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(901 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
, a town in South Arabia, 6 hours iourney from al-Sifāl in the Wādī Ḏj̲erdān and 2 days’ journey (in Ibn al-Mud̲j̲āwir 9 parasangs) S.W. of al-ʿAbr, about 3850 feet above sea-level. The town is mentioned as early as the Haḍramūt dedicatory inscription Osiander 29.6 ( ), Pliny ( Nat. Hist. vi. 28, 154; xii. 14, 52) knows it by the name of Sabota as the capital of Ḥaḍramūt. According to him it was built on a high hill and had 60 temples within its walls. According to the authorities from whom C. Landberg got his information about S̲h̲abwa, the ol…


(334 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
b. al-Ḥakam b. Yūsuf al-Balk̲h̲ī, held the office of governor and financial controller of Egypt from Ramaḍān 1, 200 (April 3, 816). On Rabīʿ I 1, 201 (Sept. 27, 816) the troops openly mutinied against him and al-Maʾmūn was forced to remove al-Sarī from his post and replace ¶ him by Sulaimān b. G̲h̲ālib; al-Sarī was put in prison and Sulaimān entered upon his office on Tuesday, Rabīʿ I 4, 201 (Sept. 30, 816), but was removed from office as early as S̲h̲aʿbān I (Feb. 22, 817) as the result of a repeated revolt of the troops, and al-Sarī again a…


(519 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
1. Name of a tribe belonging to Hamdān in South Arabia, described by Ibn al-Mud̲j̲āwir as the Banū Yām b. Aṣbaʿ living in al-Ḳadīm and in the wādīs of al-Ḥāniḳ and al-Ḥuḳḳa. Al-Hamdānī numbers the Banū Yām among the tribes who speak a pure Arabic but E. Glaser established the fact that their dialect is different from the Arabic which is spoken in the Yaman highlands. The Banū Yām are, according to Passama, the finest type of men among the southern Arabs, of fine physique, proud and warlike. The…


(1,494 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
, the name of several places in South Arabia. 1) The name of a sanctum mentioned in the inscription Halévy N°. 686, 3—4, copied from a building in ʿAden by J. Halévy ( miḥrābān Kawkabān). Cf. also F. llommel, Grundriss der Geographie und Geschichte des alten Orients, ii., Leipzig 1925, p. 707. ¶ 2) The name of a castle near Ẓafār north of Nāʿaṭ. It was called Kawkabān, the two stars, i. e. star-castle, because it was adorned with silver stripes outside, the roof was covered with white slabs of stone, the interior panelled with cypress wood and pav…


(1,061 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
, Silḥīn, the residence of the Sabaean kings in Mārib in South Arabia, the capital of the kingdom of Sabaʾ. The name of this castle is already mentioned in the ancient South Arabian inscriptions. In the foundation inscription Glaser 482/3, which is placed on the temple of Almaḳah (called Ḥaram Bilḳīs by later generations and lying due S.S.E. 50 minutes from the modern village of Mārib), King Karibaʾīl Wātir Yuhanʿim of Sabaʾ and Hālikʾamar, son of Karibaʾīl, speaks of renovations in this temple which were undertaken for the good of the castle of Salḥīn ( Slḥn) and of the city of Mārib ( Maryab). …

Wādi ’l-Ḳurā

(724 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
, the valley between el-ʿElāʾ and al-Medīna on the old trading route from South Arabia to Syria, usually called Wādī Deidibbān. It is the dry bed of two wādīs which join in the centre, the Wādī al-Ḏj̲izel from the north and the Wādī el-Ḥamḍ from the south which comes down from near Medīna above the village of Henakīya and runs between the Ḏj̲ebel Ḥamzī or Uḥud (Eḥad) and the city of the Prophet. Halfway between el-ʿElāʾ and al-Medīna it is joined on the right by the Wādī el-Tubd̲j̲ or Wādī el-Silsila, which connects it with Ḵh̲aibar. The most important place in the Wādi ’l-Ḳurāʾ is el-ʿElā…


(167 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
, a town in South Arabia. This town, the capital of the district of the same name in Yemen, lies in the Wādi ’l-Ḏj̲ahabān, in the plain between the Ḏj̲abal Ḏj̲ihāf and the Ḏj̲abal Mirais, in a very fertile area which produces all kinds of cereals, including a particularly noted wheat, and also coffee, ḳāt, tobacco, fruit, including peaches, apricots and winegrapes. The town, the population of which may be estimated at about 1,500, consists of about 100 not particularly well built houses and huts…


(125 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
, a village in South Arabia, in Bilād al-Kalāʿ in the Yemen, half a day’s journey from Ẓafār. Saḥūl, which was called Miṣr al-Yemen on account of its wealth in corn, was celebrated for the Saḥūlī cloaks ( saḥūlīya) made there of white cotton. (Adolf Grohmann) Bibliography al-Ḥamdānī, Ṣifat Ḏj̲azǐrat al-ʿArab, ed. D. H. Müller, Leiden 1884—1891, p. 107 al-Muḳaddasī, B. G. A., iii. 98, al-Masʿūdī, B. G. A., viii. 281 Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am (ed. Wüstenfeld), iii. 50 Marāṣid al-Iṭṭilāʿ, ed. T. G. J. Juynboll, Leiden 1853, ii. 15 al-Bakrī, Muʿd̲j̲am, ed. Wüstenfeld, Gottingen 1876, ii. 767 A. Sprenge…

Sālim b. Sawāda

(76 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
al-Tamīmī, governor of Egypt from Muḥarram 1, 164 (September 6 780) till the end of Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 164 (August 25, 781). (Adolf Grohmann) Bibliography al-Kindī, Kitāb al-Wulāt (ed. Rh. Guest, Gibb Memorial Series, vol. xix., London 1912), S. 123 Abu ’l-Maḥāsin, Annales (ed. T. G. J. Juynboll i. (Leiden 1855), 438—441 al-Maḳrīzī, Ḵh̲iṭaṭ, i. 307 F. Wüstenfeld, Die Statthalter von Ägypten zur Zeit der Chalifen (Abh. G. W. Gött., xx. 1875) p. 12.


(728 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
b. S̲h̲arīk b. Mart̲h̲ad b. Ḥāzim b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ al-ʿAbsī al-Ḳaisī, governor of Egypt, belonged to the tribe of Ḳais b. G̲h̲ailān and was therefore a north Arabian. His native town was Ḳinnesrīn in Syria. We do not know whether he had already held a high office before his appointment as governor of Egypt, but it is exceedingly probable, especially as the Umaiyads were particularly careful only to appoint to this important office men of proved ability. As conditions then were, only a tried man in whom the…


(61 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
, a fortress on the Persian Gulf, about a mile north of al-Hufhūf, surrounded by open villages and date palm-groves. The population of the fortress and of the hamlets that belong to it is given, sometimes at 10,000, sometimes at 30,000. (Adolf Grohmann) Bibliography C. Ritter, Die Erdkunde von Asien, viii./1 (Berlin 1846), p. 574 viii/2 (Berlin 1847) p. 524.


(1,185 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
, the name of a town and district on the coast of South Arabia, which is still known as the S̲h̲eḥrāt coast. The learned Nas̲h̲wān gives also al-S̲h̲aḥr as the dialectic pronuncation for al-S̲h̲iḥr, which latter he calls the correct form. This form is of interest because it recalls sara, first suggested by A. Sprenger as the basis of the corrupt saba in Theophrastus and Pliny; when the latter says the word means mysterium, this recalls Ibn al-Mud̲j̲āwir’s derivation of the name Saḥra, which is applied to the Mahra people, from siḥr “magic”. That sara is the coast district now called al-S…


(3,589 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
, formerly a province, now an imāmate in the southwest of the Arabian peninsula. The name is variously explained; some say it was given because the Yaman lies to the right of the Kaʿba or to the right of the sun (al-Bakrī, ii. 856), others because Yuḳtan b. ʿĀbir and his companions turned right on separating from the other Arabs ( B. G. A., v. 33; Yāḳūt, iv. 1034), while others again derive the name from the eponymous hero Yaman b. Ḳaḥṭān (cf. al-Wāsiʿī, p. 281). Sprenger thinks the Greeks and Romans translated Teman and Yaman by “eudaemon” and “felix” and …


(139 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
, a town in South Arabia, one of the chief centres of the Wādī Bīs̲h̲a in ʿAsīr, celebrated for the fine breed of asses which are reared there. Ṣabyā (Niebuhr’s Sabbea) after the conquest of ʿAsīr by the Turks in 1871 became the capital of the ḳazā of the same name and is now the capital of the independent hereditary prince of ʿAsīr. (Adolf Grohmann) Bibliography al-Hamdānī, Ṣifat Ḏj̲azīrat al-ʿArab, ed. D. H. Müller, Leyden 1884—1891, p. 541 731 217 Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, ed. Wüstenfeld, iii. 367 v. 23 Marāṣid al-Iṭṭitāʿ ed. T. G. J. Juynboll, Leyden 1853, ii. 146 K. Ritter, Die Erdkunde von Asien, vi…


(397 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
(Sēʾūn, Sēwūn, Seyōn, Sēōn), a town in Ḥaḍramōt in South Arabia on the side of the hill of the same name, four hours’ ride from S̲h̲ibām on the right bank of the Wādī Masīla. The town lies in the centre of luxurious vegetation; ¶ far and wide one can see palm-groves and welltilled fields with ṭeʿām and wheat. The town is surrounded by a wall, is densely populated and has about 4,500 inhabitants. The streets are broad and clean. Within the town also there are fields and palm-groves, mainly the endowments of the mosques, of which there are said to be …


(364 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
, a strip of coast on the Persian Gulf. The Arab geographers are not agreed as to its exact extent. While Yāḳūt limits the name to the coast of al-Baḥrain and ʿUmān, which is also apparent from the mention of al-Ḳaṭīf, al-ʿUḳair and Ḳaṭar, al-Bakrī says definitely that al-Ḵh̲aṭṭ is the whole coast between ʿUmān and al-Baṣra on the one side and Kāẓima and al-S̲h̲iḥr on the other. This difference of opinion is probably the result of the variation in extent of ʿUmān and al-Baḥrain in the wider sense of these terms in course of time. There are in any case authors who allot al-Ḵh̲aṭṭ to either …


(528 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
, Wādī, the name of a valley in North Arabia, which runs from the south end of the Ḥawrān southeastwards for a length of 160 miles with a breadth of two to twelve miles. Its north end is marked by the fort of al-Azraḳ and its southern extremity by the wells of Maiḳūʿ. The whole valley is very rich in water and suitable for settlement. At al-Azraḳ, there is even a large permanent pond, the only one in the whole of North Arabia. If the life and property of the inhabitants are secured, the ten large…


(2,234 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
, a seaport on the coast of the Persian Gulf in the bay of the same name. The latter, which faces due east, is about four miles broad at the entrance, and enclosed on the north by a narrow promontory, shaped like a mussel-shell, on which lies the fortress of Dārim. Its point is called Rās Tannūra. The south side of the bay is confined by a jutting horn of land, called Ẓahrān. from a hill on it shaped like a sugar-loaf, which forms an excellent landmark for ships entering the bay. On this side of…


(2,934 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
, a seaport on the Arabian, coast of the Persian Gulf, capital of the ¶ amirate of the same name, which lies along the coast from Ḵh̲ōr Zubair; it is bounded on the north by the former Turkish province of ʿIrāḳ and on the south by al-Ḥasaʾ and stretches for 120 miles. The greatest breadth is nominally 160 miles but the authority of the amīr does not extend much more than a day’s journey into the interior. The soil north of the Gulf of al-Kuwait is sandy, farther south, partly sand and partly loam; only a smal…


(1,028 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
, a harbour at the southern end of the Gulf of Ḏj̲āzān on the Arabian coast of the Red Sea. The little, now unimportant, town lies on what was once an island but has become joined to the mainland in comparatively recent geological times and is separated from it at high tide, while the harbour is dry at low tide. The town in Niebuhr’s time had no wall around it, but there were ten or twelve towers ¶ on the land side at intervals of 250 paces with entrances at a height above the ground reached by a ladder. The towers were armed with a few cannons. When Ehrenberg visited Lu…
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