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Haskalah

(1,890 words)

Author(s): Haußig, Hans-Michael
1. Definition The term  haskala (Hebrew: “having insight,” “making wise,” “education”; from  sekel, “insight,” “understanding”) denotes the Jewish equivalent to the general Enlightenment movement in early modern Europe; its adherents are called maskilim. Both terms are first attested in the philosophical literature of the late Middle Ages, for example in Joseph Albo’s (1380–1444) sefer ha-iqqarim (“Book of Principles”), where haskala means “knowledge.” In this sense, the basic meaning of  Haskalah may be much closer to the German term  Aufklärung than the English and…
Date: 2019-10-14

Neo-Orthodoxy

(913 words)

Author(s): Haußig, Hans-Michael
1. IntroductionNeo-Orthodoxy was a Jewish movement that began in Germany in the 19th century, striving to reconcile the principles of Orthodox Judaism with modernity. Neo-Orthodoxy was not at first a term its advocates used themselves. They preferred the Hebrew slogan tora im derech eretz (Mishna, Avoth 2:2), that is “[practicing the] Torah [in accordance] with the way of the land.” Other terms used were “faithful to the law” (German:  gesetzestreu), or simply “orthodox.”Neo-Orthodoxy was distinct both from traditional Jewish Orthodoxy and from Reform Judaism. It…
Date: 2020-04-06

Diaspora

(4,148 words)

Author(s): Mayer, Ruth | Haußig, Hans-Michael
1. Theoretical foundations 1.1. TerminologyFor centuries, the term diaspora referred only to the religious sphere (see below,. 3.), as a term for a congregation living far from the “Promised Land” or in a region dominated by a different congregation. However, in the last decades of the 20th century, the term came into vogue in the social and cultural sciences. In the United States and Britain, global processes of exchange, migration, and settlement that do not relate directly to a nation state, but …
Date: 2019-10-14