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Pico della Mirandola, Giovanni

(1,352 words)

Author(s): Hintzen, Beate
Italian Humanist, theologian and philosopher. Born Mirandola (Emilia-Romagna) 24. 2. 1463, died Florence 17. 11. 1494, buried there in Savonarola’s Dominican friary of San Marco. Educated by his mother after the death of his father (1467), prepared for a career in the Church. 1477 began studies of canon law at Bologna; 1479 switched to study humaniora at Ferrara, where he learned Greek. From 1480 studied philosophy at Padua. 1483 moved to Florence and entered the circle of the Neoplatonist Marsilio Ficino that Lorenzo de’ Medici supported. July 1485…

Argyropoulos, John

(435 words)

Author(s): Hintzen, Beate
Greek philosopher and philologist. Born 1393/94 or c. 1415 in Constantinople, died 26. 6. 1487 in Rome. 1438–1439 participant in the Council of Ferrara-Florence; 1441–1444 studied philosophy and took doctorate at Padua, also teaching Greek; 1448–1453 director of the Katholikón Museíon in Constantinople. After the fall of Constantinople, undertook various diplomatic missions, e.g. on behalf of the despótēs of Mistra, Thomas Palaeologus, to England. Taught Greek philosophy at the studio in Florence 1456–1471 and 1477–1481, in Rome 1471–1477 and 1481–1487. Work and influence An A…

Melanchthon, Philipp

(1,946 words)

Author(s): Hintzen, Beate
German Humanist, philologist and theologian. Born Philipp Schwarzerd(t) at Bretten 16. 2. 1497, died Wittenberg 19. 4. 1560; buried in the Schlosskirche there beside Martin Luther. After the deaths of his father and grandfather in 1508, M. was educated by Johannes Reuchlin’s sister Elisabeth, a relative on his mother’s side, at ¶ Pforzheim. Attended Lateinschule there; 14. 10. 1509 matriculation at Heidelberg Univ.; 10. 6. 1511 awarded the degree Baccalaureus artium in via antiqua (scholastics, realism) there. 17. 9. 1512 matriculation at Tübingen; 25. 1. 1514 awarde…

Susenbrot, Johannes

(399 words)

Author(s): Hintzen, Beate
Also Susenbrat or Sausenbrat; German grammarian and rhetor. Born Wangen (Allgäu) c. 1485, died Ravensburg 1542. 1506 baccalaureate at the Artistenfakultät in Vienna, 1522 master’s degree at Basel. Thereafter worked as a teacher, latterly from 1532 at the Lateinschule in Ravensburg. Work and influence Between his baccalaureate and his master’s degree, and after the latter, S. led a wandering life in the course of which he met Heinrich Loriti (Glareanus), Beatus Rhenanus and possibly Erasmus, and held teaching posts in various cities of the…

Laskaris, Janus (Andreas Johannes)

(467 words)

Author(s): Hintzen, Beate
Giano (Andrea Giovanni) Lascari(s), Greek philologist. Born Constantinople 1445, died Rome 7. 12. 1534. Brother of Constantine Laskaris. After the Ottoman siege of Constantinople (1453), fled to the Peloponnese and Crete. Went to Italy 1463 with the help of Basilios Bessarion. Studied at Padua. At Florence c. 1475 until 1496; studied Latin at Studio Fiorentino and Greek at a regular school. 1491/92, travelled to Greece to acquire manuscripts on behalf of Lorenzo de’ Medici; 1494–1496 editorial work. 1496–1513 political (education policy) and diplom…

Micyllus, Jacobus

(427 words)

Author(s): Hintzen, Beate
Moltzer, Jakob; German philologist and pedagogue. Born Strasbourg 6. 4. 1503; died Heidelberg 28. 1. 1558. 1518–1522 studied classical languages at Erfurt, joining the Humanist circle of Eobanus Hessus. Friendship with Joachim Camerarius the Elder. 1522/23 moved to Wittenberg with Camerarius. Joined the circle of students attached to Philipp Melanchthon, who remained a lifelong friend [7]. Teacher at ¶ Frankfurt Lateinschule from 1524, 1526–1533 rector there. 1533–1537 prof. of Greek at Univ. of Heidelberg; 1537–1547 second term as rector at Frankfurt; f…

Bembo, Pietro

(864 words)

Author(s): Hintzen, Beate
Italian Humanist and cardinal. Born 20. 5. 1470 in Venice, died 18. 1. 1547 in Rome, buried there on 19. 1. 1547 in Santa Maria sopra Minerva. July 1478 to May 1480 lived at Florence with father Bernardo; went to Rome 1478–1488 on an embassy of his father’s; 1490–1492 in Venice. 1492–1494 learned Greek at Messina with Constantine Laskaris; 1494/95 studied philosophy at Padua, from 1497 at Ferrara. Lived at Ferrara and Venice, then Urbino from 1506. 1511 moved to Rome. 1513 named Secretary of Lat…

Acidalius, Valens

(476 words)

Author(s): Hintzen, Beate
Havekenthal, Valentin; German Neo-Latin poet and translator. Born 1567 in Wittstock/Ostpriegnitz, died 25. 5. 1595 in Neisse. Son of a Protestant pastor. Studied philosophy from c. 1584 in Rostock, from 1587 in Greifswald, where he probably also studied medicine; 1590–1593 study trip to Italy (Padua, Bologna, Naples and Rome); 1594–1595 occasional poet in Breslau. Work and influence A.’s renown rests principally on a polemic Disputatio [4] attributed to him, which attempts to argue that women are not human beings. This triggered a debate initially in Protest…

Chrysolaras, Manuel

(835 words)

Author(s): Hintzen, Beate
Also Chrysoloras. Greek philologist and diplomat. Born c. 1350 in Constantinople, died Konstanz 1415, buried at the Dominican monastery there. Journeyed to Venice in 1390/91, then to Florence and Lombardy 1396–1403. 1397–1399 taught at Florence Studio. 1391–1396 and 1403–1407 active at Constantinople. 1407–1410 embassies to Venice, Genoa, Paris, London, Salisbury and Spain. 1410–1413 stay at the Curia of John XXIII. 1413/14 more travelling, e.g. to Florence and Thasos or Thessaloniki; 1415 took part in Council of Konstanz. Background, teaching and collecting activities C. pro…

Aurispa, Giovanni

(424 words)

Author(s): Hintzen, Beate
Italian Humanist and diplomat. Born 1376 at Nei (Noto), Sicily, died 1459 in Ferrara. Initial education at Naples; journeyed to the east in the service of merchants; 1404–1410 studied law at Bologna. Travelled widely, especially to Italian cities and to the east, e.g. 1419/20 in the retinue of Pope Martin V to Florence and Rome, 1421 on behalf of Gian Francesco Gonzaga to the Byzantine Emperor Manuel Palaeologus in Constantinople, where he was secretary to John Palaeologus 1422–1423. 1425 prof. of Greek at the Studio in Florence; 1427/28 tutor to the son of Marchese Niccolò III…

Bessarion, Basilios

(603 words)

Author(s): Hintzen, Beate
Byzantine Humanist and cardinal. Born 2. 1. 1403 in Trebizond (Trabzon on the Black Sea), died 18. 11. 1472 in Ravenna. His baptismal name was probably Basilios rather than John, as sometimes asserted. He adopted the name B. as a monk. Schooling at Constantinople with George Chrysokokkes with Francesco Filelfo. Monk from 1423. Anointed as a Deacon 1425, priesthood 1430. Studied at Mystra from ca. 1431 with George Gemistos Plethon. Named Metropolitan of Nicaea 1437; 1438/39 in the retinue of Empe…

Budé, Guillaume

(830 words)

Author(s): Hintzen, Beate
Budaeus, Guilielmus; French jurist and theologian. Born Paris 26. 1. 1468, died there between 20. and 25. 8. 1540. 1483–1486 studied jurisprudence at Orléans; resumed studies 1491. Learnt Greek from George Hermonymus and Janus Laskaris in Paris. Studied mathematics, natural sciences, philosophy, history, theology, law and medicine. Led embassies to Italy, including to Pope Leo X (1515). Took up several administrative positions in royal service. 1522 named Maître des Requêtes and director of the Royal Library at Fontainebleau under François I. Background, work and influence B. wa…

Argyropoulos, Johannes

(429 words)

Author(s): Hintzen, Beate
Griech. Philosoph und Philologe. Geb. 1393/94 oder um 1415 in Konstantinopel, gest. am 26. 6. 1487 in Rom. 1438–1439 Teilnahme am Konzil von Ferrara-Florenz; 1441–1444 Studium der Philosophie und Prom. in Padua, gleichzeitig Lehre der griech. Sprache; 1448–1453 Leitung des Katholikón Museíon in Konstantinopel. Nach dem Fall von Konstantinopel verschiedene diplomatische Missionen, u. a. im Auftrag des despótēs von Mistra, Thomas Palaiologos, nach England; Lehre der griech. Philosophie am Studio in Florenz 1456–1471 und 1477–1481, in Rom 1471–1477 und 1481–1487. Werk und W…

Chrysolaras, Manuel

(771 words)

Author(s): Hintzen, Beate
Auch Chrysoloras; griech. Philologe und Diplomat. Geb. um 1350 in Konstantinopel, gest. 1415 in Konstanz, bestattet im Dominikanerkloster ebda. 1390/91 Reise nach Venedig, 1396–1403 nach Florenz und in die Lombardai. 1397–1399 Lehrtätigkeit am Studio in Florenz. 1391–1396 und 1403–1407 Tätigkeiten in Konstantinopel; 1407–1410 Gesandtschaftsreisen nach Venedig, Genua, Paris, London, Salisbury und Spanien; 1410–1413 Aufenthalt an der Kurie Johannes’ XXIII. 1413/14 weitere Reisen u. a. nach Florenz und Thasos oder Thessalonike; 1415 Teilnahme am Konzil von Konstanz. Werde…

Laskaris, Janos (Andreas Johannes)

(442 words)

Author(s): Hintzen, Beate
Giano (Andrea Giovanni) Lascari(s), griech. Philologe. Geb. 1445 in Konstantinopel, gest. am 7. 12. 1534 in Rom. Bruder von Konstantinos Laskaris. Nach der osman. Belagerung Konstantinopels (1453) Flucht auf die Peloponnes und nach Kreta; 1463 Übersiedlung nach Italien mithilfe Basilius Bessarions. Studium in Padua; um 1475 bis 1496 Aufenthalt in Florenz; Lateinstudium am Studio Fiorentino und Griechischunterricht an einer öffentlichen Schule. 1491/92 Reisen nach Griechenland zum Erwerb von Hss.…

Micyllus, Jacobus

(391 words)

Author(s): Hintzen, Beate
Moltzer, Jakob; dt. Philologe und Pädagoge. Geb. am 6. 4. 1503 in Straßburg; gest. am 28. 1. 1558 in Heidelberg. 1518–1522 Studium der klass. Sprachen in Erfurt mit Anschluss an den Humanistenkreis des Eobanus Hessus; Freundschaft mit Joachim Camerarius d. Ä. 1522/23 Wechsel nach Wittenberg zusammen mit Camerarius; Aufnahme in den Schülerkreis Philipp Melanchthons, mit dem er zeitlebens befreundet blieb [7]. Ab 1524 Lehrer an der Lateinschule in Frankfurt, 1526–1533 Rektor ebda.; 1533–1537 Prof.…

Susenbrot, Johannes

(386 words)

Author(s): Hintzen, Beate
Auch Susenbrat oder Sausenbrat; dt. Grammatiker und Rhetor. Geb. um 1485 in Wangen (Allgäu), gest. 1542 in Ravensburg. 1506 Erwerb des Baccalaureats an der Artistenfakultät in Wien, 1522 des Magistergrads in Basel. Danach Tätigkeit als Lehrer; zuletzt ab 1532 an der Lateinschule in Ravensburg. Werk und Wirkung In der Zeit zwischen dem Baccalaureat und dem Magisterexamen sowie nach dem Magistrat führte S. ein unstetes Wanderleben, machte dabei die Bekanntschaft von Heinrich Loriti (Glareanus) und Beatus Rhenanus, möglicherweise auch des Erasm…

Acidalius, Valens

(427 words)

Author(s): Hintzen, Beate
Havekenthal, Valentin; dt. neulat. Dichter und Übersetzer. Geb. 1567 in Wittstock/Ostpriegnitz, gest. am 25. 5. 1595 in Neisse. Sohn eines evang. Pastors. Studium der Philologie ab etwa 1584 in Rostock, ab 1587 in Greifswald, dort wohl auch Studium der Medizin; 1590–1593 Studienreise nach Italien (Padua, Bologna, Neapel und Rom); 1594–1595 Gelegenheitsdichter in Breslau. Werk und Wirkung A.’ Bekanntheit gründet sich v. a. auf eine ihm zugeschriebene polemische Disputatio [4], in der nachzuweisen versucht wird, dass Frauen keine Menschen seien. Sie initiierte…

Bessarion, Basilius

(582 words)

Author(s): Hintzen, Beate
Byz. Humanist und Kardinal. Geb. am 2. 1. 1403 in Trapezunt (Trabzon am Schwarzen Meer), gest. am 18. 11. 1472 in Ravenna. Sein Taufname war wahrscheinlich Basileios und nicht Johannes, wie öfter vertreten; den Namen B. nahm er als Mönch an. Unterricht in Konstantinopel bei Georgios Chrysokokkes zusammen mit Francesco Filelfo; seit 1423 Mönch; Weihung zum Diakon 1425, zum Priester 1430. Ab ca. 1431 in Mistra Studium bei Georgios Gemistos Plethon. 1437 Ernennung zum Metropoliten von Nikaia; 1438/…

Aurispa, Giovanni

(392 words)

Author(s): Hintzen, Beate
Ital. Humanist und Diplomat. Geb. 1376 im sizilischen Neti (Noto), gest. 1459 in Ferrara. Erste Ausbildung in Neapel; Orientreisen im Dienst von Kaufleuten; 1404–1410 Jura-Studium in Bologna. Zahlreiche Reisen v. a. in ital. Städte und in den Orient, u. a. 1419/20 im Gefolge Papst Martins V. nach Florenz und Rom, 1421 im Auftrag Gian Francesco Gonzagas zum byz. Kaiser Manuel Palaiologos nach Konstantinopel; 1422–1423 dort Sekretär von Johannes Palaiologos. 1425 Griechisch-Prof. am Studio in Flor…
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