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Last Judgment

(6,279 words)

Author(s): Hasson, Isaac
God's final assessment of humankind. The subject of the last judgment ( yawm al-dīn, yawm al- qiyāma) is one of the most important themes in the Qurʾān. It appears in many forms, especially in the first Meccan sūras (see chronology and the qurʾān ), which are dominated by the idea of the nearing day of resurrection ( yawm al-qiyāma, see resurrection ) when all creatures, including jinn (q.v.) and animals (see animal life ), must be judged (see judgment ). Belief in the last judgment, with the concomitant belief in paradise (q.v.; al- janna) for those who performed good deeds (q.v.) and in hell ( ja…

David

(1,167 words)

Author(s): Hasson, Isaac
The Israelite king, mentioned sixteen times in the Qurʾān. David (Dāwūd) appears in the Qurʾān as a link in the chain of proph-¶ ets who preceded Muḥammad ( q 4:163; 6:84). Although he is not one of the law giving prophets (ulū al- ʿazm), he is far from a marginal figure. David in the Qurʾān David was the recipient of a written divine book of psalms (q.v.; q 4:163; 17:55). Mountains and birds obeyed him in praising God ( q 21:79; 34:10). He killed Goliath (q.v.; Jālūt) and God granted him kingship ( mulk, see kings and rulers ) after Saul (q.v.; Ṭālūt) and wisdom (q.v.; ḥikma, q 2:251), sometimes exp…

Egypt

(855 words)

Author(s): Hasson, Isaac
Country in the north-east corner of Africa. Egypt or its capital, Miṣr, occurs by name five times in the Qurʾān, once in oblique form according to most readings ( qirāʾāt, see readings of the qurʾān ). The word Miṣr is mentioned in q 2:61, 10:87, 12:21, 12:99 and 43:51. Egypt also appears in the Qurʾān as the kingdom of Pharaohs ( q 43:51; see pharaoh ); the country where Joseph (q.v.; Yūsuf) became viceroy, like his patron ( al- ʿazīz, q 12:78, 88), after having been a slave and then coming to prominence through his patron's wife ( q 12); the arena of the struggle of Moses (q.v.; Mūsā) and Aaron (q.v.;…

Left Hand and Right Hand

(2,619 words)

Author(s): Hasson, Isaac
The terminal part of each arm, often with connotations of evil and good, respectively (see good and evil; hands). The left hand ( shimāl, pl. shamāʾil, mashʾama) and the right hand ( yamīn, pl. aymān, maymana) appear in the Qurʾān in two contexts: first, the ḥisāb, a record or statement of personal ¶ deeds to be given to every person on the day of judgment ( yawm al-dīn, see last judgment; record of human actions); second, the placement of the resurrected (see resurrection ) before they are sent off to either paradise (q.v.) or hell (see hell and hellfire ). In this connection, the left hand …

Busr b. Abī Arṭāt

(731 words)

Author(s): Hasson, Isaac
Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Busr b. Abī Arṭāt b. ʿUwaymir b. ʿImrān (c. 3–70/625–89)—from the clan of ʿĀmir b. Luʾayy of the Quraysh al-Ẓawāhir, who lived in the mountainous part of Mecca (al-Muṣʿab al-Zubayrī, 439; Khalīfa b. Khayyāṭ, 27; Ibn Manẓūr, 4:524, s.v. ẓ-h-r)—was a military commander in the service of Muʿāwiya b. Abī Sufyān. (In some sources Busr is called “b. Arṭāt” or “b. Arṭaʿa,” but Ibn Ḥazm (170) calls him “b. Arṭāt b. Abī Arṭāt, whose name is ʿUmayr.”) There is no consensus on whether Busr was a Companion of the Prophet (ṣaḥābī): Syrian sources (ahl al-shām) and certain experts on t…
Date: 2019-08-29

Bishr b. al-Barāʾ

(442 words)

Author(s): Hasson, Isaac
Bishr b. al-Barāʾ b. Maʿrūr al-Khazrajī al-Anṣārī (d. 7 or 8/628 or 629) was one of the young Companions of the Prophet (ṣaḥābī) and a prominent leader of the Anṣār (“Helpers”). Ibn Saʿd (d. 230/845) reports that the Prophet, in establishing his blood-brotherhood system (muʾākhāt) , paired Bishr with the Meccan Emigrant (muhājir) Wāqid b. ʿAbdallāh al-Tamīmī, a client of the Qurayshī clan Banū ʿAdī. Bishr’s father, al-Barāʾ (d. 622 C.E.), was the leader (sayyid) of the Banū Salima, a clan of the Khazraj, and the first Anṣārī to make “the pledge of war” (bayʿat al-ḥarb) at the ʿAqaba meeti…
Date: 2019-08-29

ʿAbdallāh b. Muṭīʿ

(545 words)

Author(s): Hasson, Isaac
ʿAbdallāh b. Muṭīʿ b. al-Aswad al-ʿAdawī al-Qurashī (d. 73/692) was one of the leaders of the revolt of Medina against the caliph Yazīd b. Muʿāwiya in 63/683. The Prophet changed his name from al-ʿĀṣī (“the disobedient”) b. al-ʿĀṣī to ʿAbdallāh and his father's name to Muṭīʿ. He took part in a Medinan delegation to Damascus and was received warmly by the caliph. On his return to Medina, however, he was one of the principal propagators of the accusations that Yazīd drank alcohol, that he did not pr…
Date: 2019-08-29

ʿAbdallāh b. Ḥanẓala

(570 words)

Author(s): Hasson, Isaac
Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ʿAbdallāh b. Ḥanẓala b. Abī ʿĀmir al-Anṣārī (d. 63/683) was one of the most prominent leaders of the revolt in Medina in 63/683 against the second Umayyad caliph, Yazīd b. Muʿāwiya (r. 60–4/680–3). Born in Medina, ʿAbdallāh was seven years old when the prophet Muḥammad died. ʿAbdallāh is also known as Ibn al-Ghasīl, a name derived from an incident concerning his father, a Companion, who was killed at Uḥud in an impure state; after the Prophet saw the angels washing him, he gave him the honorific Ghasīl al-malāʾika, “washed by the angels” ( “fa-qāla rasūlu l-Lāhi inna ṣāḥ…
Date: 2019-08-29

ʿAmmār b. Yāsir

(835 words)

Author(s): Hasson, Isaac
ʿ Ammār b. Yāsir b. ʿĀmir b. Mālik Abū l-Yaqẓān (d. 37/657) was a Companion of the Prophet and later a partisan of ʿAlī. He was the son of Sumayya, a slave girl, and Yāsir, an ally (ḥalīf) or, more probably, a client (mawlā) of Abū Ḥudhayfa b. al-Mughīra of the Banū Makhzūm. He is counted as one of the early Muslims, among the first thirteen proselytes. His parents converted to Islam, along with his brother ʿAbdallāh. The polytheists of Mecca tortured ʿAmmār in an attempt to make him abandon his new faith; they were so cruel that “he bec…
Date: 2019-08-29