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Ṣarf

(653 words)

Author(s): Heffening
is defined by the jurists as a contract of sale ( baiʿ) in which the goods to be exchanged are of precious metal ( thaman). Ṣarf is primarily money-changing, but also includes any exchange of gold and silver. As the name shows — ṣarf is maṣdar of a verbum denominativum from ṣairaf or ṣarrāf — the business of money-changing is of Aramaic origin (cf. Fraenkel, Die aram. Fremdwörter im Arab., p. 182 sqq.; Lambert in the R. E. J., 1906, ii. 29). The expression ṣarf seems to have been first naturalised in Islām about the. end of the first century a. h. With this is connected the fact that Mālik b. Anas in the Mu…

Murtadd

(1,989 words)

Author(s): Heffening
(a.), “one who turns back”, especially from Islām, an apostate. Apostacy is called irtidād or ridda; it may be committed verbally by denying a principle of belief or by an action, for example treating a copy of the Ḳurʾān with disrespect. 1. In the Ḳurʾān the apostate is threatened with punishment in the next world only; the “wrath of God” will fall upon him according to a Sūra of the latest Meccan period (xvi. 108 sq.) and severe punishment ( ʿad̲h̲āb) “except he did it under compulsion and his heart is steadfast in belief”. Similarly it is written in the Medīna Sūra iii. 80 sqq.: “…This is the p…

Mutʿa

(3,037 words)

Author(s): Heffening
(a.), temporary marriage (according to the Arab lexicographers “marriage of pleasure”), a marriage which is contracted for a fixed period on rewarding the woman. I. Before Islām. According to Ammianus Marcellinus, xiv. 4, 4, temporary marriage was in use among the Arabs already in the fourth century a. d.; but this can hardly be a reference to mutʿa as the woman brings a lance and tent to the man and can leave him if she likes after the period has elapsed. It is also doubtful if there is a distinct muʿta character in the marriage of Hās̲h̲im …

Ṣulḥ

(434 words)

Author(s): Heffening
, composition, settlement, which is recommended as early as Ḳurʾān, iv. 127, is a contract of sale ( baiʿ) with the object of averting a dispute (cf. the Roman-Byzantine transactio, διάλυσιΣ: Cod., 2, 4, 21; also Dig., 2, 15, 1). The rules of baiʿ hold for it, especially ḳubūl and īd̲j̲āb. There are three kinds of settlements: the defendant either acknowledges the disputed point to be justified ( iḳrār) or he disputes it ( inkār) or he says nothing ( sukūt). The older jurists differ on the admissibility of these three kinds: al-S̲h̲āfiʿī and Ibn Abī Lailā demand definite ac…

Tadbīr

(898 words)

Author(s): Heffening
(a.), Maṣdar of the second stem of the root d-b-r. 1. With the meaning of „direction, administration”. The Arabic lexicographers explain dabbara as a verb from the noun dubur “the hindmost, the end” (opposite: ḳubul); thus we read in the Lisān, v. 358: an tanẓura ilā mā taʾūlu ilaihi ʿāḳibatahu, “to heed what one attains at the end of a matter”, or yanẓuru fī ʿawāḳibihi, “to heed the end of a matter”. This verb has now a double application: a. in the sense of government, administration (e. g. in the title of a work by Ibn Abi ’l-Rabīʿ, Sulūk al-Mālik fī Tadbīr ’l-Mamālik [cf. siyāsa]) and b. which c…

ʿIbādāt

(361 words)

Author(s): Heffening
(a., pl. of ʿibāda), the ordinances of divine worship. The term ʿibāda is already found in the Ḳorʾān in this sense (e.g. Sūrā x. 30; xviii. 110; xix. 66 and passim) but is only very rarely applied to the worship of idols (e.g. Sūra xix. 85; xlvi. 5).— Under this general head is comprised the first part of the works on law in Islām: ṭahāra, ṣalāt, zakāt, ṣawm, ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ and sometimes also d̲j̲ihād. According to al-ʿAbbādī ( al-Ḏj̲awhara al-naiyira, Constantinople 1323, i. 146) the mas̲h̲rūʿāt are divided into five groups: 1. the articles of the creed; 2. the ʿibādāt; 3. the muʿāmalāt which inc…

S̲h̲irka

(769 words)

Author(s): Heffening
(or S̲h̲arika; the former is according to al-Faiyūmī, Miṣbāḥ and the more usual form in the Turkish legal language). S̲h̲irka originally implied simply that a thing belonged to several ¶ persons in common in such a way that each one had ownership in every smallest part of it in proportion to the share allotted to him. This idea seems to be a general Semitic one. It is found similarly in the Talmudic , cf. L. Auerbach, Jüd. Obligationenrecht, § 45. Like this conception s̲h̲irka was also later transferred to the different forms of trading companies. The jurists therefore u…

Sariḳa

(1,673 words)

Author(s): Heffening, W.
(a.), theft, noun of agent Sāriḳ “thief” Islamic legal theory distinguishes between al-sariḳa al-ṣug̲h̲rā (theft) and al-sariḳa al-kubrā (highway robbery or brigandage), each with different ḥadd punishments. (1) Theft ( sariḳa ) is punished by cutting off the hand, according to sūra V, 42. This was an innovation of the Prophet’s; but, according to the Awāʾil literature, this had already been introduced in the days of paganism by al-Walīd b. Mug̲h̲īra (Nöldeke-Schwally, Gesch . d. Qorāns , i, 230). This method of punishment may be of Persian origin (cf. Lettre de Tansar

Mutʿa

(3,405 words)

Author(s): Heffening, W.
(a.), literally, “enjoyment”, used in Islamic law in the sense of temporary marriage (according to the Arab lexicographers “marriage of pleasure”), a marriage which is contracted for a fixed period on rewarding the woman. I. Before Islam. According to Ammianus Marcellinus, xiv. 4, 4, temporary marriage was in use among the Arabs already in the 4th century A.D.; but this can hardly be a reference to mutʿa , as the woman brings a lance and tent to the man and can leave him if she likes after the period has elapsed. It is also doubtful if there is a distinct mutʿa character in the marriage of Hās…

al-Nawawī

(930 words)

Author(s): Heffening, W.
(or al-Nawāwī ), Muḥyī al-Dīn Abū Zakariyyāʾ Yaḥyā b. S̲h̲araf b. Murī [following Nawawī’s own spelling, Suyūṭī, fol. 53b] b. Ḥasan b. Ḥusayn b. Muḥammad b. D̲j̲umʿa b. Ḥizām al-Ḥizāmī al-Dimas̲h̲ḳī , a S̲h̲āfiʿī jurist, born in Muḥarram 631/October 1233 in Nawā south of Damascus in D̲j̲awlān. The ability of the boy very early attracted attention and his father brought him in 649/1251 to the Madrasa al-Rawāḥiyya in Damascus. There he first of all studied medicine but very soon went over to Islamic learni…

al-Marg̲h̲īnānī

(773 words)

Author(s): Heffening, W.
, the name of two families of Ḥanafī lawyers; the nisba comes from their native town and the scene of their activities, Marg̲h̲īnān [ q.v.] in Farg̲h̲āna. I. 1. The most important was Burhān al-Dīn Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Abī Bakr b. ʿAbd al-D̲j̲alīl al-Farg̲h̲ānī al-Marg̲h̲īnānī , the author of the ¶ celebrated Hidāya . He acquired his knowledge on his travels, then still the usual way of studying in Islam. His principal teachers were Nad̲j̲m al-Dīn Abū Ḥafṣ ʿUmar b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Nasafī (d. 537/1142-3), al-Ṣadr al-S̲h̲ah…

Murtadd

(2,028 words)

Author(s): Heffening, W.
(a.), “one who turns back”, especially from Islam, an apostate. Apostasy is called irtidād or ridda ; it may be committed verbally by denying a principle of belief or by an action, for example treating a copy of the Ḳurʾān with disrespect. 1. In the Ḳurʾān, the apostate is threatened with punishment in the next world only; the “wrath of God” will fall upon him according to a sūra of the latest Meccan period (XVI, 108-9) and severe punishment ( ʿad̲h̲āb ) “except he did it under compulsion and his heart is steadfast in belief. Similarly, it is written in…

ʿUrs

(10,018 words)

Author(s): Heffening, W.
, ʿUrus (a., pl. aʿrās and ʿurusāt ), originally the leading of the bride to her bridegroom, marriage, also the wedding feast simply; whence a denominal verb form IV aʿrasa “to celebrate a marriage”. ʿArūs means both bridegroom and bride; in modern linguistic usage this term has, however, been supplanted by ʿarīs “bridegroom” and ʿarūsa “bride” (as early as the 1001 Nights , cf. Dozy, Suppl., ii, 110). Two kinds of weddings have to be distinguished: ʿurs is the wedding performed in the tribe or the house of the man, and ʿumra is the wedding performed in the house…

al-Ḳazwīnī

(238 words)

Author(s): Heffening, W.
, abū ḥātim maḥmūd b. al-ḥasan al-ṭabarī , a S̲h̲āfıʿī jurist, teacher of al-S̲h̲īrāzī. He belonged to Āmul in Ṭabaristān where he began his studies. In Bag̲h̲dād he studied under Abū Ḥāmid al-Isfarāʾinī d. 406/1015-16, the law of inheritance under Ibn al-Labbān (d. 402/1011-12) and the uṣūl under Ibn al Bāḳillānī (d. 403/1012-13). He taught in Bag̲h̲dād and Āmul in 440/1048-9. Al-S̲h̲īrāzī describes him as his best teacher. Of his works the following are mentioned: 1) Kitāb Tad̲j̲rīd al-Tad̲j̲rīd , a synopsis of the legal work of the same name by al-Maḥāmilī (d. 415/1024-25); 2) Rawnaḳ

S̲h̲arṭ

(451 words)

Author(s): Heffening | [Editorial
(a. pl. s̲h̲arāʾiṭ, s̲h̲urūṭ), condition. It is defined in different ways. Al-G̲h̲azālī for example says ( K. al-Mustaṣfī, Būlāḳ, 1325, ii. 180) s̲h̲arṭ is that with the non-existence of which the conditional ( mas̲h̲rūṭ) does not exist, with the existence of which however the conditional must not exist also, in contrast to the cause ( ʿilla) the existence of which demands the existence of the caused. The non-existence of the condition ( s̲h̲arṭ) demands the non-existence of the conditional ( nas̲h̲rūṭ), but its existence does not demand the existence of the conditional (e.…

S̲h̲āhid

(1,070 words)

Author(s): Heffening, W.
(a., pl. s̲h̲uhād), witness. The statement ( s̲h̲ahāda) of a witness, is a declaration on a legal claim in favour of a second person against a third, which is based on an accurate knowledge of the state of affairs and is made before the judge in prescribed form ( as̲h̲hadu bi-kad̲h̲ā wa-kad̲h̲ā). The following main principles have grown up, based on the Ḳurʾān and Tradition and perhaps also influenced by the legal opinions in the Talmud and are in the main common to all mad̲h̲āhib; there are of course numerous differences in points of detail which cannot be dealt with here. The taking and givin…

al-Muzanī

(679 words)

Author(s): Heffening, W.
, Abū Ibrāhīm Ismāʿīl b. Yaḥyā (in the Fihrist , Ibrahīm), a pupil of al-S̲h̲āfiʿī, the “champion” of the S̲h̲āfiʿi school of law, was born in 175/791-2 and lived in Egypt. Although he compiled a celebrated compendium ( muk̲h̲taṣar ) of the writings and lectures of his teacher, he was an independent thinker, who differed from his master on many points but not on the fundamentals ( uṣūl ), as the Muk̲h̲taṣar eloquently shows (for example, his master’s views are bluntly described as wrong: iv, 26; v, 20; etc.). There is even mention of a special mad̲h̲hab of al-Muzanī (…

Murtadd

(2,094 words)

Author(s): Heffening, W.
(a.) «quelqu’un qui se détourne» spécialement de l’Islam, l’apostat. L’apostasie est appelée irtidād ou ridda; elle peut se faire soit verbaliter, par la négation d’un article de foi, soit realiter, par la profanation d’un exemplaire du Ḳurʾān par exemple. 1. Dans le Ḳurʾān, l’apostat n’est menacé que de peines dans l’autre monde; ainsi d’après une sourate de la dernière période mekkoise (XVI, 108-9): «La colère de Dieu» s’appesantira sur lui et de terribles châtiments ( ʿad̲h̲āb) l’attendent «sauf quand il a été contraint par la force et que son cœur persévère dans la…

Mutʿa

(3,413 words)

Author(s): Heffening, W.
(a.), littéralement «jouissance», terme employé dans le droit islamique pour désigner le mariage temporaire (d’après les lexicographes arabes «mariage de plaisir» conclu pour un temps déterminé moyennant indemnisation de la femme). 1. — Avant l’Islam. D’après Ammien Marcellin (XIV, 4), un mariage temporaire était déjà pratiqué chez les Arabes au IVe siècle de J.-C.; mais il est peu probable qu’il s’agissait là de mutʿa, car la femme apporte à l’homme une lance et une tente et peut se séparer de lui après le temps écoulé, quand elle le veut. On peut égalemen…

ʿUrs

(10,743 words)

Author(s): Heffening, W.
, ʿUrus (A., pl. aʿrās et ʿurusāt), à l’origine la conduite de la fiancée chez son fiancé, la noce et aussi simplement le repas de mariage; de là, a la quatrième forme, un verbe dénominatif aʿrasa «préparer une noce». ʿArūs désigne aussi bien le fiancé que la fiancée; toutefois, d’après l’usage actuel de la langue, il est de règle que ʿarīs désigne le fiancé et ʿarūsa la fiancée (il en était ainsi déjà dans les 1001 Nuits, cf. Dozy, Supplément, II, 110). Il faut cependant distinguer deux sortes de noce: ʿurs désigne la noce qui a lieu dans la tribu ou dans la maison de l’homme, tandis que ʿumra désign…
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