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Amritsar

(158 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, capital of the division of the Pand̲j̲āb (Punjab), which bears the same name. Population: 162 429 in 1901, of whom 77 795 were Muḥammedans, and 17 860 Sikhs. It owes its foundation to Rām Dās, the fourth gurū of the Sikhs (1574), whose successor Arjun (Ard̲j̲un) completed the ‘golden temple’ (Darbār Ṣāḥib) of the Sikhs, which stands on an island in the ‘sacred tank’ (Amrita saras), whence the name of the town is probably derived. The successors of Arjun were obliged to leave the town; and the …

Ḏj̲uraid̲j̲

(198 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, a saint, whose story is said to have been related by the Prophet himself and has ¶ therefore found a place in the Ḥadīt̲h̲. The various versions differ in details from one another, but one motif is common to them all, viz. that the saint is accused by a woman, who had had a child by another man, of being the father, but the child itself on being asked by the saint, declares the real father’s name and thus cleares the saint from suspicion. “Ḏj̲uraid̲j̲” is the Arabic reproduction of Gregorius and one version rightly states that he lived in the period without a prophet ( fatra) between Jesus and Muḥa…

Aladdin

(62 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
(=ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn) is the hero of the tale of the magic lamp, which for the first time is found in Galland’s translation of the Arabian Nights’ Entertainments. The Arabian original was discovered again by Zotenberg and published in 1888. (J. Horovitz) Bibliography Notices et Extraits des manuscr. de la Biblioth. Nation, xxviii. Chauvin, Bibliographic des ouvrages arabes v. 55 et seq.

Abū Ḍamḍam

(195 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, the hero of a collection of anecdotes, which is quoted as early as in the tenth century. He is made to say all sorts of foolish maxims, and especially to give ridiculous decisions on legal questions, similarly to Ḳarāḳūs̲h̲ later. This Abū Ḍamḍam is perhaps identical with the pious man, who, in or before Muḥammed’s time, in lieu of paying the poor-rate offered his good name to the servants of God; for this express renunciation of the respect of mankind could easily be understood as a permissio…

Dabistān

(282 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, the title of a Persian work, which describes the various religions with special reference to religious conditions in India in the xith (xviith) century. It is based partly on the sacred books of the various creeds, and partly on oral statements of their adherents or the author’s own observations; the older Muḥammadan literature on the subject has also been used in many chapters. The religion of the Parsis is first discussed with special thoroughness; uext follows that of the Hindus and after very short chapters on t…

Abu ’l-Ḳāsim

(238 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, the name of a canting parasite, whom Muḥammed b. Aḥmed Abu ’l-Muṭahhar al-Azdī depicts in his Ḥīkāyat Abi’l-Ḳāsim al-Bag̲h̲dādĪ as a Bagdad type. The book was probably written in the first half of the fifteenth century and purports to relate faithfully a day in the life of its her̄o. Abu ’l-Ḳāsim by means of his pious language gets a hearing in a society of people at a banquet, rails at the guests and the host and gives vent to his eloquence in a detailed comparison of the advantages of Bagdad and Iṣpahan. The n…

Awrangābād Saiyid

(72 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, a small town in the Bulands̲h̲ahr district of the United Provinces, founded in 1704 by Saiyid ʿAbd-al-ʿAzīz, a descendant of Saiyid Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn Ḥusain of Buk̲h̲ārā, and still belonging to his descendants. It is called Awrangābād Saiyid (of the Saiyid) to distinguish it from another Awrangābād (A. Chandokh). Number of inhabitants (in 1901) 5916. (J. Horovitz) Bibliography District Gazetteer of the United Provinces, V. Bulands̲h̲ahr (Allāhābād, 1903), p. 191. ¶

Asīrgarh

(182 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, name of an ancient fortress situated in the district of Nīmar in the Central Provinces of British India; it stands on a projection of the Sātpurā Range. In 1600 it was wrested by Akbar from the last king of the Muḥammadan dynasty of Ḵh̲āndēs̲h̲; this event is also mentioned in an inscription which is set down to that period. Of the buildings, some of which were erected by Akbar’s successors, a mosque of the year 992 (1584) and still in a state of preservation is noteworthy from the fact that i…

Abū Maʿs̲h̲ar

(206 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
Nad̲j̲īḥ b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, a slave, probably of Indian origin, who subsequently purchased his freedom and lived in Medina. He is especially famous as the author of a Kitāb al-mag̲h̲āzī, numerous fragments of which have been preserved by Wāḳidī and Ibn Saʿd. Amongst his authorities he mentions Nāfīʿ, the Mawlā of Ibn ʿOmar, Muḥammed b. Kaʿb al-Ḳuraẓī and other scholars of Medina. In the year 160 (776-777) he left Medina and remained till his death (170 = 786-787; Ramaḍān?) in Bagdad, where he enjoyed the favor of several members of the court o…

Umm al-Kitāb

(162 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, the original copy of the Book with Allāh in heaven, from which the revelations of the Ḳurʾān come and from which Allāh “abrogates and confirms what He pleases” (Sūra xiii. 39). This original copy, called Aṣl al-Kitāb in Ḥadīt̲h̲. (e. g. Ṭabarī, Tafsīr, xxv. 26), is according to Sūra lxxxv. 21 written in a “carefully preserved table” ( fī lawḥ maḥfūẓ; cf. Enoch 93, 2; Book of Jubilees 5, 13; 16, 9; 32, 21). In the Medīna period Umm al-Kitāb is used in another sense: according to Sūra iii. 5, the book revealed by Allāh to Muḥammad, i. e. the Ḳurʾān, consists of verses “clearly expressed” ( āyāt muḥkam…

Barlaam and Josaphat

(379 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, the story of the conversion of the Indian prince Josaphat by the ascetic Barlaam, which has been recognised by Felix Liebrccht as a Christian version of an episode in the life of the Buddha. The book, which owes its popularity and influence in the first place to the tales in it, is preserved in Greek, Arabic (several versions), Hebrew, Ethiopie, Armenian and Georgian as well as in many European editions. The Greek romance of Barlaam was probably composed in Palestine at the monastery of Saint Sabas in the first half of the viith century. On this Greek original is based a Christian Ara…

Tawrāt

(1,996 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, Hebr. Tōrā, is in the Ḳurʾān of the Medīna period (cf. also an alleged verse of the Jewish poet Sammāk in Ibn His̲h̲ām, p. 659) the name of a holy scripture revealed after the time of Ibrāhīm (iii. 58) and Isrāʾīl (= Jacob; iii. 87) and afterwards confirmed by ʿĪsā (iii. 44; v. 50; lxi. 6) which contains the ḥukm Allāh (v. 48). While obedience to it brings a reward in Paradise to the “people of the book” (v. 70), those who do not take upon themselves the tawrāt imposed upon them are “like asses who carry books” (lxii. 5). The Tawrāt also contains a prophecy of the coming of the Nabī al-ummī (vii. 156) i.…

Kawt̲h̲ar

(471 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, a word used in Sūra cviii. 1 after which this Sūra is called Sūrat al-Kawt̲h̲ar. Kawt̲h̲ar is a fawʿal form from kat̲h̲ara, of which other examples occur in Arabic (e. g. nawfal; further examples in Brockelmann, Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik, i. 344). The word, which also occurs in the old poetry (e.g. the examples in Ibn His̲h̲ām, ed. Wüstenfeld, p. 261, and Nöldeke-Schwally, Geschichte des Qorans, i. 92), means “abundance” and a whole series of Muslim authorities therefore explain al-Kawt̲h̲ar in Sūra cviii. I as al-k̲h̲air al-kat̲h̲īr (see Ibn His̲h̲ām, op. cit.; al-Ṭabar…

al-Zuhrī

(1,332 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, Muḥammad b. Muslim b. ʿUbaid Allāh b. ʿAbd Allāh b. S̲h̲ihāb, known as Abū S̲h̲ihāb, a celebrated traditionist, was born probably in 50 (670) or 51 — according to others, 56, 57, 58 — and received his nisba as a member of the Meccan clan of Zuhra. His grandfather had fought at Badr on the side of the Ḳurais̲h̲ against Muḥammad and inflicted a wound on the Prophet at Uḥud; his father had been a partisan of ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubair but the son m…

al-Wāḳidī

(1,564 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿUmar, an Arab historian born in 130 in Medīna; according to Ag̲h̲ānī, vii. 189, his mother was a great-grand-daughter of Ṣāʾi…

Abū Ḍamḍam

(181 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, the hero of a collection of anecdotes, cited already in the 10th century. All kinds of foolish remarks are attributed to him, and more particularly comical decisions on questions of law, similar to those later attributed to Ḳarākūs̲h̲. This Abū Ḍamḍam is probably identical with the devotee who, before or during the lifetime of Muḥammad, offered up his good name in place of the poo…

Abū Dulāma

(395 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
Zand b. al-Ḏj̲awn, esclave noir, client des Banū Asad à Kūfa. Il est déjà mentionné dans l’histoire du dernier calife umayyade, mais il apparaīt comme poète sous les ʿAbbāsides seulement, et joue le rôle d’un bouffon à la cour d’al-Saffāḥ et surtout à celles d’al-Manṣūr et d’al-Mahdī. On dit que son poème sur la mort d’Abū Muslim (137/754-5) fut la première de ses œuvres à lui faire un nom. Des échantillons de sa poésie le font apparaître comme un versificateur intelligent et spirituel, qui utilis…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Salām

(644 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, Juif de Médine, qui s’appela d’abord al-Ḥuṣayn, et qui appartenait aux Banū Ḳaynuḳāʿ. Lorsqu’il embrassa l’Islam, Muḥammad lui donna le nom de ʿAbd Allāh. D’après les uns, il aurait embrassé l’Islam peu de temps après l’arrivée de Muḥammad à Médine; d’autres prétendent au contraire que sa conversion eut lieu lorsque Muhammad se trouvait encore à la Mekke. On doit plutôt ajout…

Abū l-Ḳāsim

(223 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, nom du parasite dévot que Muḥammad b. Aḥmad Abū l-Muṭahhar al-Azdī dépeint comme un type bag̲h̲dādien dans sa Ḥikāyat Abī l-Ḳāsim. Le livre fut probablement composé dans la première moitié du Ve/XIe …
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