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Santiago Cult

(1,279 words)

Author(s): Herbers, Klaus
1. James’s Life and Burial According to the NT, James the Elder, son of Zebedee, was a member of the intimate circle of apostles (see Matt. 10:1–4; 17:1–8; 26:36–37; Mark 5:35–42; 13:3). In about the year 44 he was beheaded by Herod Agrippa I (41–44; Acts 12:2). Although early witnesses allude to James’s mission activity, especially in Palestine, they provide no concrete information about where he was buried. Only in the seventh century, through the Breviarum apostolorum, a Latin version of the Greco-Byzantine apocryphal work Acts of the Apostles, was James associated with missiona…

Paschalis I.

(177 words)

Author(s): Herbers, Klaus
[English Version] Paschalis I., Papst, Wahl 24.1.817, Weihe 25.1. (gest.11.2.824?), hl. – Der Römer und vormalige Abt von St.Stephan (St.Peter) suchte als Papst den Kontakt mit dem westlichen Kaisertum (amicitia und Ludovicianum [MGH. Cap 1,352–355], 817; Zweitkrönung Lothars I. zum Kaiser, 823 [Kaisertum und Papsttum]). Als zwei frankenfreundliche Würdenträger wie »Majestätsverbrecher« hingerichtet wurden, reinigte sich P. durch Eid (vgl. Constitutio Romana von 824). P. bestellte Erzbf. Ebo von Re…

Santiago de Compostela

(389 words)

Author(s): Herbers, Klaus
[English Version] . Der Aufstieg der Stadt S. ist eng mit dem Kult des Apostel Jakobus verbunden, dem seit dem 7./8.Jh. eine Predigttätigkeit auf der Iberischen Halbinsel zugeschrieben und dessen angebliches Grab im 9.Jh. »entdeckt« wurde. Die Festigung des Apostelkultes förderte Entstehung und Entwicklung von Stadt und Bistum. Im Umfeld der über der Grabstätte errichteten Kirchen siedelte sich eine Mönchsgemeinschaft an, später folgte die Gründung eines Dorfes, das schon ab 915 als villa burgensi…

Ximénes (Jiménes) de Cisneros

(418 words)

Author(s): Herbers, Klaus
[English Version] 1. Francisco (1436 Torrelaguna – 8.11.1517 Roa). Der aus adeliger Familie stammende X. wurde in Roa und Alcalá ausgebildet und studierte die Rechte in Salamanca. 1480 wurde er Oberkaplan im Domkapitel von Sigüenza und sicherte sich die Unterstützung des einflußreichen González de Mendoza. 1484 trat er in das eine strenge Observanz befolgende Franziskanerkloster S. Juan de los Reyes in Toledo ein. Nachdem er 1492 Beichtvater der Königin Isabella geworden war, wurde X. am 20.2.1495 E…


(158 words)

Author(s): Herbers, Klaus
[English Version] . Nach der Überschreitung des Rheins 405 gelangten die in ihrer Herkunft (elbgerm. Bereich, Ostseeraum?) nicht sicher bestimmbaren S. über Gallien auf die Iberische Halbinsel, wo sie sich 409/411 im Bereich der antiken Lusitania ansiedelten. Als Begründer ihres Reichs, zu dem zeitweise auch Astorga, Lugo, Mérida und Sevilla gehörten, gilt Hermericus (Abdankung 438). Hofhaltung, Wiederherstellung der alten kaiserlichen fisci, Schatzbildung und Gesandtschaftsbeziehungen sorgten für…


(186 words)

Author(s): Herbers, Klaus
[German Version] The original homeland of the Suevi has not been clearly identified (Elbe-Germanic or Baltic region?). After crossing the Rhine in 405, they passed through Gaul and arrived in the Iberian Peninsula, where they settled between 409 and 411 in the region of ancient Lusitania. Hermericus (abdicated 438) is considered the founder of their kingdom, which at one time or another also included Astorga, Lugo, Mérida, and Seville. Establishment of a court, restoration of the old imperial fisci, accumulation of wealth, and diplomatic relations stabilized the kingdom. …


(248 words)

Author(s): Herbers, Klaus
[German Version] (derived from Arab. Garnata). In Iberian and Roman times, Granada, under the name Elvira, was the site of one of the earliest dioceses in Spain. The First Council of Elvira (between 295 and 314) dealt with disciplinary questions. During the period of Visigoth domination, there was also (until 589) an Arian (Arius) bishop in the city. After the Muslim conquest at the beginning of the 8th century, bishops are attested only in isolation until the 10th century. The Almohades destroyed Gr…

Leo IV, Pope (Saint)

(319 words)

Author(s): Herbers, Klaus
[German Version] (pope Apr 10, 847 – Jul 17, 855). The son of the Roman Radoald, under Pope Gregory IV Leo was made subdeacon and under Pope Sergius II cardinal priest of Santi Quattro Coronati. Already elected in January of 847, he was consecrated by the Romans without imperial assent, supposedly because of the Saracen threat. In the light of earlier depredations, Leo's concern for the city of Rome and the Patrimonium Petri was especially intense (cf. the Civitas Leonina). With the support of southern Italy and Roman militias, Leo confronted the Saracens in 849 near Ostia…

Jiménes de Cisneros

(462 words)

Author(s): Herbers, Klaus
[German Version] 1. Francisco (1436, Torrelaguna – Nov 8, 1517, Roa). Jiménes, born into a hidalgo family, was educated in Roa and Alcalá and studied civil and canon law at Salamanca. In 1480 he became a cathedral chaplain at Sigüenza and gained the support of the influential Cardinal González de Mendoza. In 1484 he entered the monastery of San Juan de los Reyes in Toledo, a Franciscan house of strict observance. Having been appointed confessor to Queen Isabella in 1492, in 1495 be became archbishop…


(366 words)

Author(s): Herbers, Klaus
[German Version] a city and archbishopric in Spain, took on major importance in the 6th century as a “capital” and conciliar center. After the Muslim conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, the importance of Toledo shifted. During the emirate (756–929), the city was often in competition with the central authorities in Córdoba; after the fall of the caliphate in 1031, Toledo enjoyed a new heyday. The extent to which Toledo was Arabized is disputed. It is clear that many Christians (Mozarabs) still lived in Toledo in the 8th and 9th centuries, but ¶ their influence declined in the 10th and 11…

Cid, El

(358 words)

Author(s): Herbers, Klaus
[German Version] (Rodrígo Díaz de Vivar; 1043, Vivar near Burgos – Jul 10, 1099, Valencia) was the son of the infanzón (baronet) Diego Laínez. He was brought up in the household of Infante Sancho, the son of Ferdinand I. Upon Sancho's accession to the throne in 1066, Díaz was appointed alférez real ( armiger regis) and earned himself the byname campi doctor ( Campeador) during armed conflicts with Navarre. After further military campaigns, he also became involved in the war of succession between Sancho II and his brother Alfonso VI of Léon (10…

John XXI, Pope

(214 words)

Author(s): Herbers, Klaus
[German Version] John XXI, Pope, Sep 8, 1276 – May 20, 1277 (Petrus Hispanus; born c. 1210–1215, Lisbon), important medieval physician and philosopher. John received his education first in Lisbon, then in León and Paris. As a magister of philosophy and medicine (1245), he broadened his medical knowledge in Salerno and Palermo. In 1260, he became the personal physician of the later pope Hadrian V; in 1273, he became archbishop of Braga and cardinal bishop of Tusculum, and was also archivist and personal physician of Pope Gregory X. …

Felix of Urgel

(222 words)

Author(s): Herbers, Klaus
[German Version] Felix of Urgel, bishop of Urgel (d. 818 in Lyon), is known primarily as an advocate and propagator of the doctrine of adoptionism, as formulated by Elipandus of Toledo around 785. This doctrine may have been ¶ developed to reintegrate segments of the population that had converted to Islam. According to this position, Christ in his human aspect was God's adoptive son. Pope Hadrian I rejected this doctrine in 787 as “Nestorianism”. Whether Felix was appointed to his episcopacy as a consequence of Mozarabic (Mozarabs) o…

Callistus III, Pope

(250 words)

Author(s): Herbers, Klaus
[German Version] (Apr 8, 1455 – Aug 6, 1458). Alfonso De Borja [Borgia] born Dec 31, 1378 at Canals, near Játiva, Valencia. Callistus studied and taught civil and canon law at Lérida (Llerda/Lleida). He entered the service of Alfonso V of Aragon and in 1429 persuaded Pope Clement VIII to abdicate. He was then made bishop of Valencia by Pope Martin V. In 1444 he was made cardinal priest of SS. Quattro Coronati in Rome; on Apr 8, 1455, he was elected pope. One of h…

Joan, Legendary Pope

(221 words)

Author(s): Herbers, Klaus
[German Version] Joan, Legendary Pope, was supposed to have been a female pope between Pope Leo IV (died 855) and Pope Benedict III (died 858). A corresponding tale was widespread from the middle of the 13th century. Apparently earlier evidence does not go back beyond 1200. The chronicle of Martin of Troppau tells of a maid from Mainz or England who studied in Athens, then went to Rome dressed as a man, and was elected pope as Johannes Anglicus. After a pontificate of two years, two months, and fo…


(405 words)

Author(s): Herbers, Klaus
[German Version] The city, already a major presence in antiquity, gradually became depopulated after 711, following the conquest of the Iberian Peninsula by the Muslims. There is evidence that it had been an episcopal see since 589 (third Council of Toledo). It is uncertain whether episcopal functions continued under Muslim rule. Despite an initial reconquest under Ramiro II of León (931–950), it was not permanently back in Christian hands until the capture of Toledo in 1085. In 1102 Alfonso VI of Castille-León granted privileges to the church of Salamanca. As the fuero (municipal cha…

Santiago de Compostela

(464 words)

Author(s): Herbers, Klaus
[German Version] The rise of the city of Santiago de Compostela is closely linked to the cult of the apostle James, to whom a preaching ministry on the Iberian Peninsula was attributed in the 7th or 8th century and whose supposed remains were “discovered” in the 9th century. Consolidation of the cult of the apostle encouraged the emergence and growth of the city and bishopric. A monastic community sprang up near the churches built over the gravesite; later a village was established, which could be called a villa burgensis as early as 915 and was supported by the Asturian kings. In …

Paschal I, Pope

(202 words)

Author(s): Herbers, Klaus
[German Version] (elected Jan 24, 817, consecrated Jan 25; died Feb 11, 824?). As Pope, the native of Rome and former abbot of St. Stephen’s (near St. Peter’s) sought good relations with the Frankish Western Empire ( amicitia and Ludovicianum [MGH.Cap 1, 325–355], 817; second coronation of Lothar I as emperor, 823 [Empire and papacy]). When two papal officials friendly to the Franks were executed for lèse majesté, he took an oath of purgation (cf. ConstitutioRomana of 824). He appointed Archbishop Ebo of Reims to be legate for the North Elbian territories and had seve…

Gregory III, Pope (Saint)

(264 words)

Author(s): Herbers, Klaus
[German Version] (Mar 18, 731 – Nov 28, 741), of Syrian origins, was, like his predecessor GregoryII, concerned with Rome's buildings and fortifications, but, above all, followed his position in the Iconoclastic Controversy (Veneration of images: VI, Iconoclasm) and condemned the prohibition of images at a major synod (Nov 1, 731). This papal reaction to the anti-image edict of Leo II of 730 led to further conflicts. The emperor responded with tax pressure ¶ on the southern Italian and Sicilian possessions and removed the bishoprics of southern Italy and the Balkans f…

Anastasius (III), Anti-pope

(133 words)

Author(s): Herbers, Klaus
[German Version] (Anastasius theLibrarian; before 817 – c. 879). Anastasius was antipope from August to September, 855. He became cardinal priest of S. Marcello (Rome) in 848; between 850 and 853 he was excommunicated and deposed by Leo IV and conciliar edicts. After c. 861 (with an interruption in 868), he was a close associate (and sometimes librarian) of po…
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