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Kay Kāʾūs

(471 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, mythical second king of the line of Kayānids [ q.v.] whose name contains twice over the royal title kay (Kay Ūs> Kāʾūs). His history has been delineated by A. Christensen from the Iranian religious tradition and from the national tradition echoed by the later Muslim historians ( Les Kayanides , Copenhagen 1931, 73-90, 108-14). This Islamic historical tradition makes him the son of Kay Abīwēh > Abīh (except for Balʿamī, Firdawsī and al-T̲h̲aʿālibī, who make him the son of Kay Kubād [ q.v.]). He was a warrior-king who, according to Firdawsī, led a campaign into Māzandarān, whi…

Ḳizil-Üzen

(244 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(in Āzerī Turkish “Red River”), the ancient Amardus, a river which flows through Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲an and enters the Caspian Sea forty miles east of Sefīd-Rūd, “White River”, at its junction with the river S̲h̲āh-Rūd at Mend̲j̲il. Its source lies in the province of Ārdilān, and it begins by crossing ʿIrāḳ ʿAd̲j̲amī to the north; its right-bank tributary is the Zand̲j̲ān, on the left it receives the Ḳara-göl at Miyāne, then it runs along the southern slopes of Elburz, describing a great arc 125 miles…

Afsūn

(112 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p.), charm, incantation; for etymology and usage in old Persian, see Salemann, in Gr.I.Ph . i/1, 304, and especially H. W. Bailey, in BSOAS, 1933-5, 283 ff. This word is now used in Persia to designate especially a charm against the biting of poisonous animals; certain darwīs̲h̲es who pretend to have the power to charm serpents, scorpions etc., will, for some gratuity, communicate their invulnerability to other persons. Often it is one part of the body which is so protected, as for instance the right or the left hand, and it is with this that the animals of this kind must be seized (Polak, Persie…

Kas̲h̲kūl

(270 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Persian word denoting an oval bowl of metal, wood or coconut (calabash), worn suspended by a chain from the shoulder, in which the dervishes put the alms they receive and the food which is given them. The etymology of this word is obscure; a popular one is given by the Persians: kas̲h̲ “draw” (imperative) and kūl “shoulder”, “what one draws over the shoulder”; but as we find a form k̲h̲ačkūl attested in the older poets (Anwārī, Sayf Isfarangī), this explanation can hardly be accepted. The dictionaries give as the first sense “beggar” and t…

Köprü Ḥiṣāri̊

(120 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
“fortress of the bridge”, a village in the Ottoman province of K̲h̲udāwendigār [ q.v.] in northwestern Anatolia, and situated on the Čürük Ṣū river near Yeñis̲h̲ehir. It owes its historical fame to its being the site of a Byzantine fortress taken in 688/1289 by ʿOt̲h̲mān b. Ertog̲h̲rul, chief of the ʿOt̲h̲mānli̊ group of Türkmens based on Eskis̲h̲ehir, after the previous capture of Biled̲j̲ik and during the course of the extension of Ottoman influence within the province towards Bursa [ q.v.]; cf. H. A. Gibbons, The foundation of the Ottoman empire, Oxford 1916, 32-3. (Cl. Huart) Bibliogr…

Ṭabūr

(205 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(t.) (a word which has passed into French in the form tabor ), from Eastern Turkī tapḳūr and ṭapḳūr , denoting a pallisade formed of waggons arranged in a circle or square; a body of troops sent out for reconnaissance; a battalion; or a body of about 1,000 men commanded by a biñbas̲h̲i̊ (chief of a thousand). In Morocco, from the mid-19th century, it denoted the first permanent military units. Under the French Protectorate, the term was applied to a group made up of several goums ( gūm , an armed group of ca. 150 men commanded by officers of the Indigenous Affairs Department), hence par…

Farruk̲h̲ān

(224 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Gīlān-s̲h̲āh , ispahbad of Ṭabaristān, known as the Great ( buzurg ) and the Virtuous ( d̲h̲u ’l-manāḳib ), son of Dābūya, conquered Māzandarān and restored peace to the frontiers. When defeated by the Daylamīs in their revolt, he fled to Āmul and entrenched himself in the castle of Fīrūzābād; he saved himself by the ruse of making his besiegers believe that he had enormous stocks of bread. He gave asylum to the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲īs when they were being pursued by al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲, but fought aga…

ʿĀdila K̲h̲ātūn

(159 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, daughter of Aḥmad Pas̲h̲ā, wife of Sulaymān Pas̲h̲a Mizrāḳli̊ ("Abū Laylā"), Ottoman governor of Bag̲h̲dād. During the lifetime of her husband she took part in the government of the province, holding audiences where the petitions were presented to her through the intermediary of an eunuch. She had also a mosque and a caravanseray built, bearing her name. When on the death of Sulaymān (1175/1761) power was about to slip from her hands, she stirred up against his successor, ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a, first t…

Kay K̲h̲usraw

(455 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, the third mythical ruler of the Iranian dynasty of the Kayānids [ q.v.], corresponding to Kavi Haosrovah of the religious tradition (see A. Christensen, Les Kayanides , Copenhagen 1931, 90-2 and index). He is reckoned as the son of Siyāwus̲h̲/Siyāwak̲h̲s̲h̲ [ q.v.] and the grandson, through his mother, of Afrāsiyāb [ q.v.], and according to the national tradition (Christensen, 114-17) was born after his father’s death and was brought up amongst the mountain shepherds of Ḳalū near Bāmiyān, in ignorance of his illustrious origin. This, however, s…

Ismāʿīl I

(568 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, founder of the Ṣafawī dynasty of Persia, born of a Ṣūfī family, settled in Ardabīl [q. v., i. 425 sq.] in Ād̲h̲arbaid̲j̲ān since the time of the s̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ṣafī al-Dīn, who was said to be descended from the imām Mūsā al-Kāẓim. He was the son of the s̲h̲aik̲h̲, Ḥaidar [q. v.]; after the death ¶ of his maternal grandfather, Uzun Ḥasan (about 883 = 1478), in the confusion of the anarchy that followed, supported on the one hand by the followers of his father and on the other by the seven Turkish tribes which had taken his side (Ustād̲j̲lu, S̲h̲amlu, T…

Efendi

(179 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, an Ottoman-Turkish word borrowed from the Byzantine Greek ἀφέντηΣ (Du Cange), derived from the ancient Greek αὐθέντηΣ “sir, master”, a legal term (used by Phrynicus, Polybius and even Euripides with this meaning). This name is given to men who have had a liberal education; ordinary people and subordinate officers are called Ag̲h̲a (Aa by elision of the velar) they receive the title Efendi when they have completed their literary education. Efendim (abbreviated familiarly and jokingly to Efem), “Sir”, “madam”. The Ḳāḍī of Constantinople is also called Istambol Efendisi. The Raʾīs-Efe…

Ketk̲h̲udā

(331 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p. ked̲h̲ “house”, k̲h̲udā “master, lord”), originally meant the master of the house or head of a family; the name came to be given in Persia in the villages to the headman or bailiff and in the towns to the “dixenier de quartier” (Chardin, Voyages, 1811, iv. 77) or “district titheman”, a kind of police officer whose duty it was to inspect his district and who was responsible to the kalāntar [q. v.]. The administrative reforms recently introduced into Persia have aimed at making the ketk̲h̲udā the representative of public authority (mayor) in the ḳarya (village), the smallest territoria…

Köprü Ḥiṣār

(91 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, “fortress of the bridge”, a village in the province of Ḵh̲udāwandigiār in Asia Minor on the Čürük-ṣū near Yeñi-S̲h̲ehir. It was the site of a Byzantine castle taken by Sulṭān ʿOt̲h̲mān in 688(1289) after the capture of Biled̲j̲ik where he slew his uncle Dündār by shooting him with an arrow. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Sāmī Bey, Ḳāmūs al-Aʿlām, v. 3906 J. de Hammer, Hist. de Tempire ottoman, transl. Fr. de Hellert, i. 87—89 Cl. Huart, Konia, la ville des derviches tourneurs, Paris 1897, p. 18 (view of the bridge).

Čirāg̲h̲ān

(243 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Plur. from the Persian čirāg̲h̲, “torch, lamp or light”), “illumination of gardens and kiosks”; the name of a palace built by Dāmād Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a, Grand Vizier of Sulṭān Aḥmad III, on the European shore of the Bosporus, between the villages of Bes̲h̲ik-tās̲h̲ and Ortakiöi, into which Sulṭān Maḥmūd II moved from Ṭop-ḳapū and which was rebuilt by ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz. The name is derived from the festivities which used to be celebrated there nightly. The ‘feast of tulips’ was particularly famous; it was the most brilliant of all the illuminati…

Bak̲h̲s̲h̲īs̲h̲

(118 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p., verbal substantive from bak̲h̲s̲h̲īdan “to give”), means in Persia properly a present given by a superior to an inferior, while the present given to a superior by an inferior is called pis̲h̲kes̲h̲ (first fruits) and presents exchanged between equals are called taʿāruf (“mutual acquaintance”). Hence the word comes to denote gratuities given by strangers and travellers and is further wrongly applied to anything thrown into a bargain, court-fees as well as to a sum given to bribe a judge or official (properly ris̲h̲wat). These illicit gains are euphemistically called Madāk̲h̲il (i…

K̲h̲āḳānī

(404 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Afḍal al-Dīn Ibrāhīm Ḥaḳāʾiḳī, sumamed Ḵh̲āḳānī), a Persian poet, born at Gand̲j̲a (Elisavetpol) in 500 (1106—1107), the son of a carpenter, ʿAlī, and a Nestorian wife whom he had purchased from a slave-dealer. His grandfather was a weaver. His uncle Kāfī b. ʿUt̲h̲mān, who was his benefactor, was a physician and druggist. He was taken charge of by him when his father, sunk in poverty, abandoned him. Trained in the school of Abu ’l-ʿUlā, the latter accepted him as his son-in-law and obtained from the Ḵh̲āḳān Manūčihr permission to give him the tak̲h̲alluṣ of Ḵh̲āḳānī. Later they quarre…

Ālind̲j̲aḳ

(50 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
is a fortress in the district of Nak̲h̲čiwan (Ād̲h̲arbaid̲j̲ān). (Cl. Huart) Bibliography P. Hom, Die Denkwürdigkeiten des Sâh Ṭahmâsp I von Persien p. 142 ¶ Ṣadūḳ Iṣfahānī, Taḥḳīḳ al-iʿrāb (in Barbier de Meynard, Dictionn, de la Perse p. 52) Muḥammed Ḥasan-Ḵh̲ān Ṣanīʿ al-Dawla, Mirʾāt al-buldān-i Nāṣirī (Teheran 1294) i. 95.

Waṭwāṭ

(382 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn, a Persian poet, a native of Balk̲h̲, whose proper name was Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Ḏj̲alīl al-ʿUmarī (descendant of the Caliph ʿUmar); he was called Waṭwāṭ (the swallow or martin) from his diminutive stature and insignificant appearance. He flourished under the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sulṭān Sand̲j̲ar and the Ḵh̲wārizms̲h̲āh Atsiz (d. 551 = 1156—1157) and was secretary and court poet to Atsiz. While Sand̲j̲ar was besieging the latter in the fortress of Hazārasp in Ḵh̲wārizm (k̲h̲ānate of Ḵh̲īwa) in 542 (1147) he commissioned the poet Anwarl to write insulting verses …

Ibn al-Bawwāb

(162 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, “the porter’s son” a name of Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Hilāl, a celebrated Arab calligrapher, son of a porter of the audience hall of Bag̲h̲dād. He was also called Ibn al-Sitrī. He died in 413 = 1022 or 423 = 1032 and was buried beside the tomb of Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal. He had a wide knowledge of law, knew the Ḳurʾān by heart, and wrote ¶ out 64 copies of it. One of these written in Rīḥānī-script is in the Lāleli mosque in Constantinople, to which it was given by Sulṭān Selīm I. The Dīwān of the pre-Islāmic poet Salāma b. Ḏj̲andal, copied by him, is in the library of the Aya Ṣōfya. He invented the Rīḥāni and M…

Ibn al-Muḳaffaʿ

(412 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl
, Abū ʿAmr (afterwards Abū Muḥammad), the “son of the cripple”, an Arab author of Persian origin, whose real name was Rōzbih son of Dādōye; his father, a native of Ḏj̲ūr (Fīrūzābād, so correct Fihrist, i. 118) in Fārs, who was entrusted with the collection of taxes in ʿIrāḳ and Fārs under the governorship of al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ b. Yūsuf, was accused of extortion in the exercise of his duty; he was put to the torture and his hand remained maimed, whence his surname. His son, entering the service of ʿĪsā b. ʿAlī, paternal uncle of …
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