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(278 words)

Author(s): Halm, H.
or Sumayṭiyya (also S̲h̲umaṭiyya or Sumaṭiyya), a S̲h̲īʿī sect whose name is derived from that of one of its heads, a certain Yaḥyā b. Abi ’l-S̲h̲umayṭ. The sect recognised as imām and successor of D̲j̲aʿfar al-Ṣādiḳ [ q.v.] his youngest son Muḥammad, who not only bore the name of the Prophet but also is said to have resembled him physically. After the failure in 200/815 of the S̲h̲īʿī rebellion of Abu ’l-Sarāyā [ q.v.] in Kūfa against the caliph al-Maʾmūn (al-Ṭabarī, hi, 976 ff.), Muḥammad b. D̲j̲aʿfar, who then lived in Mecca as an old man, was urged by his followe…


(255 words)

Author(s): Halm, H.
, "Seveners", a designation for those S̲h̲īʿīsects which recognise a series of seven Imāms. Unlike the name It̲h̲nā ʿas̲h̲ariyya or "Twelvers" the term Sabʿiyya does not occur in mediaeval Arabic texts; it seems to have been coined by modern scholars by analogy with the first term. The name is often used to designate the Ismāʿīliyya [ q.v.], but this is not correct, because neither the Bohora nor the Ḵh̲ōd̲j̲a Ismāʿīlīs count seven Imāms. The term can be applied only to the earliest stage of the development of the Ismāʿīlī sect, during which the Ismā…


(607 words)

Author(s): Halm, H.
, a town in Lower Egypt near Damietta (Dimyāṭ [ q.v.]), and chief place of the mudīriyyat al-Daḳahliyya . The town was founded in 616/1219 by the Ayyūbid sultan al-Malik al-Kāmil [ q.v.] as a fortified camp against the Crusaders, who had conquered Dimyāṭ in S̲h̲aʿbān 616/November 1219. Situated at the fork of the branches of the Nile near Dimyāṭ and Us̲h̲mūm Ṭannāḥ, the town dominated the two most important waterways of the eastern delta and served as an advanced outpost of Cairo. In July/August 1221, the advance of the Crusad…


(817 words)

Author(s): Halm, H.
(Egyptian pronounciation: rōk ), a word of non-Arabic origin, probably derived from Demotic ruwk̲h̲ , “land distribution”. From the noun is derived an Arabic verb rāka , yarūku . In the language of Egyptian administration, rawk means a kind of cadastral survey which is followed by a redistribution of the arable land. The procedure comprises the surveying ( misāḥa [ q.v.]) of the fields, the ascertainment of their legal status (private property, endowment, crown land, grant, etc.), and the assessment of their prospective taxable capacity ( ʿibra ). Until the f…

D̲j̲aʿfar b. Manṣūr al-Yaman

(494 words)

Author(s): Halm, H.
, Ismāʿīlī author and partisan of the Fāṭimids [ q.v.]. He was the son of the first Ismāʿīlī missionary in Yaman, al-Ḥasan b. Faraḥ b. Ḥaws̲h̲ab b. Zādān al-Kūfī, known as Manṣūr al-Yaman [ q.v.]. When in the year 286/899 the chief of the Ismāʿīlī propaganda, ʿUbayd Allāh, claimed the imāmate, Manṣūr al-Yaman acknowledged him; the letter by which ʿUbayd Allāh tried to prove his ʿAlid descent has been preserved in D̲j̲aʿfar’s al-Farāʾiḍ wa-ḥudūd al-dīn (see H.F. Hamdani, On the genealogy of Fatimid caliphs, Cairo 1958). When after the death of Manṣūr al-Yaman (302/914-15) his s…


(427 words)

Author(s): Halm, H.
, name of two towns in the Nile delta. 1. Manūf al-Suflā, near the present Maḥallat Manūf in the markaz of Ṭanṭā, in Byzantine times a bishopric in Coptic Panouf K̲h̲īt, in Greek ᾿Ονοṽφις ἡ κάτω. After the Arab conquest, the town became the centre of a kūra [ q.v.] (Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih, 82; Ibn al-Faḳīh, 74; al-Yaʿḳūbī, 337), but seems to have disappeared already in the Fāṭimid period (cf. al-Ḳalḳas̲h̲andī, Ṣubḥ , iii, 384). It was replaced by Maḥallat Manūf which, since the administrative reform of the caliph al-Mustanṣir and the latter’s vizier Badr al-D̲j̲amālī [ q.vv.], has belonged …


(356 words)

Author(s): Halm, H.
, a jewel used by the ʿAbbāsid and Fāṭimid [ q.vv.] caliphs as one of the insignia of kingship. According to the description of the Fāṭimid s̲h̲amsa , given by Ibn Zūlāḳ (quoted by al-Maḳrīzī, Ittiʿāẓ al-ḥunafāʾ , i, 140-2), it was not a sunshade, as has been guessed (de Goeje, in al-Ṭabarī, Glossarium , p. cccxvi), but a kind of suspended crown, made out of gold or silver, studded with pearls and precious stones, and hoisted up by the aid of a chain. The s̲h̲amsa, therefore, is not to be confounded with the miẓalla [ q.v.] or sunshade which belonged also to the royal insignia. The model of the s̲h̲amsa…


(278 words)

Author(s): Halm, H.
, a name applied to a sect of S̲h̲īʿī extremists ( g̲h̲ulāt [ q.v.]), founded by the Kūfan heretic Bas̲h̲s̲h̲ār al-S̲h̲aʿīrī [ q.v.], a contemporary of the Imām Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Ṣādiḳ (d. 148/765 [ q.v.]). According to the Twelver S̲h̲īʿī (Imāmī) heresiographers, this man was repudiated by Ḏj̲ʿfar al-Ṣādiḳ because he deified ʿAlī and assigned to Muḥammad the rôle of ʿAlī’s messenger; he was also accused of preaching libertinism, the denial of divine attributes, and metempsychosis (Saʿd b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḳummī, al-Maḳālāt wa ’l-firaḳ , ed. M.Ḏj̲. Mas̲h̲kūr, Tehr…


(1,101 words)

Author(s): Halm, H.
, the nisba of two noted K̲h̲urāsānian scholars. 1. Abu ’l-Ḳāsim ʿAbd al-Karīm b. Hawāzin , theologian and mystic. He was born in 376/986 ¶ in Ustuwā (the region of actual Ḳūčān [ q.v.] on the upper Atrak), the son of a man of Arab descent (from B. Ḳus̲h̲ayr) and a woman from an Arab (from B. Sulaym) dihḳān family. He got the education of a country squire of the time: adab , the Arabic language, chivalry ( furūsiyya ) and weaponry ( istiʿmāl al-silāḥ ). When as a young man he came to Naysābūr with the intention to get the taxes on one of his villages reduced, he became acquainted with the Ṣūfī s̲h̲ayk̲h̲

Zakarawayh b. Mihrawayh

(553 words)

Author(s): Halm, H.
, one of the earliest Ismāʿīlī missionaries in ʿIrāḳ. In modern literature, the name, a Persian diminutive of Zakariyyāʾ (originally Zakarōye), is often misread as Zikrawayh. Zakarawayh came from the village of al-Maysāniyya near Kūfa and was the son of one of ʿAbdān’s [ q.v.] first missionaries; he propagated the Ismāʿīlī doctrine among the Bedouin of the tribe of Kulayb on the fringes of the desert west of Kūfa. When in 286/899 a schism split the Ismāʿīlī community, he was instrumental in doing away with his master ʿAbdān who had aposta…


(272 words)

Author(s): Halm, H.
or al-Wāḳifiyya , a S̲h̲īʿī sect ( firḳa ) whose adherents maintained that the seventh Imām Mūsā al-Kāẓim (d. 183/799 [ q.v.]) had not died but that God had carried him out of sight ( rafaʿahū ilayhi ), and awaited his return as the Mahdī [ q.v.]. By their Twelver S̲h̲īʿī (Imāmī) opponents they were called al-wāḳifa (“the ones who stand still” or “those who stop, put an end to [the line of Imāms]”, because they let the succession of imāms end with him and contested the transfer of the imāmate to his son ʿAlī al-Riḍā [ q.v.]. The sect is mentioned by Twelver S̲h̲īʿī as well as Sunnī heresiogr…


(108 words)

Author(s): Halm, H.
“veil”, a curtain behind which the Fāṭimid caliph was concealed at the opening of the audience session ( mad̲j̲lis ) and which was then removed by a special servant ( ṣāḥib/muṭawallī al-sitr ) in order to unveil the enthroned ruler. The sitr corresponded to the velum of the Roman and Byzantine emperors. The holder of the function of ṣāḥib al-sitr, who also served as bearer of the caliph’s sword ( ṣāḥib al-sitr wa ’l-sayf), chamberlain and master of ceremonies, was mostly ¶ chosen from the Slav mamlūks ( ṣaḳāliba [ q.v.]); al-Maḳrīzī, Ittiʿāẓ al-ḥunafāʾ , ii, ed. M.Ḥ.M. Aḥmad, 30, 72, 106, 127. (H…

al-Walīd b. His̲h̲ām

(567 words)

Author(s): Halm, H.
, Abū Rakwa, a pseudo-Umayyad pretender who led a revolt against the Fāṭimid caliph al-Ḥākim [ q.v.]. He was an Arab, probably of Andalusian origin, who for some time had earned his living as a schoolteacher in al-Ḳayrawān and Miṣr (Old Cairo) and then went into service with the Arab Bedouin clan of Banū Ḳurra (of the Hilāl tribe) whose pasture-grounds were the hilly country of Cyrenaica south-east of Barḳa (modern al-Mard̲j̲); there he taught the boys of the clan to read and write. His nickname Abū Rakwa “the …


(482 words)

Author(s): Halm, H.
(A. pl. ādwar ), “revolution, period”; the periodic movement of the stars, often coupled with kawr (pl. akwār ), “great period” (see Risāla no. 35 of the Rasāʾil Ik̲h̲wān al-Ṣafāʾ [ q.v.]: Fi’l-adwār wa ’l-akwār ). In the doctrines of the extreme S̲h̲īʿī sects, the period of manifestation or concealment of God or the secret wisdom. The Ismāʿīliyya [ q.v.]; According to the earliest Ismāʿīlī doctrine, history is composed of seven adwār of seven “speaking” ( nāṭiḳ ) prophets, each of whom reveals a new religious law ( s̲h̲arīʿa ): Adam Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus…


(2,951 words)

Author(s): Halm, H.
, a S̲h̲īʿī sect widely dispersed in western Syria and in the south-east of present day Turkey; the only branch of extreme ( g̲h̲uluww ) Kūfan S̲h̲īʿism which has survived into the contemporary period. 1. Etymology Pliny ( Hist . nat ., v, 81) mentions a Nazerinorum tetrarchia in Coelesyria, situated opposite Apameia, ¶ beyond the river Marsyas (not identified; probably the right-hand tributary of the Orontes passing to the east of the town), but this name is evidently not related to that of the sect. The Nuṣayriyya themselves derive the name from…


(270 words)

Author(s): Halm, H.
, "the Silent One", as opposed to al-nāṭiḳ ¶ "the Speaking One", a term used by several extremist S̲h̲īʿī sectarians ( g̲h̲ulāt ) to designate a messenger of God who does not reveal a new Law ( s̲h̲arīʿa ). The pair of terms is found in the notices concerning the doctrines of the Manṣūriyya and Ḵh̲aṭṭābiyya [ q.vv.] sects respectively (Saʿd b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḳummī, K. al-Maḳālāt wa ’l-firaḳ , ed. Mas̲h̲kūr, 48, 51). According to the doctrine of the Ḵh̲aṭṭābiyya, Muḥammad was the nāṭiḳ and ʿAlī the ṣāmit ; in the same sense the two terms are used in the earliest treatises of the Ismāʿīliyya [ q.v.]; e.…

Sitt al-Mulk

(849 words)

Author(s): Halm, H.
, or Sayyidat al-Mulk , Fāṭimid princess, daughter of the fifth Fāṭimid caliph al-ʿAzīz [ q.v.] and half-sister of al-Ḥākim [ q.v.]. She was born in D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 359/September-October 970 at al-Manṣūriyya near al-Ḳayrawān to the prince Nizār (the future al-ʿAzīz) by an anonymous umm walad [ q.v.], who is referred to in the sources as al-Sayyida al-ʿAzīziyya (al-Musabbiḥī, Ak̲h̲bār Miṣr , ed. A.F. Sayyid, Cairo 1978, 94, 111; al-Maḳrīzī, Ittiʿāẓ al-ḥunafāʾ, ed. D̲j̲. al-S̲h̲ayyāl et alii, Cairo 1967 ff., i, 271, 292; Ibn Muyassar, Ak̲h̲bār Miṣr, ed. A.F. Sayyid, Cairo 1981, 175)…


(233 words)

Author(s): Halm, H.
, the name applied to a sect of S̲h̲īʿī extremists ( g̲h̲ulāt [ q.v.]) who paid special reverence to the ṣaḥābī Salmān al-Fārisī [ q.v.] and are said to have regarded him as a prophet or even as a divine emanation superior to Muḥammad and ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib. The only two references to the sect originate from Rayy and its environs: the Salmāniyya are mentioned by the Ismāʿīlī author Abū Ḥātim al-Rāzī (d. 322/933-4) in his book Kitāb al-Zīna in the chapter on the S̲h̲īʿī sects (not yet printed; cf. Massignon, Opera minora, i, 475-6); in about 220/835 a certain ʿAlī b. al-ʿAbbās al-Ḵh̲arād̲…


(378 words)

Author(s): Halm, H.
[English Version] Drusen, aus dem Islam hervorgegangene Rel.gemeinschaft, v.a. in Syrien, dem Libanon und Israel, mit starker Diaspora in Amerika. Entstanden Anfang des 11.Jh. in Kairo als chiliastische, antinomistische Bewegung innerhalb der šīcitischen Sekte der Ismailiten (Islam: II., 1.), von der sie als »extremistisch« ausgeschieden wurde. Kern der Lehre ist der Glaube, daß der Schöpfergott in »Perioden der Enthüllung« (daur al-kašf) den Geschöpfen in menschlicher Gestalt erscheint; zu diesen Zeiten besteht die wahre Rel.…

Ibn Ḫaldūn

(147 words)

Author(s): Halm, H.
[English Version] (ʿAbdarraḥmān ibn Muḥammad; 7.5.1332 Tunis – 19.3.1406 Kairo), arab. Historiker. I.Ḫ gelangte nach einer wechselvollen Karriere an den Höfen von Fez, Granada und Bougie nach Ägypten, wirkte in Kairo als juristischer Lehrer an der Azhar-Moschee und anderen Hochschulen und amtierte mehrfach als Richter. Sein Hauptwerk ist die »Einleitung« (al-Muqaddima) zu seiner aus älteren Quellen kompilierten Universalgesch., eine Theorie der Zivilisation und Analyse des Entstehens und Verfa…
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