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Muḥammad b. Abī Bakr

(887 words)

Author(s): Hawting, G.R.
, a son of the first caliph, who was prominent in the opposition against the caliph ʿUt̲h̲mān [ q.v.] and who governed Egypt on behalf of ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib [ q.v.] for a time during the fitna . According to tradition he was born in the year of the Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲at al-Wadāʿ or “Farewell Pilgrimage” (10/632), and he is further associated with this important event by the report that his mother gave birth to him beneath the tree where the Prophet entered iḥrām on that occasion. He belonged to the Ḳuras̲h̲ī clan of Taym b. Murra, while his mother, Asmāʾ bint ʿUma…

Taḥannut̲h̲

(815 words)

Author(s): Hawting, G.R.
(a.), verbal noun, and taḥannat̲h̲a , verb, are words found in some of the accounts of Muḥammad’s first prophetic experience. Already in the earliest texts which are available to us, they are accompanied by variant interpretative glosses and explanations, and their significance has been debated in both traditional and modern scholarship. In Ibn His̲h̲ām’s Sīra (151-2), Ibn Isḥāḳ reports that Muḥammad used to spend one month each year making d̲j̲iwār [ q.v.] at Ḥirāʾ—"that was a part of the taḥannut̲h̲ of Ḳurays̲h̲ ( mimmā taḥannat̲h̲a bihi Ḳurays̲h̲ ) in the Ḏj̲āhiliyya ". Tahạnnut̲h̲

Muḥammad b. al-As̲h̲ʿat̲h̲

(641 words)

Author(s): Hawting, G.R.
b. Ḳays al-Kindī , Arab chieftain, was a leader of the Banū Kinda in Kūfa following the death of his father [see al-as̲h̲ʿat̲h̲ b. ḳays ] in about 41/661. Little is known about his birth and early years, but his mother was Umm Farwa, a sister of the first caliph Abū Bakr. He was known by the kunya Abū Mayt̲h̲āʾ as well as Abu ’l-Ḳāsim. In 51/671, at the time of the revolt of Ḥud̲j̲r b. ʿAdī al-Kindī [ q.v.], the governor of ʿIrāḳ, Ziyād b. Abīhi [ q.v.], is said to have threatened retribution from Muḥammad b. al-As̲h̲ʿat̲h̲ unless Ḥud̲j̲r surrendered. His role in securing the submi…

Rawḥ b. Zinbāʿ

(593 words)

Author(s): Hawting, G.R.
al-D̲j̲ud̲h̲āmī , an Arab tribal leader, especially prominent in upholding the Umayyad cause against the Zubayrids in the second civil war (64-72/683-92). Son of a notable from the Banū D̲j̲ud̲h̲ām [ q.v.], which had been settled in Palestine from before the Arab conquest of the region, Rawḥ is said to have incurred Muʿāwiya’s suspicion in circumstances which are obscure. Later, we find him named as one of a group of Syrian as̲h̲rāf whom Yazīd b. Muʿāwiya [ q.v.] sent to ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubayr [ q.v.] in an attempt to obtain the latter’s bayʿa , and, shortly afterw…

al-Muk̲h̲tār b. Abī ʿUbayd

(4,114 words)

Author(s): Hawting, G.R.
al-T̲h̲aḳafī , leader of a pro-ʿAlid movement which controlled al-Kūfa in 66-7/685-7. He claimed to be acting as the representative of the son of ʿAlī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥanafiyya [ q.v.], and his movement is often classified as an early manifestation of extremist S̲h̲īʿism. This article, which draws mainly on the detailed narratives given by al-Ṭabarī, al-Balād̲h̲urī and Ibn Aʿt̲h̲am al-Kūfī, concentrates on his life and involvement in the events of his time. For further discussion of the importance of al-Muk̲h̲tār’s movement in the development of Muslim sectarianism, see kaysāniyya …

K̲h̲ālid b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḳasrī

(1,440 words)

Author(s): Hawting, G.R.
, governor for the Umayyads, first of Mecca and later, during almost the entire caliphate of His̲h̲ām b. ʿAbd al-Malik [ q.v.], of ʿIrāḳ. There his position may be compared with that of Ziyād under Muʿāwiya and al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ under ʿAbd al-Malik. Information about K̲h̲ālid in the sources often seems to be the product of polemic between different political, religious, ethnic and tribal groups, and it should, therefore, be used cautiously. His clan, the Ḳasr, was a branch of Banū Bad̲j̲īla [ q.v.]. While his grandfather and great-grandfather are counted as Companions of th…

Marwān II

(2,274 words)

Author(s): Hawting, G.R.
b. Muḥammad b. Marwān b. al-Ḥakam , the last of the Ūmayyad caliphs of Syria (reigned 127/744 to 132/749-50) was, on his father’s side, a grandson of the caliph Marwān I [ q.v.], but there are variant accounts concerning his mother and the year of his birth. It is frequently reported that his mother was a non-Arab woman (sometimes specified as a Kurd) who passed into the possession of Marwān’s father Muḥammad after ʿAbd al-Malik’s defeat of Muṣʿab b. al-Zubayr and his general Ibrāhīm b. al-Ashtar in 72/691. Some reports say th…

al-T̲h̲aḳafī

(663 words)

Author(s): Hawting, G.R.
, Yūsuf b. ʿUmar , governor of ʿIrāḳ between 120/738 and 126/744 under the Umayyad caliphs His̲h̲ām b. ʿAbd al-Malik and al-Walīd II b. Yazīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik. His father, ʿUmar, was a cousin of al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ [ q.v.], both being grandsons of al-Ḥakam b. Abī ʿAḳīl of the B. Saʿd b. ʿAwf of T̲h̲aḳīf. As governor, his residence was in al-Ḥīra rather than in al-Kūfa, the more usual gubernatorial seat. Before his appointment over ʿIrāḳ, Yūsuf had been governor of Yemen, where he had been installed by the caliph His̲h̲ām, probably in 106/725. Reports about his acti…

Saʿd b. Abī Waḳḳāṣ

(1,505 words)

Author(s): Hawting, G.R.
(d. during Muʿāwiya’s caliphate), a leading Companion of the Prophet and commander of the Arab armies during the conquest of ʿIrāḳ. His clan was the Banū Zuhra b. Kilāb of Ḳuraysh. His own kunya is given as Abū Is̲ḥāḳ but he is also known as (and sometimes listed in biographical dictionaries under) Saʿd b. Mālik since his father’s name was Mālik b. Wuhayb (or Uhayb) b. ʿAbd Manāf b. Zuhra. There does not seem to be any explanation why Malīk should have had the kunya Abū Waḳḳās. A tradition says that Saʿd asked the Prophet who he was and received the answer…

Umayyads

(8,994 words)

Author(s): Hawting, G.R.
( Banū Umayya ), the dynasty of caliphs which, from its centre in Syria, ruled the whole of the Arab Islamic territories from 41/661 to 132/750. All of the caliphs during this period are descendants of Umayya b. ʿAbd S̲h̲ams [ q.v.], a preIslamic notable of the tribe of Ḳurays̲h̲ of Mecca, but they represent two distinct lines within the clan of Umayya: the first three caliphs, descended from Abū Sufyān b. Ḥarb [ q.v.]., are referred to as Sufyānids; the remaining eleven, descendants of Marwān b. al-Ḥakam b. Abi ’l-ʿĀṣ [ q.v.], as Marwānids. For convenience, a list of the Umayyad calip…

Oaths

(3,548 words)

Author(s): Hawting, G.R.
Solemn assertions or promises. In English the word “oath” has various related senses. One usually involves using the name of God, or of some other revered or dreaded being, object or place, in order to give force and solemnity to an utterance (an assertion, promise, denial, curse, etc.). Oaths of this type, where a statement includes a phrase such as “by God,” “by the stars when they set,” “by this land,” etc., are common in the Qurʾān. Many such oaths occur in sūras traditionally regarded as ha…

Tradition and Custom

(1,526 words)

Author(s): Hawting, G.R.
The way things have been done, or are understood as having been done, in the past. In many societies the appeal to tradition and custom as the basis for current practice serves to legitimize the present. For a religion emerging in opposition to some of the beliefs and practices of its society, however, appeal to tradition or custom by its opponents is an obstacle to be overcome. At the same time, adherents of the new order may well attempt to justify it by reference to the past. In Islam the positive value of tradition is most obviously manifest in the concept of sunna (q.v.), the accepted pract…

Worship

(1,873 words)

Author(s): Hawting, G.R.
The veneration of God (or any other being or object regarded as worthy of worship), by the performance of acts and/or the utterance of words that signify attitudes such as adoration, submission, gratitude (see gratitude and ingratitude ), love (q.v.) or fear (q.v.). Arabic does not have a direct semantic parallel to the English word but derivatives of the root ʿ-b-d, conveying ideas of obedience (q.v.), dependence (see also clients and clientage ) and service (see slaves and slavery; servants), are often rendered in English translations of the Qurʾān by “worship.” In a bro…

Marwān Ii

(2,246 words)

Author(s): Hawting, G.R.
b. Muḥammad b. Marwān b. al-Ḥakam, le dernier des califes umayyades de Syrie (de 127 à 132/744-50), était, du côté paternel, un petit-fils du calife Marwan Ier [ q.v.], mais les données concernant sa mère et l’année de sa naissance sont variables. On rapporte fréquemment que sa mère était une femme d’origine non-arabe (kurde, préciset-on parfois) qui échut au père de Marwān, Muḥammad, après la victoire de ʿAbd al-Malik sur Muṣʿab b. al-Zubayr et son général Ibrāhīm b. al-As̲h̲tar en 72/691. D’après certains récits, elle ét…

Saʿd b. Abī Waḳḳāṣ

(1,443 words)

Author(s): Hawting, G. R.
(m. pendant le califat de Muʿāwiya), Compagnon de tout premier plan du Prophète et commandant des armées arabes durant la conquête du ʿIrāḳ. Il appartenait à la tribu des Banū Zuhra b. Kilāb de Ḳurays̲h̲. Son nom ( kunya) serait Abū Isḥāḳ mais il est aussi connu (et parfois répertorié dans les dictionnaires biographiques) sous le nom de Saʿd b. Mālik puisque son père s’appelait Mālik b. Wuhayb (ou Uhayb) b. ʿAbd Manāf b. Zuhra. Il ne semble pas y avoir d’explication concernant le nom d’Abū Waḳḳāṣ que portait Mālik. Une tradition rap…

Muḥammad b. Abī Bakr

(854 words)

Author(s): Hawting, G. R.
, fils du premier calife, qui joua un rôle important dans l’opposition à ʿUt̲h̲mān [ q.v.] et gouverna l’Égypte pour le compte de ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib [ q.v.] pendant quelque temps durant la fitna. D’après la tradition, il naquit l’année de la Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲at al-Wadāʿ «Pèlerinage d’Adieu» (10/632), et il est associé à cet important événement dans le récit selon lequel sa mère le mit au monde au pied de l’arbre sous lequel le Prophète revêtit l’ iḥrām cette fois-là. Il appartenait au clan ḳurays̲h̲ite de Taym b. Murra, tandis que sa mère, Asmāʾ bint ʿUmays, était de Ḵh̲at̲h̲ʿam…

Taḥannut̲h̲

(820 words)

Author(s): Hawting, G.R.
(a.), nom verbal et taḥannat̲h̲a, verbe, sont des mots que l’on trouve dans certains des récits de la première expérience prophétique de Muḥammad. Déjà dans les tout premiers textes qui nous sont parvenus, ils sont accompagnés par divers commentaires et explications interprétatives, et leur signification a été discutée à la fois par les érudits de la tradition et ceux de l’époque moderne. Dans la Sīra d’Ibn His̲h̲ām (151-2), Ibn Isḥāḳ rapporte que Muḥammad avait l’habitude de passer un mois chaque année à faire d̲j̲iwār [ q.v.] à Ḥirāʾ — «cela faisait partie du taḥannut̲h̲ des Ḳurays̲h̲ ( m…

Rawḥ b. Zinbāʿ

(585 words)

Author(s): Hawting, G.R.
al-Ḏj̲ud̲h̲āmī, chef tribal arabe célèbre pour avoir épousé la cause umayyade contre les Zubayrides lors de la seconde guerre civile (64-72/683-92). Fils d’un des notables des Banū Ḏj̲ud̲h̲ām [ q.v.] installés en Palestine dès avant la conquête arabe de la région, Rawḥ aurait encouru la méfiance de Muʿāwiya dans des circonstances obscures. Plus tard, on trouve son nom parmi un groupe d’ as̲h̲rāf syriens envoyé par Yazīd b. Muʿāwiya [ q.v.] à ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubayr [ q.v.] pour tenter d’obtenir la bayʿa de ce dernier; peu après, il compte au nombre des chefs d’une armée dépêc…

Umayyades

(9,466 words)

Author(s): Hawting, G.R.
(Banū Umayya), dynastie de califes qui, depuis leur centre, en Syrie, gouvernèrent l’ensemble des territoires musulmans de 41/661 à 132/750. Tous les califes durant cette période descendent d’Umayya b. ʿAbd S̲h̲ams [ q.v.], notable de la tribu Ḳurays̲h̲ de La Mecque à l’époque pré-islamique, mais ils se rattachent à deux branches distinctes au sein de son clan: les trois premiers califes, appelés Sufyānides, sont issus de la lignée d’Abū Sufyān b. Ḥarb [ q.v.]; les onze autres, les Marwānides, descendent de Marwān b. al-Ḥakam b. Abī l-ʿĀṣ [ q.v.]. Afin de faciliter la compréhension…

al-T̲h̲aḳafī

(698 words)

Author(s): Hawting, G. R.
, Yūsuf b. ʿUmar, gouverneur de l’ʿIrāḳ entre 120/738 et 126/744 sous les califes umayyades His̲h̲ām b. ʿAbd al-Malik et al-Walīd II b. Yazīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik. Son père, ʿUmar, était un cousin d’al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ [ q.v.], tous deux étant des petits-fils d’al-Ḥakam b. Abī ʿAḳīl des B. Saʿd b. ʿAwf de T̲h̲aḳīf. Il se fixa à al-Ḥīra plutôt qu’à al-Kūfa, lieu de résidence plus habituel des gouverneurs. Avant d’être nommé à la tête de l’ʿIrāḳ, Yūsuf avait été gouverneur du Yémen, où il avait été installé par le calife His̲h̲ām, vraisemblablement en 106/725. Les rap…
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