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Abu ’l-Ḳāsim

(234 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, the name of a canting parasite, whom Muḥammed b. Aḥmed Abu ’l-Muṭahhar al-Azdī depicts in his Ḥīkāyat Abi ’l-Ḳāsim al-Bag̲h̲dādī as a Bag̲h̲dād type. The book was probably written in the first half of the fifth century and purports to relate faithfully a day in the life of its hero. Abu ’l-Ḳāsim by means of his pious eloquence gets a hearing in a society of people at a banquet, rails at the guests and the host and shows his linguistic skill in a detailed comparison of the advantages of Bag̲h…

ʿAbbāsa

(588 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, daughter of the caliph al-Mahdī, sister of the caliphs Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd and al-Hādī; it is to her that the locality Suwayḳat al-ʿAbbāsa owes its name. She had three husbands in succession, who all predeceased her; this inspired Abū Nuwās to write some satirical verses, in which he recommanded the caliph, should he want to have a traitor killed, to marry him to ʿAbbāsa. Her name is connected with the fall of the Barmakids through the amorous intrigue with Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Yaḥyā al-Barmakī, with whi…

Abū Dulāma

(394 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
Zand b. al-Ḏj̲awn , a black slave, client of the Banū Asad in Kūfa. He is already mentioned in the history of the last Umapyad caliph, but appears as a “poet” only under the ʿAbbāsids and plays the part of a court jester in the palace of al-Saffāḥ and especially in those of al-Manṣūr and al-Mahdī. His poem on the death of Abū Muslim (137/754-5) is said to have been the first of his works to make him a name. Examples of his poetry show him to have been a clever, witty versifica…

Abu ’l-Ḳāsim

(238 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, the name of a canting parasite, whom Muḥammed b. Aḥmed Abu ’l-Muṭahhar al-Azdī depicts in his Ḥīkāyat Abi’l-Ḳāsim al-Bag̲h̲dādĪ as a Bagdad type. The book was probably written in the first half of the fifteenth century and purports to relate faithfully a day in the life of its her̄o. Abu ’l-Ḳāsim by means of his pious language gets a hearing in a society of people at a banquet, rails at the guests and the host and gives vent to his eloquence in a detailed comparison of the advantages of Bagdad and Iṣpahan. The n…

Awrangābād Saiyid

(72 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, a small town in the Bulands̲h̲ahr district of the United Provinces, founded in 1704 by Saiyid ʿAbd-al-ʿAzīz, a descendant of Saiyid Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn Ḥusain of Buk̲h̲ārā, and still belonging to his descendants. It is called Awrangābād Saiyid (of the Saiyid) to distinguish it from another Awrangābād (A. Chandokh). Number of inhabitants (in 1901) 5916. (J. Horovitz) Bibliography District Gazetteer of the United Provinces, V. Bulands̲h̲ahr (Allāhābād, 1903), p. 191. ¶

Asīrgarh

(182 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, name of an ancient fortress situated in the district of Nīmar in the Central Provinces of British India; it stands on a projection of the Sātpurā Range. In 1600 it was wrested by Akbar from the last king of the Muḥammadan dynasty of Ḵh̲āndēs̲h̲; this event is also mentioned in an inscription which is set down to that period. Of the buildings, some of which were erected by Akbar’s successors, a mosque of the year 992 (1584) and still in a state of preservation is noteworthy from the fact that i…

Abū Maʿs̲h̲ar

(206 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
Nad̲j̲īḥ b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, a slave, probably of Indian origin, who subsequently purchased his freedom and lived in Medina. He is especially famous as the author of a Kitāb al-mag̲h̲āzī, numerous fragments of which have been preserved by Wāḳidī and Ibn Saʿd. Amongst his authorities he mentions Nāfīʿ, the Mawlā of Ibn ʿOmar, Muḥammed b. Kaʿb al-Ḳuraẓī and other scholars of Medina. In the year 160 (776-777) he left Medina and remained till his death (170 = 786-787; Ramaḍān?) in Bagdad, where he enjoyed the favor of several members of the court o…

Umm al-Kitāb

(162 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, the original copy of the Book with Allāh in heaven, from which the revelations of the Ḳurʾān come and from which Allāh “abrogates and confirms what He pleases” (Sūra xiii. 39). This original copy, called Aṣl al-Kitāb in Ḥadīt̲h̲. (e. g. Ṭabarī, Tafsīr, xxv. 26), is according to Sūra lxxxv. 21 written in a “carefully preserved table” ( fī lawḥ maḥfūẓ; cf. Enoch 93, 2; Book of Jubilees 5, 13; 16, 9; 32, 21). In the Medīna period Umm al-Kitāb is used in another sense: according to Sūra iii. 5, the book revealed by Allāh to Muḥammad, i. e. the Ḳurʾān, consists of verses “clearly expressed” ( āyāt muḥkam…

Barlaam and Josaphat

(379 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, the story of the conversion of the Indian prince Josaphat by the ascetic Barlaam, which has been recognised by Felix Liebrccht as a Christian version of an episode in the life of the Buddha. The book, which owes its popularity and influence in the first place to the tales in it, is preserved in Greek, Arabic (several versions), Hebrew, Ethiopie, Armenian and Georgian as well as in many European editions. The Greek romance of Barlaam was probably composed in Palestine at the monastery of Saint Sabas in the first half of the viith century. On this Greek original is based a Christian Ara…

Tawrāt

(1,996 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, Hebr. Tōrā, is in the Ḳurʾān of the Medīna period (cf. also an alleged verse of the Jewish poet Sammāk in Ibn His̲h̲ām, p. 659) the name of a holy scripture revealed after the time of Ibrāhīm (iii. 58) and Isrāʾīl (= Jacob; iii. 87) and afterwards confirmed by ʿĪsā (iii. 44; v. 50; lxi. 6) which contains the ḥukm Allāh (v. 48). While obedience to it brings a reward in Paradise to the “people of the book” (v. 70), those who do not take upon themselves the tawrāt imposed upon them are “like asses who carry books” (lxii. 5). The Tawrāt also contains a prophecy of the coming of the Nabī al-ummī (vii. 156) i.…

Kumait

(917 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
b. Zaid, an Arab poet of the tribe of Asad, born in Kūfa about 60 and died in 126. Of his compositions, the most famous next to the Mud̲h̲ahhaba (see below) are the Hās̲h̲mīyāt so called because they sing the praises of the Banā Hās̲h̲im, the family of the Prophet. But not the whole of the Banū Hās̲h̲im are considered worthy of the honour and praise of the poet; besides Muḥammad we find only ʿAlī and his descendants. Verses i. 79 and ii. 105 sq. in which ʿAbbās and his sons are commemorated were perhaps only added in the ʿAbbāsid period. The Hās̲h̲imīyāt consist of four long and two short ḳaṣīda…

Zabūr

(843 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
(a.), probably a loanword from the South, but already used by pre-Islāmic poets in the sense of “writ”; in this sense it is still found in al-Farazdaḳ, Naḳāʾiḍ, lxxv. 1. From the second Makkan period onwards, Muḥammad uses the plural zubur in order to denote the revealed books (Sūra xxvi. 196; iii. 181; xvi. 46; xxxv. 23) as well as the heavenly writings, in which human deeds are recorded (Sūra liv. 43, 52). The singular zabūr, on the other hand, occurs in the Ḳurʾān exclusively in connection with Dāwūd. In the early Sūra xvii. 57 Muḥ…

Ḏj̲urayd̲j̲

(201 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, a saint whose story is said to have been related by the Prophet himself and has therefore found a place in the ḥadīt̲h̲ . The various versions differ in details one from another, but one motif is common to them all, that the saint is accused by a woman, who had had a child by another man, of being its father; but the child itself, on being asked by the saint, declares the real father’s name and thus clears the saint from suspicion. “D̲j̲urayd̲j̲” is the Arabic reproduction of Gregorius, and one version rightly states that he lived in the prophetless period ( fatra [ q.v.]) between Jesus and Muḥamm…

Abū Dulāma

(319 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
Zand b. al-Ḏj̲awn, a black slave, client of the Banū Asad in Kūfa. He is already mentioned in the history of the last Umaiyad caliph, but appears as a ,,poet" only under the ʿAbbāsides and plays the part of a court jester in the palace of al-Saffāḥ and especially in those of al-Manṣūr and al-Mahdī. His poem on the death of Abū Muslim (137 == 754-755) is said to have been the first of his works which made his name. Examples of his poetry show him to us as a clever, witty versificator, who readily seizes upon low expressions …

Amīr K̲h̲ān

(188 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, was the first Nawāb of Tonk, of Afg̲h̲ān origin, and was born in Rohilkand in 1182 (1768—1769). In his twentieth year he began an adventurous life as leader of a band of brigands, entered the service of the rulers of Malwa, Bhopal, Indore and Ḏj̲apur and caused great mischief in Central India by his ravages and plundering. Finally driven into a corner by the English, he concluded a treaty with them in 1817, binding himself to disband his troops, in return for which he was confirmed in possessi…

Daibul

(309 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
(Dēwal), a commercial town and seaport in Sind, mentioned even in Sāsānian history; the Arabs on the occasion of the first Arab expedition (154) to India won a victory at Daibul and it was finally conquered by Muḥammad b. al-Ḳāsim in 934. The Arab geographers, some of whom had personal acquaintance with Daibul, describe its situation (not far from the month of the Mihrān) and emphasise its importance as a commercial harbour; in Muḳaddasī’s time the merchants spoke Sindī and Arabic. Yāḳūt gives t…

Attock

(89 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
(Atak), capital of the district of the same name, founded in 1894, in the Rawalpindi division of the Punjab (Pund̲j̲āb). The district, which has an area of 4022 square miles, had 464,430 inhabitants in 1901 of whom over 90% were Muḥammadans. The fort of Attock which stands on the Indus was built by Akbar in 991 (1583) who called it Atak-Banāras. (J. Horovitz) Bibliography Imperial Gazetteer - VI, 131—138 (new edition) Cunningham in the Archaeological Survey of India II, 93 Elliot, History of India, Index s. v. Atak-Bcnares.

ʿAbd Allāh

(581 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
b. Salām, a Jew from Medina, originally called al-Ḥuṣain and belonged to the Banū Ḳainuḳāʿ. Muḥammed gave him the name of ʿAbd Allāh when he embraced Islām. This conversion is said to have taken place immediately after Muḥammed’s arrival at Medina, but according to others, when Muḥammed was still in Mecca. Another account which makes him accept Islām in the year 8 (629-630) is worthy of more credence — though Mohammedan critics think it badly accredited, — for his name is sought in vain in the battles which Muḥammed had to wage in Medina. The few unimportant mentions in the Mag̲h̲āzī may well …

Awrangābād

(164 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, chief town of the division of the same name in Haidarabad (Deccan) situated between 19° 53′ n. and 75° 20′ L. and the second largest town in that state, having in 1901 36, 837 inhabitants. The town founded in 1610 by Malik Ambar, minister of the ruler of Aḥmadnagar, was originally called Fathnagar and did not receive its present name till 1653 when Awrangzēb was Governor of the Deccan. When Āsaf Ḏj̲āh declared himself independent as first Niẓām, Awrangābād was added to his territory. The town …

Tawaddud

(627 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, the heroine of a story which is preserved in the 1001 Nights as well as in an independent form. Tawaddud (as a personal name not found elsewhere in Arabic literature — however frequent it is as a nomen verbi — is of similar formation to Tamannī, Tad̲j̲annī and similar women’s names) is the slave of a merchant who has fallen into poverty and, following her advice, offers her for sale to the caliph Hārūn to free him from his difficulties. Hārūn declares himself ready to pay the high price demanded on condition she shows by an examination tha…
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