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ʿAt̲h̲līt̲h̲

(233 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R.
, formerly a harbour on the coast of Palestine between the promontory of Carmel and al-Ṭanṭūra (Dora), on a little tongue of land which lies to the north of a small bay and is washed on three sides by the sea. According to the Itinerarium Burdigalense there was a mutatio Certha there, but the name ʿAt̲h̲līt̲h̲ appears to be ancient. ʿAt̲h̲līt̲h̲ appears in the light of history in the period of the Crusades. In 583/1187 it fell into Saladin’s hands. In 1218 the Castellum Peregrinorum, as the Franks called it was recons…

al-ʿĀṣī

(353 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R.
is the name in use among the Arabs for the Orontes. The classical name of this river, the most important in northern Syria, is preserved in Arabic literature as al-Urunṭ, al-Urund. Presumably the origin of the word ʿĀṣī, like that of the Greek Axios, must be sought in an ancient native name. The common explanation of al-ʿĀṣī = "the rebel" is a popular etymology with no actual foundation, and the name al-nahr al-maḳlūb = fluvius inversus is probably a scholarly invention. The river-system of the ʿĀṣī begins to the north of the watershed formed by the highland-valley of al-Biḳ…

D̲j̲uwayn

(429 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R.
, name of several localities in Īrān. 1. A village in Ardas̲h̲īr K̲h̲urra, five farsak̲h̲ from S̲h̲īrāz on the road to Arrad̲j̲ān, usually called D̲j̲uwaym, the modern Goyum, cf. Le Strange, 253; P. Schwarz, Iran im Mittelalter , 44, 173, 179 (not to be confused with D̲j̲uwaym Abī Aḥmad in the province of Dārābd̲j̲ird, the modern D̲j̲uyum, see Le Strange, 254; Schwarz, 102, 201). 2. D̲j̲uwayn (also written Gūyān), a district in the Nīs̲h̲āpūr country, on the caravan route from Bisṭām, between D̲j̲ād̲j̲arm and Bayhaḳ (Sabzewār). The district, whose capital is…

D̲j̲ūzd̲j̲ān

(533 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R.
, Persian Gūzgān , the older name of a district in Afg̲h̲ān Turkestan between Murg̲h̲āb and the Āmū Daryā. Its boundaries were not well defined, particularly in the west, but it certainly included the country containing the modern towns of Maymana, Andk̲h̲ūy, S̲h̲ibargān and Sar-i Pul. Lying on the boundary between the outskirts of the Iranian highlands and the steppes of the north, D̲j̲ūzd̲j̲ān probably always supported nomad tribes as it does at the present day in addition to the permanent settlements in its fertile valleys (cf. Ibn Ḥawḳal, 322 ff.; Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī K̲h̲alīfa, D̲j̲ihān-num…

Dulūk

(256 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R.
, a place in Northern Syria, N. W. of ʿAintāb [q. v., p. 214a], is the ancient Doliche, at the junction of the roads from Germanicia and Nicopolis to Zeugma. Dulūk, which was captured by ʿIyād b. G̲h̲anm, was one of the fortresses on the Byzantine frontier (cf. ʿAdī b. al-Riḳāʿ’s verse in Yāḳūt, ii. 583 and Nöldeke’s note on it in the Zeitschr. d. Deutsch. Morgenl. Gesellschaft, xliv. 700) and at a later period belonged to the Ḏj̲und al-ʿAwāṣim [q. v., p. 515 et seq.] instituted by Hārūn. In the wars with the Byzantines of the Ḥamdānid Saif al-Dawla and the poet Abū Firās it played a part (cf. Yāḳūt loc.…

Ḏj̲uwain

(479 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R.
is the name of several localities in Īrān. 1. A village in Ardas̲h̲īr Ḵh̲urra, five farsak̲h̲ from S̲h̲īrāz on the road to Arrad̲j̲ān, usually called Ḏj̲uwaim, the modern Goyum, cf. G. Le Strange, Lands of the Eastern Caliphate, p. 253; P. Schwarz, Iran im Mittelalter, p. 44, 173, 179 (not to be confused with Ḏj̲uwaim Abī Aḥmad in the province of Dārābd̲j̲ird, the modern Juwun, see G. Le Strange, op. cit., p. 254; P. Schwarz, op. cit., p. 102 and 201). 2. Ḏj̲uwain (also written Gūyān) a district in the Nīs̲h̲āpūr country, on the caravan road from Bisṭām, between Ḏj̲ād̲j̲arm …

Barīd

(709 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R.
(a.), obviously a loanword from the Latin ( veredus) “post-animal”, “post-horse”, then “courier”; it further means the institution of the “post”; and finally the distance between two post-stations, reckoned in Persia at 2, in western lands at 4 farsak̲h̲ of 3 mīl. Not only the name but the institution itself in the dominions of the Caliph was borrowed from the Byzantines and the Persians, as is confirmed by Arab tradition. Even Muʿāwiya is said to have taken an interest in the postal service. ʿAbd al-Malik instituted it throughout the k…

Baḥr Lūṭ

(726 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R.
, “Lot’s Sea”, is the modern Arab name for the Dead Sea which is usually called by the Arab Geographers al-buḥaira al-maiyita “the Dead Sea”, al-buḥaira al-muntina “the stinking Sea”, al-buḥaira al-maḳlūba “the overturned Sea” (because at al-arḍ al-maḳlūba, “the land that has been overturned”, the arḍ ḳawm Lūṭ is placed), buḥairat Ṣog̲h̲ar (Zog̲h̲ar) “the Sea of Zog̲h̲ar”, also “the Sea of Sodom and Gomorra”. The Persian Nāṣir-i Ḵh̲osrau (v. = xi. century) appears to be the first geographer to know the name buḥairat Lūṭ. The name Baḥr Lūṭ refers to the story in Genesis xix which…

al-Ḏj̲ār

(241 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R.
, formerly an Arab seaport on the Red Sea, 20 stations south of Aila, 3 (or 2) from al-Ḏj̲uḥfa, and a night’s journey (according to others: 3 stations) from al-Madīna. In spite of the want of good drinking-water, which had to be brought from Yalyal, the town with the island of Ḳarāf lying before it, whose name should be compared with the Κοπαρ κώμη of Ptolemy, was of great importance as a port of discharge for ships from Egypt, Abyssinia, South Arabia and China and a centre of supplies for al-Ma…

al-ʿĀṣī

(281 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R.
is the name in use among the Arabs for the Orontes, the chief river in the north of Syria, whose usual designation in classical antiquity is preserved in Arabic literature as al-Urunṭ, al-Urund. Presumably the word as with the Greek Axios is to be referred back to an ancien native name. The common explanation of al-ʿĀṣī = “the rebel” is a popular etymology with no actual foundation, and the name al-nahr al-maḳlūb = fluvius inversus but a scholarly invention. The river-system begins to the north of the watershed of the highland-valley of al-Biḳāʿ not far from Baʿalbakk, but…

Erbil

(314 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R.
, the ancient Arbela, celebrated for Alexander’s battle there (See Pauly-Wissowa, ii. 407 and vii. 861 et seq.), situated between the two Zāb on the road from Mōṣul to Bag̲h̲dād at the place where it is joined by two roads from the Iranian highlands (cf. Hüsing, Der Zagros, p. 38 et seq.), the capital of a Ḳaḍā in the Sand̲j̲aḳ of S̲h̲ehr-i Zōr in the Wilāyet of Mōṣul. In the earlier Arab geographers the town is described as a ṭassūd̲j̲ of the astān of Ḥulwān in the Sawād ( Bibl. Geogr. Arab., vi. 6 and 235). Erbil attained its greatest prosperity about 600 = 1200 as the capital of th…

Ermenek

(156 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R.
(Armanāk), the capital of a ḳaḍā in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Ič Īlī in the wilāyet of Adana with 6430 inhabitants (Cuinet), built at the junction of the two streams that form the Giök-Ṣū (Calycadnus), is probably the ancient Gcrmanicopolis in Isauria (cf. Pauly-Wissowa, vii. 1258). The Oriental writers of the middle ages locate Ermenek two days’ journey south of Lārenda and three from the port of ʿAlāʾīya. A grotto there with a spring was particularly famous. In the viith-viiith (xiiith-xivth) century Ermenek was one of the principal strongholds and for a time the capital of the Ḳ…

al-D̲j̲abbūl

(95 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R.
, the ancient Gabbula, a place eastsouth-east of Ḥalab, watered by the Nahr al-D̲h̲ahab. The salt-mines there lent D̲j̲abbūl a certain economic importance in the middle ages as they still do, to which it probably also owed its position as an administrative centre in the political division of the Mamlūk kingdom. (R. Hartmann) Bibliography M. Streck, Keilinschriftl. Beiträge zur Geogr. Vorderasiens, 20 Schiffer, Die Aramäer, 131 ff. Yāḳūt, ii, 29 Ḳalḳas̲h̲andī, Ḍawʾ al-ṣubḥ, Cairo 1324, 295 von Kremer, Beiträge z. Geogr. des nördl. Syrien, 18 Le Strange, Palestine, 460 Ritter, Erdkunde…

Did̲j̲la

(2,329 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R.
(without the article) is the Arabiʿ form of the name of the Tigris, called (I)dignat, (I)diglat in Babylonian, in Hebrew and in Syriac. According to the Arab geographers the Tigris rises north of Maiyāfāriḳīn (= Tigranokerta) at Holūris, a place celebrated in history on account of the massacre of ʿAlī the Armenian there in 249 (863) (see Tomaschek, Susan, p. 23), out of a dark cavern beneath the Ḥiṣn Ḏh̲i ’l-Ḳarnain. It is the grotto at the source that is here referred to (according to Belck in the Verhandlungen der Berl. Ges. für Anthropologie, 1900, p. 459), the subterranean course of…

Cyprus

(1,388 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R.
, Arabic Ḳubrus or Ḳubruṣ, Turkish Ḳibris, an island in the east of the Mediterranean, is geologically a plateau which has remained while the surrounding land has been submerged, consisting of two mountain chains running from east to west (rising to heights of 3142 and 6020 feet respectively) belonging to the Taurus system and the plain lying between them (4124 square miles in area). The island, which greatly facilitated the primitive coasting traffic between the Syrian and Egyptian coasts and the Aeg…

Eriwan

(311 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R.
, Armenian Hrastan, the capital of a gouvernement in Russian Transcaucasia, in 40° 14′ N. Lat. and 44° 38′ E. Long. (Greenw.), about 3000 feet above sea-level on the left bank of the Zanga, a tributary of the Araxes with a population of about (1897) 30,000, according to other authorities 15,000, has a history dating back to remote antiquity according to the Armenian sources (sec St. Martin, Mémoires sur l’Arménie, I, 116). It is only since the beginning ¶ of the Turkish period that the town, written Rewān by the authorities, has obtained any considerable importance in the…

Bust

(606 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R.
, a town which formerly stood in the modern Afg̲h̲ānistān, on the left bank of the Helmand just below its junction with the Arg̲h̲andāb. The situation of this town in the angle between the two rivers where the roads from the west (Herāt and Zarand̲j̲) unite to cross the Helmand and continue eastwards to Balōčistān and India, at the place where the river begins to be navigable, seems to have been an exceedingly favourable one. Vast earthworks in the neighbourhood of Bust, which was one of the centres of ancient Iranian civilisation, point to a great prosperity in ancien…

Baḥr al-Hind

(972 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R.
is the usual name amongst the Arabs for the Indian Ocean which is also called baḥr al-Zend̲j̲ from its western shores or—the part for the whole— al-baḥr al-Ḥabas̲h̲ī; the expression baḥr Fāris also, sometimes, includes the whole ocean. According to Ibn Rustah its eastern shores begin at Tīz Makrān, its western at ʿAdan. Abu ’l-Fidāʾ gives the Baḥr al-Ṣīn as its eastern boundary, al-Hind as the northern, and al-Yaman as the western, while the southern is unknown. The various parts of the ocean bear special names derived from various lands and islands. If we neglect the no…

Dehās

(175 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R.
, explained by Ibn Ḥawḳal as driving dih Ās “Ten Mills”, the name of the river of Balk̲h̲ called Baktros by the ancients (cf. Pauly-Wissowa’s Real-Enzyklopaedie, ii. 2814) and now known as Balk̲h̲-āb, to which this town owes its favourable topographical situation (it must however be noted that the Arabs frequently mean the Āmū-Daryā by the Nahr Balk̲h̲). The Dehās, which is rich in fish, rises in the Kōh-i Bābā from the Band-i Amīr, flows through several natural pools and on emerging in the plains south of Balk̲h̲ is divided up into numerous channels,…

Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ān

(834 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R.
, Old Persian Wrkāna, Modern Persian Gurgān (Byzantine Γόργα), the ancient Hyrcania, at the southeast corner of the Caspian Sea, which is therefore also known as Baḥr Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ān (Mare Hyrcanum). The province, which was practically equivalent to the modern Persian province of Astarābād̲h̲ [q. v., p. 493 et seq.], forms both in physical features and climate, a connecting link between subtropical Māzandarān with its damp heat and the steppes of Dahistān in the north. The rivers Atrek [q. v., p. 512b et seq.] and Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ānrūd, to which the land owes its fertility and prosperit…
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