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ʿAbbāsa

(588 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, daughter of the caliph al-Mahdī, sister of the caliphs Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd and al-Hādī; it is to her that the locality Suwayḳat al-ʿAbbāsa owes its name. She had three husbands in succession, who all predeceased her; this inspired Abū Nuwās to write some satirical verses, in which he recommanded the caliph, should he want to have a traitor killed, to marry him to ʿAbbāsa. Her name is connected with the fall of the Barmakids through the amorous intrigue with Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Yaḥyā al-Barmakī, with whi…

Abu ’l-Ḳāsim

(234 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, the name of a canting parasite, whom Muḥammed b. Aḥmed Abu ’l-Muṭahhar al-Azdī depicts in his Ḥīkāyat Abi ’l-Ḳāsim al-Bag̲h̲dādī as a Bag̲h̲dād type. The book was probably written in the first half of the fifth century and purports to relate faithfully a day in the life of its hero. Abu ’l-Ḳāsim by means of his pious eloquence gets a hearing in a society of people at a banquet, rails at the guests and the host and shows his linguistic skill in a detailed comparison of the advantages of Bag̲h…

Abū Ḍamḍam

(181 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, the hero of a collection of anecdotes, cited already in the 10th century. All kinds of foolish remarks are attributed to him, and more particularly comical decisions on questions of law, similar to those later attributed to Ḳarākūs̲h̲. This Abū Ḍamḍam is probably identical with the devotee who, before or during the lifetime of Muḥammad, offered up his good name in place of the poortax to the servants of God; for this express sacrifice of the respect of his fellowmen may easily be interpreted a…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Salām

(566 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, a Jew of Medīna, belonging to the Banū Ḳaynuḳāʿ and originally called al-Ḥusayn (on the name Salām, see Ibn Ḵh̲aṭīb al-Dahs̲h̲a, Tuḥfa , ed. Mann, 69). Muḥammad gave him the name of ʿAbd Allāh when he embraced Islam. This conversion is said to have taken place immediately after Muḥammad’s arrival at Medīna, or, according to others, when Muḥammad was still in Mecca. Another account which makes him accept Islam in the year 8/629-30 is worthy of more credence—though Muslim critics think it badly a…

Abū Dulāma

(395 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
Zand b. al-Ḏj̲awn, esclave noir, client des Banū Asad à Kūfa. Il est déjà mentionné dans l’histoire du dernier calife umayyade, mais il apparaīt comme poète sous les ʿAbbāsides seulement, et joue le rôle d’un bouffon à la cour d’al-Saffāḥ et surtout à celles d’al-Manṣūr et d’al-Mahdī. On dit que son poème sur la mort d’Abū Muslim (137/754-5) fut la première de ses œuvres à lui faire un nom. Des échantillons de sa poésie le font apparaître comme un versificateur intelligent et spirituel, qui utilis…

Abū Ḍamḍam

(169 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, héros d’un recueil d’anecdotes cité déjà au Xe siècle. On lui fait tenir différents propos insensés, notamment des décisions ridicules concernant des questions judiciaires, pareilles à celles que plus tard on a attribuées à Ḳarāḳūs̲h̲. Cet Abū Ḍamḍam est peut-être identique au ¶ dévot qui, avant ou au temps de Muḥammad, offrait aux serviteurs de Dieu sa bonne réputation au lieu de l’impôt pour les pauvres; car ce renoncement formel au respect des hommes pourrait facilement être interprété comme une permission, voire un engagement à dém…

Ḏj̲urayd̲j̲

(201 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, saint dont la légende aurait été racontée par le Prophète lui-même, de sorte qu’elle a trouvé place dans le ḥadīt̲h̲. Les différentes versions présentent des divergences dans les détails, mais dans toutes se retrouve le trait suivant: le saint fut accusé, par une femme qui avait eu un enfant d’un autre, d’être le père de cet enfant; mais l’enfant, sur une question posée par le saint, nomma lui-même son vrai père, libérant ainsi le saint de tout soupçon. Ḏj̲urayd̲j̲ est la reproduction arabe de Gregorius, et une version dit avec raison qu’il a vécu dans la ¶ période sans prophètes ( fatra [ q.v.]…

Abū Dulāma

(394 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
Zand b. al-Ḏj̲awn , a black slave, client of the Banū Asad in Kūfa. He is already mentioned in the history of the last Umapyad caliph, but appears as a “poet” only under the ʿAbbāsids and plays the part of a court jester in the palace of al-Saffāḥ and especially in those of al-Manṣūr and al-Mahdī. His poem on the death of Abū Muslim (137/754-5) is said to have been the first of his works to make him a name. Examples of his poetry show him to have been a clever, witty versifica…

Tawrāt

(1,996 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, Hebr. Tōrā, is in the Ḳurʾān of the Medīna period (cf. also an alleged verse of the Jewish poet Sammāk in Ibn His̲h̲ām, p. 659) the name of a holy scripture revealed after the time of Ibrāhīm (iii. 58) and Isrāʾīl (= Jacob; iii. 87) and afterwards confirmed by ʿĪsā (iii. 44; v. 50; lxi. 6) which contains the ḥukm Allāh (v. 48). While obedience to it brings a reward in Paradise to the “people of the book” (v. 70), those who do not take upon themselves the tawrāt imposed upon them are “like asses who carry books” (lxii. 5). The Tawrāt also contains a prophecy of the coming of the Nabī al-ummī (vii. 156) i.…

Kumait

(917 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
b. Zaid, an Arab poet of the tribe of Asad, born in Kūfa about 60 and died in 126. Of his compositions, the most famous next to the Mud̲h̲ahhaba (see below) are the Hās̲h̲mīyāt so called because they sing the praises of the Banā Hās̲h̲im, the family of the Prophet. But not the whole of the Banū Hās̲h̲im are considered worthy of the honour and praise of the poet; besides Muḥammad we find only ʿAlī and his descendants. Verses i. 79 and ii. 105 sq. in which ʿAbbās and his sons are commemorated were perhaps only added in the ʿAbbāsid period. The Hās̲h̲imīyāt consist of four long and two short ḳaṣīda…

Zabūr

(843 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
(a.), probably a loanword from the South, but already used by pre-Islāmic poets in the sense of “writ”; in this sense it is still found in al-Farazdaḳ, Naḳāʾiḍ, lxxv. 1. From the second Makkan period onwards, Muḥammad uses the plural zubur in order to denote the revealed books (Sūra xxvi. 196; iii. 181; xvi. 46; xxxv. 23) as well as the heavenly writings, in which human deeds are recorded (Sūra liv. 43, 52). The singular zabūr, on the other hand, occurs in the Ḳurʾān exclusively in connection with Dāwūd. In the early Sūra xvii. 57 Muḥ…

Ḏj̲urayd̲j̲

(201 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, a saint whose story is said to have been related by the Prophet himself and has therefore found a place in the ḥadīt̲h̲ . The various versions differ in details one from another, but one motif is common to them all, that the saint is accused by a woman, who had had a child by another man, of being its father; but the child itself, on being asked by the saint, declares the real father’s name and thus clears the saint from suspicion. “D̲j̲urayd̲j̲” is the Arabic reproduction of Gregorius, and one version rightly states that he lived in the prophetless period ( fatra [ q.v.]) between Jesus and Muḥamm…

Kawt̲h̲ar

(471 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, a word used in Sūra cviii. 1 after which this Sūra is called Sūrat al-Kawt̲h̲ar. Kawt̲h̲ar is a fawʿal form from kat̲h̲ara, of which other examples occur in Arabic (e. g. nawfal; further examples in Brockelmann, Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik, i. 344). The word, which also occurs in the old poetry (e.g. the examples in Ibn His̲h̲ām, ed. Wüstenfeld, p. 261, and Nöldeke-Schwally, Geschichte des Qorans, i. 92), means “abundance” and a whole series of Muslim authorities therefore explain al-Kawt̲h̲ar in Sūra cviii. I as al-k̲h̲air al-kat̲h̲īr (see Ibn His̲h̲ām, op. cit.; al-Ṭabar…

al-Zuhrī

(1,332 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, Muḥammad b. Muslim b. ʿUbaid Allāh b. ʿAbd Allāh b. S̲h̲ihāb, known as Abū S̲h̲ihāb, a celebrated traditionist, was born probably in 50 (670) or 51 — according to others, 56, 57, 58 — and received his nisba as a member of the Meccan clan of Zuhra. His grandfather had fought at Badr on the side of the Ḳurais̲h̲ against Muḥammad and inflicted a wound on the Prophet at Uḥud; his father had been a partisan of ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubair but the son made his peace with the Umaiyads. When still quite a youth, he had paid his respects to Marwān ¶ (d. 65 = 684) (Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Tahd̲h̲īb, ix. 445), and later went t…

al-Wāḳidī

(1,564 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿUmar, an Arab historian born in 130 in Medīna; according to Ag̲h̲ānī, vii. 189, his mother was a great-grand-daughter of Ṣāʾib who introduced music into Medīna. Al-Wāḳidī was so called after his grandfather al-Wāḳid, al-Aslamī as a mawlā of ʿAbd Allāh b. Buraida who belonged to the Medīnese family of Aslam. On the occasion of Hārūn’s pilgrimage in 170 (see Ṭabarī, iii. 605) he was recommended to him as the best authority on the holy places of his native town and acted as guide to th…

Nabī

(555 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
(a.), prophet, borrowed from Hebr. nābi or Aram. nebīʾā, is found in the Ḳurʾān from the second Meccan period in the singular and plural nabīyūn; in the Medīna period we find also the broken plural anbiyāʾ. Lists of the nabīyūn are given in Sūra vi. 83 sqq.; iii. 34; iv. 161 sqq.; further information about them is given in several passages of Sūra xix. and in xvii. 57. The list consists exclusively of names from the Old and New Testaments (if we leave out Idrīs in Sūra xix. 57, whose name Muḥammad had however also learned from a Christian source; see above ii., p. 442-450; Horovitz, Koran. Unters., p…

ʿAbbāsa

(610 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, daughter of the caliph al-Mahdī, sister of the caliphs Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd and al-Hādī; it is to her that the locality Suwaiḳat al-ʿAbbāsa owes its name. She had three husbands in succession, who all predeceased her; that inspired Abū Nuwās to write some satirical verses, in which he recommended the caliph, should he want to have a traitor killed, to marry him to ʿAbbāsa. Her name is connected with the fall of the Barmakides through the amorous intrigue with Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Yaḥya ’l-Barmakī, with wh…

Wahb b. Munabbih

(1,615 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh, a South Arabian story-teller ( ḳāṣṣ ak̲h̲bārī: Ḏh̲ahabī, in Z. D. M. G., xliv. 483) of Persian descent who was born in Ḏh̲imār, two days’ journey from Ṣanʿāʾ in 34 a. h. (no credence need be given to statements that he adopted Islām in 10 a. h.). Wahb is celebrated as an authority on the traditions of the Ahl al-Kitāb and like his brothers Hammām, G̲h̲ailān and Maʿḳil is classed among the tābiʿūn. The earliest sources know nothing of the story that before his conversion to Islām he belonged to the Ahl al-Kitāb (Fihrist, p. 22) or more precisely was a Jew (Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn, ed.…

Assam

(233 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, name of a district in British India, which since 1905 has formed with 15 districts of northern and eastern Bengal the new province of “Eastern Bengal and Assam”. The district of Assam covers 61, 682 Eng. sq. mls., and lies between 22° 19′ and 28° 16′ N. Lat. and 89° 42′ and 97° 12′ E. Long. The population in 1901 amounted to 6, 126, 343 persons, of whom 1, 581, 317 were Muḥammadans, and of these 2724 called themselves S̲h̲īʿites. Almost three-fourths of the Muḥammadan population belong to the …

Miʿrād̲j̲

(2,838 words)

Author(s): HOROVITZ, J.
(a.), originally ladder, later “ascent”, especially Muḥammad’s ascension to heaven. In the Ḳurʾān, Sūra lxxxi. 19—25 and liii. I—12, a vision is described in which a heavenly messenger appears to Muḥammad and Sūra liii. 12-18 deals with a second message of a similar kind. In both cases the Prophet sees a heavenly figure approach him from the distance but there is no suggestion that he himself was carried off. It is otherwise with the experience alluded to in Sūra xvii. 1: “Praise him, who travel…
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