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 Patmut‘iwn Ghewondeay

(1,686 words)

Author(s): Greenwood, Tim
History of Ghewond (excluding the Letter of Leo III to the Caliph ʿUmar II, [q.v.]) Ghewond = Łewond = Lewond Date: Late 8th or late 9th c. Original Language: Armenian Description Traditionally, the History has been treated as a product of the late 8th century, largely on the basis of its chronological scope, which extends to the year 789, the identification of its sponsor Shapuh Bagratuni as the shadowy son of Smbat Bagratuni, who was killed in 775, and quite simply in the absence of any other evidence. A minority of scholars,…

Ghewond = Łewond = Lewond

(349 words)

Author(s): Greenwood, Tim
Ghewond Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown Place of Death: Unknown Biography Nothing is known about Ghewond except that he held the clerical rank of vardapet, indicating that he was an unmarried priest with superior theological training who was responsible for doctrinal instruction and the maintenance of orthodox belief. His History was sponsored by Lord Shapuh Bagratuni, and a broad sympathy towards the Bagratuni house may be discerned in it. Unlike the History attributed to Sebeos (q.v.), however, the final notices do not focus upon th…

 Patmut‘iwn Sebēosi

(1,056 words)

Author(s): Greenwood, Tim
The History of Sebeos Sebēos, pseudo-Sebeos Date: In or shortly after 655, with short updating notices appended to the conclusion, advancing the chronological scope to 661 Original Language: Armenian Description The work offers a wide-ranging overview of Near Eastern history between 572 and 661. The final third of the text, comprising 41 pages of Abgaryan’s critical edition, records the emergence and expansion of a new and dynamic Islamic polity. It sketches key beliefs, tracing them back to Muḥammad, a preacher and legislat…

T‘ovma Artsruni

(830 words)

Author(s): Greenwood, Tim
Thomas Arcruni Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown; after 904 and probably before 908 Place of Death: Unknown Biography T‘ovma is an elusive figure, unattested outside his History and a reluctant presence within it. Only once does he refer to himself by name. As this point in the text coincides with the conclusion of one of his principal sources, the History of Movsēs Khorenats‘i, which also contains a short autobiographical passage in its conclusion, it seems that it was literary precedent that prompted this rare disclosure. T‘ovma does not identify h…

 Correspondence between ʿUmar II and Leo III

(1,819 words)

Author(s): Greenwood, Tim
- Unknown author Date: Unknown Original Language: Greek Description The authenticity of the exchange of correspondence between the Caliph ʿUmar II and the Byzantine Emperor Leo III preserved in the History of Ghewond (q.v. for biographical details) has long been a matter of contention. It remains unresolved. Some scholars, notably Gerö, maintain that the correspondence was originally composed in Armenian and so cannot be genuine. He contends that the scriptural citations and allusions are far closer to t…

Movsēs Daskhurants‘i / Movsēs Kaghankatuats‘i

(798 words)

Author(s): Greenwood, Tim
Movsēs Dasxurancʿi / Movsēs Kałankatuacʿi Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Early 10th c. Place of Death: Unknown Biography Traditionally, two names have been associated with the composition entitled History of Aghuank‘ ( History of Ałuank‘/Albania): Movsēs Daskhurants‘i and Movsēs Kaghankatuats‘i. Movsēs Daskhurants‘i was first named as the compiler of the work by Mkhit‘ar Gosh at the end of the 12th century, whilst Kirakos Gandzakets‘i (d. 1271) asserted that Kaghankatuats‘i was responsible. This double identification has generat…

 Patmut‘iwn Aghuanits‘ ashkharhi

(1,776 words)

Author(s): Greenwood, Tim
History of Aghuank Movsēs Daskhurants‘i / Movsēs Kaghankatuats‘i Date: Compiled early 10th c., incorporating 7th and early 8th century elements Original Language: Armenian Description The History of Aghuank‘ can be accessed through Aṛakelyan’s modern critical edition and Dowsett’s older English translation. It is a composite text which was put together in the early 10th century. This relatively late date of compilation does not mean that it did not exploit and preserve much older materials, and herein lies the value of the text. Following a famili…

 Patmut‘iwn tann Artsruneats‘

(1,121 words)

Author(s): Greenwood, Tim
History of the House of Artsrunik‘ T‘ovma Artsruni Date: After 903 and before 908 Original Language: Armenian Description The work offers an extended study of the history of the Artsruni family from the time of Noah down to 904. Of this, some three-fifths, extending to 162 pages of Patkanean’s edition, is relevant to Christian-Muslim relations. After a brief and highly individual biography of the Prophet Muḥammad, according to which he was taught by an Arian monk named Sargis Baḥīrā and influenced by Salmān the P…

Sebēos, pseudo-Sebeos

(833 words)

Author(s): Greenwood, Tim
The history of Sebeos Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown, after 655 and probably after 661 Place of Death: Unknown Biography Nothing is known for certain about the anonymous author of the History attributed to Sebeos. Given the repeated recourse to biblical imagery and vocabulary, as well as the apocalyptic apprehensions evident within the text, it is highly likely that he was a cleric. It used to be argued that the author should be identified as Sebeos, bishop of the Bagratunik', a signatory to th…

Unknown author

(50 words)

Author(s): Greenwood, Tim
The Letter of Leo III in 'Ghewond' Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown Place of Death: Unknown Biography Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information See below Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Correspondence between ʿUmar II and Leo III Tim Greenwood