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Michał Bogusław Ruttich

(825 words)

Author(s): Grodź, Stanisław
Date of Birth: 1686 Place of Birth: Vilnius (Wilno) Date of Death: 16 or 17 February 1729 Place of Death: Toruń (Thorn) BiographyComing from a Polonised German Lutheran family – his father, a pharmacist, settled in Vilnius – Michał was educated in Vilnius and Königsberg (Królewiec; present day Kaliningrad). He moved to Halle (1702-5), where he studied philology, learning Hebrew and Arabic (the latter from Salomon Negri of Damascus), philosophy and Lutheran theology. August Hermann Francke (1663-1727), a professor of …

Sixteenth-century anti-Turkish literature in Poland and Lithuania

(30 words)

Author(s): Grodź, Stanisław
Biography Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Sixteenth-century anti-Turkish literature in Poland and Lithuania Stanisław Grodź

Hieronim Baliński

(360 words)

Author(s): Grodź, Stanisław
Biography Hieronim Baliński was born into a Protestant family and received his basic education from Jerzy Schoman (a Lutheran, later a Unitarian) at the home of his uncle, Hieronim Bużeński, a royal salt mine official. He then studied in Leipzig and Wittenberg (1557-65), and also spent so…

Marcin Bielski

(689 words)

Author(s): Grodź, Stanisław
Marcin Wolski Date of Birth: 1495 Place of Birth: Biała near Pajęczno (present-day central Poland) Date of Death: 18 December 1575 Place of Death: Biała Biography Marcin was born into a noble family that used the name Wolski, but took the name Bielski after the village where he eventually settled. Some of his early works and the second edition of his chronicle were signed with the name ‘Wolski’. He spent his youth at the court of Janusz, Prince of Mazovia, and later at the court of Piotr Kmita, a powerful and influential…

Erazm Otwinowski

(875 words)

Author(s): Grodź, Stanisław
Erazm Otwinowski, Otfinowski, Otvinovius Date of Birth: Between 1524 and 1529 Place of Birth: Liśnik (formerly Leśnik), near Urzędów Date of Death: June 1614 Place of Death: Raków Biography According to H. Barcyz…


(5,438 words)

Author(s): Grodź, Stanisław
This introduction aims to draw a framework of the political events that influenced (or were influenced by) Christian-Muslim encounters in the area of northern and eastern Europe. What Christians (the Tatars living in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth are the only Muslim authors covered in this volume) knew and wrote about Muslims and Islam, how they presented Christianity to Muslims and what attitudes they expressed can be found in a variety of sources, among them theological treatises, works f…

 Fragmente und Antifragmente

(1,491 words)

Author(s): Grodź, Stanisław
‘Fragments and antifragments’ Johann Christoph Döderlein Date: 1779 Original Language: German Description

 Historya Turecka o Mahomecie

(1,791 words)

Author(s): Grodź, Stanisław
‘A Turkish story about Muḥammad’ Mikołaj Chwałkowski Date: 1712 Original Language: Polish DescriptionJan Tobiasz Keller, a publisher and printer from Poznań (Posen), published a compilation of several works in 1712. Chwałkowski, who had most probably died some 10 years earlier, was named on the title page as its author. Historya Turecka o Mahomecie (in full,  Historya Tvrecka o Mahomecie y potomkach iego a to ku Obronie y na przestroge Chrzescianom iako tym Nieprzyiacielom Krzyza Swietego ile podeyrzanym ufac nie trzeba Ktora od iednego Vniata, z l…

 Łabędź z piorami swemi z darami boskiemi Chrystusa

(736 words)

Author(s): Grodź, Stanisław
Łabędź‘The swan with its feathers with the divine gifts of Christ’ Joannicjusz Galatowski, Joanicy Galatowski (alternative Polish); Iōan(n)ikii Haliatov(ʾ)skii, Hialetovʾʾskii (Ukrainian); Ioanikii Galiatovʾskyi, Ioan(n)ikii Galatovskii, Ioan(n)ikii Goliatovskii, Ioanikei Galitovskii (Russian) Date: 1679 Original Language: Polish Description No copy of the original Polish text of Łabędź (‘The swan’) appears to be extant. Polish scholars consider it to be lost, and Nosowski’s  Polska literatura polemiczno-antyislamistyczna does not even mention it. However…

Constantinopolitan- oder Türckischer Kirchen-Staat

(30 words)

Author(s): Grodź, Stanisław
Date of Birth: Place of Birth: Date of Death: Place of Death: Biography Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information Works on Christian-Muslim RelationsConstantinopolitan- oder Türckischer Kirchen-StaatStanisław Grodź

Gottfried Arnold

(577 words)

Author(s): Grodź, Stanisław
Date of Birth: 5 September 1666 Place of Birth: Annaberg im Erzgebirge, Saxony Date of Death: 30 May 1714 Place of Death: Perleberg, Brandenburg BiographyGottfried Arnold was the son of a Latin teacher. After completing his education at a school in Gera, he studied in Wittenberg. Quite early in his life, he made contact with the Pietists. Ph.J. Spener helped him to obtain a teaching post in Dresden (1689-93), then Quedlinburg (1693-96), where he found the time and interest to research themes in Church history. In his book  Die erste Liebe, Das ist: Wahre Abbildung der ersten Christen (1696)…

 Constantinopolitan- oder Türckischer Kirchen-Staat

(808 words)

Author(s): Grodź, Stanisław
'The Constantinopolitan or Turkish church-state' Constantinopolitan- oder Türckischer Kirchen-Staat Date: 1699 Original Language: German Description Constantinopolitan- oder Türckischer Kirchen-Staat (in full,  Constantinopolitan- oder Türckischer Kirchen-Staat : In welchem Die vornemste[n] Glaubens-Puncten des Alcorans, wie nicht weniger der gantze Mahometanische Gottesdienst nebst des falschen Propheten Mahomets Leben, in einer kurtz-gefaßeten doch gewissen und deutlichen Erzehlung vorgestellet wird, ‘Constantinopolitan or Turkish church-State, i…

 Vergleichung des Graf Zinzendorfs mit dem Mahomet

(866 words)

Author(s): Grodź, Stanisław
‘Comparison of Count Zinzendorf with Muḥammad’ Johann Leonhard Fröreisen Date: 1748 Original Language: German Description Vergleichung des Graf Zinzendorfs mit dem Mahomet , welcher die Bedencken der theol. Facultäten zu Altdorf, Giesen u. der evangel. Ministerien zu Augsbug, Hamburg von dem Gräuel der zinzendorfischen Lehren Auszugs-weise, nebst einigen andern dahin gehörigen Schriften des Verf. beygefüget sind (‘Comparison of Count Zinzendorf with Muḥammad, to which extracts from the qualms of the theological faculties from Altdorf, Giesen, Gö…

Johann Leonhard Fröreisen

(342 words)

Author(s): Grodź, Stanisław
Date of Birth: 9 May 1694 Place of Birth: Breuwickersheim, near Strasbourg Date of Death: 13 January 1761 Place of Death: Strasbourg BiographyBorn in 1694, Johann Leonhard Fröreisen was brought up in Francke’s Foundation in Halle. He studied theology in Strasbourg, Giessen and Jena (where he also studied law), taught at Wilhelmsgymnasium in Strasbourg, and then was appointed professor of theology at Strasbourg University (1724). He became the president of the Kirchenkonvent in 1731. Fröreisen took part in theological…

 Kronika świata wszytkiego

(3,492 words)

Author(s): Grodź, Stanisław
Kronika świata wszytkiego‘Chronicle of the entire world’ Marcin Wolski Date: 1551, 1554, 1564 Original Language: Polish Description The Chronicle (in full, Kronika. tho iesth, Historya Swiata na sześc wiekow, a cżterzy Monarchie, rozdźielona z rozmaitych Historykow, tak w swiętym pismie Krześćijańskim Zydowskim, iako y Pogańskim, wybierana y na Polski ięzyk wypisana dosthathecżniey niż pierwey, s przydanim wiele rzecży nowych: Od pocżatku Swiata, aż do tego roku, ktory sie pisze 1564. s Figurami ochędożnymi y własnymi, ‘The Chronicle. That is the history of the world …

 Neu-eröffnetes Amphitheatrum

(1,600 words)

Author(s): Grodź, Stanisław
‘Newly-opened amphitheatre’ Neu-eröffnetes Amphitheatrum Date: 1723-8 Original Language: German Description Neu-eröffnetes Amphitheatrum (in full, Neu-eröffnetes Amphitheatrum, worinnen nach dem uns bekanten gantzen Welt-Creiß, alle Nationen nach ihrem Habit, in saubern Figuren repräsentiret, Anbey die Länder nach ihrer Situation, Climate, Fruchtbarkeit, Inclination und Beschaffenheit der Einwohner, Religion, vornehmste Städte, Ertz-Bistümer, Universitäten, Häfen, Vestungen, Commercien, Macht, Statts-Interes…

Johann Christoph Döderlein

(431 words)

Author(s): Grodź, Stanisław
Date of Birth: 20 January 1746 Place of Birth: Windsheim, Franconia Date of Death: 2 December 1792 Place of Death: Jena BiographyJohann Christoph Döderlein was educated in his hometown and then, in 1764, went to study in Altdorf, near Nuremberg. He worked as a private teacher before becoming a deacon in Windsheim (1768). His book  Curae criticae et exegeticae (Altdorf, 1770) made him known. He obtained his master’s degree in Altdorf and became professor of theology there in 1772. Two years later, he earned his doctorate. He became a professor of theolo…

 Straszliwe widzenie Piotra Pęgowskiego z Mazosz

(1,248 words)

Author(s): Grodź, Stanisław
‘The terrifying vision of Piotr Pęgowski’ Straszliwe widzenie Piotra Pęgowskiego z Mazosz Date: 1608 Original Language: Polish Description This work, written in pamphlet form for distribution in markets, consists of eight pages in quarto. The title page contains a small and rather simple woodcut depicting the Last Judgment. The editor of the 1998 edition, J. Sokolski, was unable to find a similar illustration in other publications. Only two copies of the work are known to be extant – one in Wrocław (Ossolineum – …

Mikołaj Chwałkowski

(305 words)

Author(s): Grodź, Stanisław
Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Wschowa (western Poland) Date of Death: Shortly after 1700 Place of Death: Unknown BiographyNot much is known about Mikołaj Chwałkowski’s youth. He came from a Lutheran family, studied law in Frankfurt am Oder and became a courtier of the Duke of Courland in Mitau (present-day Jelgava in Latvia). From 1670, he was the duke’s representative at the royal court in Warsaw, first during the reign of King Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki (r. 1669-73) and then under Jan III Sobieski (r. 1…

Wojciech Miaskowski

(613 words)

Author(s): Grodź, Stanisław
Biography Wojciech Miaskowski was born into a family of middle-class gentry. Due to the mistakes of copyists and the 19th-century editors of his work, his family name also appears spelt as ‘Miastkowski’ or ‘Miastowski’. Not much is known about his early life apart from the fact that he finished his education in Poznań in 1602. He fought as a soldier with the Swedes in Livonia, and later became a courtier of King Sigismund III Vasa of Poland. Having earned royal trust, he was sent to the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph …
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