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Sirḥān

(528 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
, Wādī, the name of a valley in North Arabia, which runs from the south end of the Ḥawrān southeastwards for a length of 160 miles with a breadth of two to twelve miles. Its north end is marked by the fort of al-Azraḳ and its southern extremity by the wells of Maiḳūʿ. The whole valley is very rich in water and suitable for settlement. At al-Azraḳ, there is even a large permanent pond, the only one in the whole of North Arabia. If the life and property of the inhabitants are secured, the ten large…

al-Ḳaṭīf

(2,234 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
, a seaport on the coast of the Persian Gulf in the bay of the same name. The latter, which faces due east, is about four miles broad at the entrance, and enclosed on the north by a narrow promontory, shaped like a mussel-shell, on which lies the fortress of Dārim. Its point is called Rās Tannūra. The south side of the bay is confined by a jutting horn of land, called Ẓahrān. from a hill on it shaped like a sugar-loaf, which forms an excellent landmark for ships entering the bay. On this side of…

al-Kuwait

(2,934 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
, a seaport on the Arabian, coast of the Persian Gulf, capital of the ¶ amirate of the same name, which lies along the coast from Ḵh̲ōr Zubair; it is bounded on the north by the former Turkish province of ʿIrāḳ and on the south by al-Ḥasaʾ and stretches for 120 miles. The greatest breadth is nominally 160 miles but the authority of the amīr does not extend much more than a day’s journey into the interior. The soil north of the Gulf of al-Kuwait is sandy, farther south, partly sand and partly loam; only a smal…

al-Sawdāʾ

(294 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
or al-Ḵh̲aribat al-Sawdāʾ, a ruined city in al-Ḏj̲awf in South Arabia, in what was once the ancient Minaean kingdom. J. Halévy, who visited the ruins, calls it es-Soud and describes it as an extensive system of ruins one hour’s journey N. E. of the” also important al-Baiḍāʾ. Al-Sawdāʾ is built on an eminence. The ancient town was apparently destroyed by a conflagration and was presumably an important industrial centre, especially for metal work; even at the present day the vitrified soil is “covered with slag-heaps. Insignificant remains of the surrounding. ¶ rounding wall and a few …

Salūḳ

(260 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
(in al-Hamdānī: Ḵh̲aribat Salūḳ), an ancient city in South Arabia in the district of Ḵh̲adīr in the Yemen on the site of which the village of Ḥabīl al-Riyyaba stood in al-Hamdānī’s time. In the ruins of the great city of Salūḳ there were found slag-heaps, lumps of gold and silver as well as ornaments and coins. It was celebrated for the splendid double meshed mail-shirts which were manufactured in it. There was also a fine breed of dog specially suited for hunting gazelles ( salūḳī), which was said to be the result of a cross between dogs and jackals, which came from this place…

Sarāt

(1,508 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
, the mountains which run along the western side of the Arabian plateau. Al-Hamdānī, the greatest authority on the Arabian peninsula among the Arab geographers, says that the termini of the range, which divides the highlands (Nad̲j̲d) from the plain (G̲h̲awr, Tihāma) and was therefore also called Ḥid̲j̲āz by the Arabs, are the extreme south of the Yaman and Syria; al-Aṣmaʿī makes it stretch to the Armenian mountains. This mountain chain, which al-Hamdānī already knew not to be a single range, b…

Kudummul

(161 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
, a small volcanic island in the Red Sea in 17° 52′ N. Lat., called Kotumble on the English Admiralty charts. The island has a rich flora, which has been studied by the botanist Ehrenberg, and is noteworthy for its iron deposits, which are mentioned as early as the geographer Ibn al-Mud̲j̲āwir (d. 630 a. h.). The rocky island of Kudummul which lies near Ḥamiḍa on the Arabian coast once marked the boundary between the land of the Kināna and Yemen. (Adolf Grohmann) Bibliography al-Hamdānī, Ṣifat Ḏj̲azīrat al-ʿArab, ed. D. H. Müller, Leyden 1884-1891, p. 51 C. Ritter, Die Erdkunde von Asien, VIII/…

K̲h̲awlān

(1,127 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
1) the name of a South Arabian tribe. This tribe is mentioned as early as the south Arabian inscriptions Glaser, 1076, 18 sq. and Halevy, 585, 11 sq. (); there ¶ is a reference to its territory () in the inscription Glaser, 119, 5 and a clan of the name is mentioned in Glaser, 204, 3. All these passages justify the suggestion that the tribe of Ḵh̲awlān was already settled in this region in the first millenium b. c. where it still — in part at least — dwells in the land between Ṣanʿāʾ and Mārib, which al-Hamdānī calls Ḵh̲awlān al-ʿāliya and which with Ḏh̲i Ḏj̲urra was one of the great granaries…

Luḥaiya

(1,028 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
, a harbour at the southern end of the Gulf of Ḏj̲āzān on the Arabian coast of the Red Sea. The little, now unimportant, town lies on what was once an island but has become joined to the mainland in comparatively recent geological times and is separated from it at high tide, while the harbour is dry at low tide. The town in Niebuhr’s time had no wall around it, but there were ten or twelve towers ¶ on the land side at intervals of 250 paces with entrances at a height above the ground reached by a ladder. The towers were armed with a few cannons. When Ehrenberg visited Lu…

Sawākin

(1,303 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
(Suakim or Suakin) a seaport on the west coast of the Red Sea in 19° 5′ N. Lat. The town is built on a picturesque little oval-shaped island about a mile in circumference and 300 yards long, which lies off the mainland in the centre of a deep bay. The harbour is reached through a narrow channel 4 or 5 miles long hemmed in by coral reefs; Sawākin is connected with the African continent, by a causeway about 60 yards long, commanded by a fort. At the entrance to this road is a pretty gateway which ca…

Ḳirṭās

(1,391 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
means 1. papyrus, 2. parchment and 3. later also rag-paper. — Papyrus was obtained from the papyrus (Cyperus Papyrus L., bardī, abardī, Span, albardin, albardí, Malt, bordi, or fāfīr, babīr, barbīr) which grew mainly in Egypt but was also found in Sicily (Anapo) as well as Mesopotamia (Babylon). Arab poets like al-Aʿs̲h̲āʾ and Sāʿida b. Ḏj̲uʾaiya are familiar with it. Every inch of the plant was used, from the root to the top; it was made into string and rope as well as into mats, but its main use was for the manufacture of the valuable “reed-paper” ( waraḳ al- ḳaṣab) which is known as waraḳ al- ab…

Ned̲j̲d

(2,659 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
, the highlands of Arabia in contrast to the low-lying ground along the coast ( Tihāma) or the depression ( G̲h̲ōr). In the dialect of the Hud̲h̲ail Nad̲j̲d is pronounced Nud̲j̲ud. The exact application of this originally topographical conception is very differently understood and sometimes it means more generally the elevated country above the coastal plain or the extensive country, the upper part of which is formed by the Tihāma and the Yaman and the lower by Syria and the ʿIrāḳ, or the part of Arabia which stretches from …

S̲h̲ahāra

(390 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
, a town in South Arabia, mentioned by Yāḳūt among the fortified places in the district of Ṣanʿāʾ, on the Ḏj̲abal S̲h̲ahāra. A second place distinguished from the preceding as S̲h̲ahārat al-Fais̲h̲ lies quite near it, a little to the east on the same hill, which lies due north of the town of Ḥabūr. Al-Hamdānī already knows this town as the source of the stone used in rings called saʿwānī, a red onyx with white veins, also called ʿarwānī. The town frequently played an important part in the history of South Arabia. The Amīr Ḏh̲u ’l-S̲h̲arafain Muḥammad b. Ḏj̲aʿfar, the last…

Laḥid̲j̲

(2,712 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
a sultanate in South Arabia with its capital of the same name north-west of ʿAden, bounded by the Ḥaws̲h̲abī territory on the north, the Faḍlī territory on the east, the ʿAḳrabī land in the south and the Ṣubaiḥī territory in the west. The capital, called Laḥid̲j̲ or el-Ḥōṭa lies at a height of 350 feet above sea-level between the two arms of the Wādī Tuban, the Wādī Ṣag̲h̲īr and the Wādī Kabīr, in a fertile oasis which, occupying a wide valley, owes its existence to its irrigation by canals led…

Mukallā

(644 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
(Makalla), a seaport on the south coast of Arabia, 2½ miles N. W. of the cape of the same name. The town lies between two bays at the foot of a reddish limestone cliff, which rises to a height of 300 feet behind the town; four towers for the defence of the town are built upon it. On the west side a wall runs from the cliff to the shore with only one gate in it. The only buildings of any size are the great mosque on the coast with a minaret which can be seen from a great distance, and the sulṭān’…

S̲h̲ibām

(1,950 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
the name of several towns in South Arabia. 1. S̲h̲ibām Ḥarāz. A mountain two days’ journey W. of Ṣanʿāʾ and S.W. of Menāk̲h̲a, according to E. Glaser 8700 feet and to A. Deflers 8050 feet high. The lofty peak of the mountain commands the town of Menāk̲h̲a, the Gibraltar of the Yemen. The little town of S̲h̲ibām lies close under it built up against the cliffs; it is a fortified place with massive stone houses, which was taken by the Turks in 1871 and with Menāk̲h̲a was the strongest bulwark of their powe…

Ḳunfuda

(753 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
, a seaport on the Red Sea, 45 miles from Ḥalī. The town is in the form of a large rectangle enclosed by a wall, strengthened at several points by towers and pierced by three gates. Practically the only stone buildings are at the harbour, where is the bazaar with its onestoried warehouses in an irregular line, and the chief mosque and smaller mosques with low minarets. On a little island about a quarter of a mile away is a small castle which used to be the residence of the representative of the …

al-K̲h̲ārid

(363 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
or G̲h̲ail al-Ḵh̲ārid, a valley in al-Ḏj̲awf in South Arabia which contains one of the few perennial streams in Arabia. According to J. Halévy, the river rises in the Bilād Arḥab near S̲h̲iraʿ in several springs, some of which are hot and contain minerals, and flows at first through a plain bordered by low hills. About 200 yards from its source, it becomes much broader and exceedingly full of fish. The people of S̲h̲iraʿ supply the market of Ṣanʿāʾ with fish from the Ḵh̲ārid so that it is of consi…

S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Saʿīd

(775 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
, a seaport in South Arabia on the strait of Bāb al-Mandab, 2 miles from the island of Perīm. It lies on a cape whose cliffs 850 feet high dominate this island. Two volcanic hills which lie on a peninsula 6 miles long by 4 1/2 broad here form the extreme southwest corner of Arabia. Between the latter and Perīm runs the so-called Little Strait, called Bāb al-Manhalī or Bāb Iskandar by the Arabs, because Alexander is said to have built a town here; there are actually ruins south of the cape. A. Sp…

Maʿāfir

(1,728 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
, the name of a South Arabian tribe, the genealogy of which is given as Yaʿfur b. Mālik b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Murra b. Udad b. Humaisaʿ b. ʿAmr b. Yas̲h̲d̲j̲ib b. ʿArīb b. Zaid b. Kahlār b. Sabaʾ; they are included among the Ḥimyar. Their land coincided in the main with the former Turkish ḳaḍā of Taʿizzīya and was divided into Upper and Lower Maʿāfir. Al-Hamdānī, who has the fullest-information about the al-Maʿāfir, gives the following places in their area: 1. al-Ḏj̲uwwa (the modern Sūḳ el-Ḏj̲uʾa between the Ḏj̲ebel Ṣelw and Ḏj̲ebel Bedu) which was ruled by the family of Ḏh̲u ’…
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