) signifiait anciennement «ruisseau», «cours d’eau». Il a en outre le sens¶ de «tableau», «plan». Graefe suggère que dans ce sens il peut dériver de schedula. Mais on pourrait plutôt penser à d̲j̲.d.l « tordre », cf. S. Fraenkel, Die Aramäischen Fremdwörter im arabischen, 224 et le développement similaire du sens de zīd̲j̲ tel qu’il est établi par E. Honigmann, Die sieben Klimata, 1929,117 sqq. Dans ce second sens, le terme devient ainsi une expression technique de la magie, synonyme de k̲h̲ātam; il désigne alors des figures quadrangulaires ou polygonales dan…