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Bartholomaeo Georgius

(837 words)

Author(s): Höfert, Almut
Bartol Đurđević, Bartolomej Đurđević, Bartholomaeus Gjorgevic, Bartol Jurjević, Bartolomeo Georgijević, Bartholomaeo Georgievitz, Bartholomaeo Gyurgievits, Bartłomiej Georgiewicz Date of Birth: 1505 Place of Birth: Near Esztergom, Hungary Date of Death: After 1566 Place of Death: Unknown Biography Bartholomaeo Georgius was the author of several very popular books about the Ottomans, who usually figured in European representation as ‘Turks’. According to his autobiographical report in De ritibus et differentijs Graecorum (in Klockow and Ebertowski, De captivitate sua; …

 Türkenbüchlein

(5,315 words)

Author(s): Höfert, Almut
TürkenbüchleinTurcica Turcica Date: 16th century Original Language: Various Description The broad concept of ‘Turcica’ was established for a group of historical sources in the bibliography of Carl Göllner ( Turcica). This entry will give an introduction to the Turcica printed in the German-Roman Empire with reference to both the numbers given by Göllner and the  Verzeichnis der im deutschen Sprachbereich erschienenen Drucke des 16. Jahrhunderts (‘German national bibliography for the sixteenth century’, accessible online with links to the available digitalise…

 De afflictione Christianorum

(564 words)

Author(s): Höfert, Almut
De afflictione Christianorum‘On the suffering of the Christians’ Bartol Đurđević, Bartolomej Đurđević, Bartholomaeus Gjorgevic, Bartol Jurjević, Bartolomeo Georgijević, Bartholomaeo Georgievitz, Bartholomaeo Gyurgievits, Bartłomiej Georgiewicz Date: 1544 Original Language: Latin Description In this 32-page book (its fuller title is De afflictione tam captivorum quam etiam sub Turcae tribute viventium Christianorum, ‘On the suffering of both the captives and also the Christians living under the tribute of the Turk’), Georgius presents his expe…

 Annales Sultanorum Othmanidarum, a Turcis sua lingua scripti

(699 words)

Author(s): Höfert, Almut
'Annals of the Ottoman sultans, written by the Turks in their own language' Johannes Löwenklau, Joannes Leunclavius Date: 1588 Original Language: Latin Description The  Annales Sultanorum Othmanidarum (519 pages; German editions:  Neuwe Chronica Türckischer Nation with 535 pages in the second edition) are divided into four parts. The ‘Gitabi Teuarichi’ contains Gaudier’s translation of the ‘Annales Beccani’ that reported on the Ottoman sultans up to the year 1550, while in the second part Löwenklau continues the chronicle to the year 1588/90. The third part, the so-called …

 Exhortatio contra Turcas. Ad illustrissimum principem Maximilianum archiducem Austriae

(224 words)

Author(s): Höfert, Almut
Exhortatio contra Turcas‘Exhortation against the Turks. To the most illustrious Prince Maximilian, Archduke of Austria’ Bartol Đurđević, Bartolomej Đurđević, Bartholomaeus Gjorgevic, Bartol Jurjević, Bartolomeo Georgijević, Bartholomaeo Georgievitz, Bartholomaeo Gyurgievits, Bartłomiej Georgiewicz Date: 1545 Original Language: Latin Description In the 15-page  Exhortatio contra Turcas, Georgius combines typical elements of exhortatory writing and calls for war against the Turks (see the entry on  Türkenbüchlein). He contrasts the virtues of the Christian …

 Historiae Musulmanae Turcorum, de monumentis ipsorum exscriptae, libri XVIII

(636 words)

Author(s): Höfert, Almut
‘Islamic history of the Turks in 18 books, written on the basis of their own sources’ Johannes Löwenklau, Joannes Leunclavius Date: 1591 Original Language: Latin Description Löwenklau’s second major work on the Ottomans is the  Historiae Musulmanae Turcorum (…) Libri XVIII (only one Latin edition, Frankfurt, 1591). Unlike the Annales Sultanorum, which contains a huge variety of information about the Ottoman Empire, the  Historia Musulmana (also known as Neuwer Musulmanischer Histori Tuerckischer Nation)is a purely historical work, divided into 18 books. After an…

 Prognoma

(416 words)

Author(s): Höfert, Almut
Prognoma‘Presage’ Bartol Đurđević, Bartolomej Đurđević, Bartholomaeus Gjorgevic, Bartol Jurjević, Bartolomeo Georgijević, Bartholomaeo Georgievitz, Bartholomaeo Gyurgievits, Bartłomiej Georgiewicz Date: 1545 Original Language: Latin Description In the 15-page  Prognoma ( Prognoma, sive praesagium Mehmetanorum, primum de Christianorum calamitatibus, deinde de suae gentis interitu, ex Persica lingua in Latinum sermonem conversum, ‘Presage or augury of the Mahometans, first about the calamities of the Christians then about the doom of their peo…

Turcica

(97 words)

Author(s): Höfert, Almut
Biography The word  Türkenbüchlein appears in the title of about 15 German prints in the 16th century. Since it was not a fixed term but could be easily replaced or omitted, it is a slightly misleading, if catchy, category. This entry, therefore, refers to the wider concept of ‘Turcica’. It covers about 800 German Turcica produced in the 16th century, a broad and heterogeneous group of prints that dealt in various ways with the Ottomans, who figured in European representations as ‘Turks’. Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information Works on Christian-Muslim Relat…

 De Turcarum ritu et caeremoniis

(386 words)

Author(s): Höfert, Almut
De Turcarum ritu et caeremoniis‘On the ritual and ceremonies of the Turks’ Bartol Đurđević, Bartolomej Đurđević, Bartholomaeus Gjorgevic, Bartol Jurjević, Bartolomeo Georgijević, Bartholomaeo Georgievitz, Bartholomaeo Gyurgievits, Bartłomiej Georgiewicz Date: 1544 Original Language: Latin Description In the first Antwerp edition of 1544,  De Turcarum ritu et ceremoniis is 40 pages long. It consists of four chapters: on religion, on the military, on everyday life, and a short language guide with vocabularies and dialogues in Tukish and Latin (Heffening,  Transkriptions…

Hans Löwenklau

(1,281 words)

Author(s): Höfert, Almut
Johannes Löwenklau, Joannes Leunclavius Date of Birth: 1541 Place of Birth: Coesfeld, Westphalia Date of Death: 1594 Place of Death: Near Eztergom, Hungary Biography Hans Löwenklau’s upbringing was guided by his uncle, who was Domvikar in Münster. He studied  artes  liberales and law in Wittenberg in 1555 with Philipp Melanchthon, and in Heidelberg in 1562. In 1566, he was appointed dean of the faculty of artes in Basel. He was meant to succeed his teacher, Wilhelm Xylander, as professor of Greek in Heidelberg after Xylander’s death in 1576, but with the deat…

 De Turcarum moribus epitome, Bartholomaeo Georgieviz, peregrino, autore

(862 words)

Author(s): Höfert, Almut
De Turcarum moribus epitome‘Epitome on the manners of the Turks, by the pilgrim Bartholomaeo Georgieviz’ Bartol Đurđević, Bartolomej Đurđević, Bartholomaeus Gjorgevic, Bartol Jurjević, Bartolomeo Georgijević, Bartholomaeo Georgievitz, Bartholomaeo Gyurgievits, Bartłomiej Georgiewicz Date: 1553 Original Language: Latin Description In order to promote further publication of his work, particularly for the French market, Georgius made this Latin compilation of his early works in Antwerp. It consists of De afflictione, De Turcarum ritu et caeremoniis, Exhortatio contra T…