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(476 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, M.
Romance of; Arab. Sīrat ʿAntar, a popular treatment of old material similar to the Sirat Banī Hilāl, the Sīrat al-Zāhir etc. (cp. Brockelmann, Gesch. d. arab. Litter., ii. 62). The Sirat ʿAntar shows clear traces of the traditions on which it is based. Essential features of this model badawī are already found in the account which the Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī (1. ed. vii. 148; 2. ed. vii. 153) gives of the poet ʿAntara (q.v.; for the secondary form ʿAntar there is evidence already in the commentary to the Ḥamāsa, ed. Freytag, i. 108 1): his descent from the slave-girl Zabība, his reception in…


(7,571 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, M.
, also called al-ʿIrāḳ al-ʿarabī in contrast to al-ʿIrāḳ al-ʿad̲j̲amī. In the older period al-ʿIrāḳān, “the two ʿIrāḳs”, meant the two oldest Muslim towns in the country, Kūfa and Baṣra (Yāḳūt, iii. 628, 11 sq.). later this name was applied to al-ʿIrāḳ and al-Ḏj̲ibāl [q. v.] together; Yāḳūt iii. 15, 18 knows al-Irāḳ alone as the name usual among the Persians for al-Ḏj̲ibāl and explains this by saying that the Sald̲j̲ūḳ ruler who held the ʿIrāḳ also conquered al-Ḏj̲ibāl. As he lived in Hamadiān, the people referred his title as “…


(6,404 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, M. | Hartmann, Martin
(a.), the most usual word for newspaper in Arabic like g̲h̲azeta in Turkish and rūznāmah in Persian. This seems a fitting opportunity to collect some of the chief data on the history of the newspaper among Muḥammadan peoples, although a review dealing with the subject in some degree of completeness would far exceed the limits of an article in an encyclopaedia. In various sections the necessary preparatory work has not yet been done so that the following must necessarily be rather incomplete. Far the Arabic Pr…


(10,350 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E. | Hartmann, M. | Israeli, R.
, terme désignant habituellement la Chine en arabe médiéval; il signifie, plus précisément, le peuple chinois mais est alors utilisé sans le mot bilād désignant le territoire de la Chine à proprement parler. 1. Le nom. A l’origine, la première consonne est le résultat de la transcription habituelle du persan čīm en ṣād de l’arabe ancien. Ainsi, les formes Činistān et Čīn apparaissent dans les Ḥudūd al-ʿālam persans (vers 372/982), la première remontant aux lettres sogdiennes du IIe siècle après J. C et apparaissant par la suite en moyen persan et en arménien; en persan m…


(10,023 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Hartmann, M. | Israeli, R.
, the usual designation in mediaeval Arabic for China; properly, it means the Chinese people, but is normally used, with the prefixed bilād , for the land of China itself. 1. The name. The initial consonant of the word represents the customary rendering of Persian čīm into early Arabic as ṣād. Thus the forms Čīnistān and Čin appear in the Persian Ḥudūd al-ʿālam ( ca. 372/982), the first form going back to the 2nd century A.D. Sogdian letters and appearing subsequently in Middle Persian and Armenian; in New Persian, the form Čīn is more common. The Arabic version al-Ṣīn appears in geographical ¶ …