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(88 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, an Osmanli-Turkish word which denotes the two great Musulman festivals: Küčük-bairam “the little festival”, also called S̲h̲ekerbairam “feast of sweets” on account of the custom of making presents of sweetmeats then, is the festival on the breaking of the fast ( ʿīd al-fiṭr) which lasts three days. The böyük-bairam, “the great festival”, usually called ḳurbān-bairam, “feast of the sacrifice”, is the ʿīd al-aḍḥā which lasts four days. A rikiāb-i humāyūn, “official reception”, is held at the Imperial Palace on each of these two festivals. (Cl. Huart)


(148 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Persian stylist, son of Mathurādās Kanbū of Multān; was for many years muns̲h̲ī (secretary) to Nawwāb lʿtibār-Ḵh̲ān, a eunuch in the service of the Mog̲h̲ul - emperor Ḏj̲ahāngīr and was then appointed ṣubadār (governor of Akbarābād (Agra) (1031 = 1622). He is the author of a collection of letters ( ins̲h̲āʾ), divided into seven sections, which bears his name and contains model letters as well as official documents (ed. with English transl. by Francis Balfour, Calcutta 1781, 21804, reprinted 1831; lith. Lahore 1869). The work was used by the English authorities as a mod…

Ṣārī ʿAbd Allāh Efendi

(267 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Othman poet and man of letters, was the son of Saiyid Muḥammad, a prince of the Mag̲h̲rib who had fled to Constantinople in the reign of Sulṭān Aḥmad I, and had married the daughter of Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, brother of the Grand Vizier Ḵh̲alīl Pas̲h̲a. He was brought up by the latter, who had entrusted his education to S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Mahmūd of Scutari, accompanied him as tad̲h̲kirèd̲j̲i (“editor”) when during his second vizierate he was given the command of the troops in the Persian campaign, was appointed raʾīs al-kuttāb in 1037 (1627/28) in place of Muḥammad Efendi who had just died an…


(291 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p.), “land of roses, rose-garden, the name of a celebrated didactic work, a mixture of prose and verse, by the Persian poet Saʿdī of S̲h̲īrāz, consisting of a preface, eight chapters (the lives and doings of kings, manners and customs of the derwīs̲h̲es, frugality, advantages of silence,, love and youth, infirmity and old age, importance of education and rules of conduct) and an epilogue. A number of anecdotes interwoven give us information on the personal experiences of the poet. The Gulistān was completed in 656 (1258), one year after the Bostān; it bears a dedication to the Atābe…

Abū Kālīd̲j̲ār

(1,035 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
al-Marzbān b. Sulṭān al-Dawla, a Būyide, had been appointed by his father as governor of al-Ahwāz in 412 (1021). On the death of the latter (415 = 1024) he was called to S̲h̲īrāz to succeed him, but he was forestalled by his paternal uncle Abu ’l-Fawāris b. Bahāʾ al-Dawla, governor of Kirmān, with the help of the Turkish guard, which preferred him. Abū Kālīd̲j̲ār gathered some troops, who defeated his uncle’s army and he entered S̲h̲īrāz, but he could not hold his own there because of the hostility…


(117 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p. bō-stān, “place of perfumes”), properly a “garden of sweet-smelling flowers”, also means “orchard”. As a loanword it appears in Turkish with the meaning of “vegetable-garden”, in which melons, water-melons and vegetables are grown; in Arabic (plur. basātīn) its meaning varies in different districts; in Bairūt, for example, bostān means a piece of ground (Cuche) planted with mulberry trees and surrounded by a hedge, in Algeria it means also “cypress” (Beaussier). — Bostān is also the title of a Persian didactic poem by Saʿdī, English translation by Forbes Falconer ( Selections, Lo…


(270 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Abulustain) is the capital of a ḳaza in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Marʿas̲h̲ (wilāyet of Aleppo), on the river Ḏj̲aiḥān (Pyramus) at the foot of the Kurd Dāg̲h̲, at an elevation of 3600 ft. It numbers 6500 inhabitants, of whom 3546 are Moslems and 2954 Christians. The town is surrounded by woods and gardens, and a great many ruins of castles from the time of the little-Armenian kings are scattered about the environs. There are 10 mosques and 1085 houses. The people earn a livelihood mainly by agriculture…


(198 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Persian historian, properly Waṣṣāf al-Ḥaḍrat “panegyrist of the court”, the name by which S̲h̲araf al-Dīn ʿAbd Allāh b. Faḍl Allāh of S̲h̲īrāz is known. Employed as a taxcollector under the Mongols, he became the protégé of the minister and historian Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn, who presented him to Ūld̲j̲āitū (712 = 1312), when the Īlk̲h̲ān was in Sulṭānīya. His history Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Waṣṣāf is the continuation of the Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Ḏj̲ahān-gus̲h̲ā of ʿAṭā Malik Ḏj̲uwainī; it is called Tad̲j̲ziyat al-Amṣār wa-Tazd̲j̲iyat al-Aʿṣār “division of the towns and propulsion of the centuries” …


(587 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Hebr. S̲h̲ēt̲h̲), Seth, the third son of Adam and Eve ( Gen., iv. 25, 26 and v. 3—8) was born when his father was 130 years of age, five years after the murder of Abel. When Adam died, he made him his heir and executor of his will. He taught him the hours of the day and of the night, told him of the Flood to come and taught him to worship the divinity in retirement at each hour of the day. It is to him that we trace the genealogy of mankind, since Abel did not leave any heirs and Cain’s heirs were lost in the Flood. It is said that he lived at Mecca performing the rites of p…


(117 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(the ancient Cucusus), a village in Turkey in Asia, the capital of a nāḥiya of the ḳaẓā of Andrln in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Marʿas̲h̲ in the province of Aleppo. It lies in a low, swampy plain, surrounded by argilaceous hills and consists only of huts built of tree-trurks. On the heights there still stand the ruins of several Armenian castles; the land around is almost entirely desert St. Chrysostom spent some time here in ¶ 404 a. d. during his exile. During the first Crusade the Franks spent three days in Göksün (Cocson, Cosor), as they found ample supplies here. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Ch. Texier, Asi…

Aḥmed Pas̲h̲a

(204 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Ottoman general of Sultan Sulaimān’s time, took part in the wars against Hungary as Beilerbei of Rumelia. He took the town of Sabacz by storm (2 S̲h̲aʿbān 927 = 8 July 1521), ¶ commanded a division of the army which was charged with the siege of Rhodos, was afterwards appointed commander-in-chief, reduced the besieged to ultimate extremity and obliged them to capitulate (2 Ṣafar 929 = 21 Dec. 1522). Being of a violent and ambitious character he had hoped to be appointed Grand Vizier; but when he did not get this post he asked…


(64 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, “a large assemblage of stagnant water, lake or pond”, also the name of two nāḥiyas in Asiatic Turkey of which the first is in the Ḳaẓā of Köprü (sand̲j̲aḳ of Amāsiya, wilāyet of Sīwās) and contains 43 villages, and the second attached to the capital of the wilāyet of Ḳastamūnī and including 61 villages. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Sālnāme 1325, p. 820, 833.


(958 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Turkish name for the Abazes [see abk̲h̲āz], given as a surname to many persons in Ottoman history who descended from those people. 1. Ābāza Pas̲h̲a, taken prisoner at the defeat of the rebel Ḏj̲anbulād, whose treasurer he was, was brought before Murād-Pas̲h̲a and only had his life spared through the intercession of Ḵh̲alīl, agha of the Janizaries, who, having become ḳapūdān-pas̲h̲a, gave him the command of a galley, and conferred upon him the government of Marʿas̲h̲ when he was promoted to the dignity of grand vizier. Later he became governor of Erzerūm…


(38 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(from the Arabic firār “flight”) (T.) “deserter”. This word has been recently applied by the partisans of the government to Young ¶ Turks who have taken refuge abroad to escape the vigilance of the police. (Cl. Huart)


(258 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, an Arabic word meaning originally archer, then arquebusier, finally, like the French archer, came to mean military police. The form ḳawwāṣ (with ṣād) is found in the 1001 Nights (Dozy, Suppl.). The word is applied in the Levant specially to the military police, called in French cawas or sometimes janissaires (because before the abolition of the latter, they were chosen from their ranks), detached to act as guards to embassies and consulates. They go in front of the head of the embassy or consulate when he goes into the town, whether officiall…


(185 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p.), the bearded griffon, the largest of the birds of prey of the old world, which lives by preference in the neighbourhood of eternal snows; it is the Lämmergeier of the Alps. It carries off the bones of dead animals, smashes them on the rocks and eats the fragments; so that the poet Saʿdī is able to say that the humā is superior to other birds, because instead of feeding on living flesh it only requires bones ( Gulistān, i. story 15). According to a popular belief, which is very ancient, the shadow of a humā falling on a person’s head is a sign that he will be raised to a throne, whence the epithet humāyū…


(637 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, eldest son of the Ottoman Sulṭān Bāyazīd II, was appointed to the governorship of the province of Teke in Asia Minor; incurring the enmity of the grand vizier ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a, who preferred his brother Aḥmad Sulṭān to him, he decided to quit his father’s territory after the grand vizier had seized certain estates in his province; obtaining sanction to set out on the pilgrimage to Mecca, he embarked in Muḥarram 915 (April 1509) with 87 persons in his train on five ships commanded by Raʾīs Aḳbas̲h̲…


(149 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(türk. Dīmetoḳa), the ancient ΔιδυμοτεῖχοΣ, a town in Rūmilī, in the province and sand̲j̲aḳ of Adrianople, 26 miles south of the latter town, near the confluence of the Ḳizil-Deli-Cāi and the Maritza; it is the capital of a ḳaẓā and a station on the Dede-Ag̲h̲ač railway. The population is 8707, mainly Muḥammadans. It has an ancient fortress now in ruins, seven large mosques and a reservoir which has now been converted into a prison. It was taken in 763 (1362) by Murād I. who built a palace there.…


(352 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(lit. “heater”, Ar. ḥamma “to heat”, Hebr. ḥāmam “to be warm”), a hot steam-bath. These are isolated buildings communicating with the street or market place by more or less imposing door; they consist of a number of large rooms surrounded by little chambers and crowned by domes pierced with holes to admit the light, which filters through little glass bells like bottle-bottoms. The first room to be entered is the maslak̲h̲ (apodyterium, spoliatorium), where the clothes are taken off and put up into a bundle which is entrusted to the owner of the bath; in the centre is a basin with a jet of water ( fi…


(277 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn, son of S̲h̲āh Ruk̲h̲ and grandson of Tīmūr was appointed by his father in 820 (1417) to the office of chief judge at the court; in 823 (1420) on the death of Ḳara-Yūsuf, he took possession ot Tabrīz and was appointed governor of Astarābād in Ṣafar 835 (October 1431), but he never ascended the throne; the astrologers having predicted to him that he would not live more than forty years, he gave himself up to dissipation and died at Herāt on Saturday, 7th Ḏj̲umāda I 837 (19th December ¶ 1433) at the age of thirty six. He was buried in the Mausoleum of Princess Gawha…
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