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Apostasy

(2,618 words)

Author(s): Hallaq, Wael
Turning away from or rejecting one's religion. The qurʾānic notion of apostasy is functionally represented by two main concepts, kufr and irtidād, the latter bearing more directly than the former upon notions of apostasy. Beginning sometime during the second/eighth century, irtidād came to be used in legal and other discourses to speak exclusively of apostasy. In the Qurʾān, however, the semantic and conceptual connection between the terms irtidād and kufr seems to have already been made, albeit tenuously, before the emigration to Medina, as evidenced in the verse: “Those who…

Law and the Qurʾān

(13,659 words)

Author(s): Hallaq, Wael
The Qurʾān has a curious function in Islamic law. It is doubtless considered the first and foremost of the four major sources of the law (i.e. the sharīʿa). Yet in substantive legal terms and in comparison with the full corpus of the sharīʿa, the Qurʾān provides a relatively minor body of ¶ legal subject matter, although a few of the most central rulings that govern the life of Muslim society and the individual (see community and society in the qurʾān; ethics and the qurʾān) are explicitly stated in it, or derived from one or another of its verses. The centrality of the Qurʾān in the sharīʿa stems …

Contracts and Alliances

(2,535 words)

Author(s): Hallaq, Wael B.
Contract, a unilateral or bilateral agreement or promise to do or not to do a thing or a set of things; alliance, a relationship of solidarity and support to preserve and further the common interests of those participating in the relationship. The concepts of a strictly legal contract or political alliance are not well articulated in the Qurʾān. That of a contract ( ʿaqd) in the sense of a covenant ( ʿahd, see covenant ) between God and man does, however, appear frequently. The word ʿahd seems at times to be a virtual synonym of ʿaqd although the latter connotes more than the former a sen…

Innovation

(757 words)

Author(s): Hallaq, Wael B.
The creation of, or belief in, something that has no precedent or support either in the texts of revelation or in juridical consensus (see revelation and inspiration; law and the qurʾān). Innovation is connoted by two Arabic terms ( bidʿa, muḥdath), and derivatives of both roots, b-d-ʿ and ḥ-d-th, appear in the Qurʾān, but in the majority of cases they are not used in the sense of deviating from a set path or precedent. In q 65:1, for instance, the verb yuḥdith is used — with God as grammatical subject — to mean “create” (probably ex nihilo) or “bring some new thing to pass” (see creation ). Derivat…

Forbidden

(1,855 words)

Author(s): Hallaq, Wael B.
Excluded from acceptable behavior on legal and religious grounds. The Arabic terms ḥarām and maḥẓūr (the latter is not attested in the Qurʾān) refer to that which is impermissible, expressed in legal terminology as prohibited acts, the performance of which renders one liable to punishment (see chastisement and punishment ). Several derivatives of the root ḥ-r-m, which carries the notion of impermissibility or debarring, appear in the Qurʾān. Often, the verb ḥarrama — with God as the grammatical subject — is used to declare certain foods, acts or games of chance ¶ impermissible, e.g. t…

Talfīḳ

(753 words)

Author(s): Hallaq, Wael B. | Layish, A.
(a.), a notion in Islamic law. 1. In classical Islamic law. The basic meaning of lafaḳa and form II laffaḳa is “to sew (a garment) together (by joining two lengths of cloth)”, whence “to patch together”, and by an extension of meaning, “to piece together (a verse or story), to concoct”, which is close to the legal meaning. In legal jargon, talfīḳ connotes the bringing together of certain elements of two or more doctrines in such a manner as to create therefrom yet another, different doctrine. It is to be noted that no technical dicti…

Talfīḳ

(729 words)

Author(s): Hallaq, Wael B. | Layish, A.
, (a.), notion de droit islamique. 1. En droit islamique classique. Le sens premier de lafaḳa et de sa deuxième forme laffaḳa est de joindre en les cousant deux bouts d’un tissus. Dans le jargon juridique, talfīḳ signifie aussi l’assemblage de certains éléments de deux doctrines ou davantage de façon à créer une nouvelle doctrine encore différente. On peut noter qu’aucun dictionnaire technique ne donne ce terme (sous aucune de ses formes), et que la connotation strictement technique attachée à ce concept dans la réforme juridique …

S̲h̲arṭ

(2,360 words)

Author(s): Hallaq, Wael B. | Netton, I.R. | Carter, M.G.
(pls. s̲h̲urūṭ , s̲h̲arāʾiṭ ), literally, “condition”. 1. In Islamic law. Here, it has the sense of “condition, term, stipulation”. The term has two major connotations. Generally, it denotes that which does not partake in the quiddity of a thing but upon which the existence of that thing hinges. Ritual cleansing ( ṭahāra ), for instance, is not a constitutive part of prayer ( ṣalāt ) but it is a condition for its validity. In legal theory ( uṣūl al-fiḳh ), s̲h̲arṭ signifies a condition in verifying the ratio legis, the ʿilla . S̲h̲arṭ requires the ruling ( ḥukm ) to be n…

S̲h̲arṭ

(2,396 words)

Author(s): Hallaq, Wael B. | Netton, I.R. | Carter, M.G.
(a., pl. s̲h̲urūṭ, s̲h̲arāʾiṭ), litt., «condition». 1. En droit islamique, le mot a le sens de «condition, terme, stipulation», avec deux connotations majeures. Généralement, il désigne ce qui ne fait pas partie de la quiddité de la chose, mais dont dépend l’existence de cette chose. La pureté rituelle ( ṭahāra), par exemple, n’est pas partie constitutive de la Prière ( ṣalāt), mais est une condition de sa validité. En matière de théorie juridique ( uṣūl al-fiḳh), s̲h̲arṭ désigne une condition à l’authentification de la ratio legis, la ʿilla. Le s̲h̲arṭ implique que la règle ( ḥukm) soit …