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Kay Kāʾūs

(471 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, mythical second king of the line of Kayānids [ q.v.] whose name contains twice over the royal title kay (Kay Ūs> Kāʾūs). His history has been delineated by A. Christensen from the Iranian religious tradition and from the national tradition echoed by the later Muslim historians ( Les Kayanides , Copenhagen 1931, 73-90, 108-14). This Islamic historical tradition makes him the son of Kay Abīwēh > Abīh (except for Balʿamī, Firdawsī and al-T̲h̲aʿālibī, who make him the son of Kay Kubād [ q.v.]). He was a warrior-king who, according to Firdawsī, led a campaign into Māzandarān, whi…


(244 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(in Āzerī Turkish “Red River”), the ancient Amardus, a river which flows through Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲an and enters the Caspian Sea forty miles east of Sefīd-Rūd, “White River”, at its junction with the river S̲h̲āh-Rūd at Mend̲j̲il. Its source lies in the province of Ārdilān, and it begins by crossing ʿIrāḳ ʿAd̲j̲amī to the north; its right-bank tributary is the Zand̲j̲ān, on the left it receives the Ḳara-göl at Miyāne, then it runs along the southern slopes of Elburz, describing a great arc 125 miles…


(112 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p.), charm, incantation; for etymology and usage in old Persian, see Salemann, in Gr.I.Ph . i/1, 304, and especially H. W. Bailey, in BSOAS, 1933-5, 283 ff. This word is now used in Persia to designate especially a charm against the biting of poisonous animals; certain darwīs̲h̲es who pretend to have the power to charm serpents, scorpions etc., will, for some gratuity, communicate their invulnerability to other persons. Often it is one part of the body which is so protected, as for instance the right or the left hand, and it is with this that the animals of this kind must be seized (Polak, Persie…

ʿAmīd al-Dīn al-Abzārī

(194 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
al-anṣāri , asʿad b. naṣr , minister and poet, hailing from Abzār, south of S̲h̲īrāz. He was in the service of Saʿd b. Zangī, atabeg of Fārs; was sent by his master as an ambassador to Muḥammad Ḵh̲wārizms̲h̲āh, refused the offers which were made to him, succeeded Rukn al-Dīn Salāḥ Kirmānī as minister and held his position until the death of Saʿd. Saʿd’s son and successor, Abū Bakr, had him arrested on the charge of having held a correspondence with the ruler of Ḵh̲wārizm and of having acted as a spy for him. He was imprisoned in the fortress of Us̲h̲kunwān, near Iṣṭak̲h̲r and …


(378 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(t. “Red River”), the ancient Halys (῞Αλυς) or Alys(῎Αλυς), the largest river in Asia Minor. It rises in the mountains which separate the wilāyet of Sīwās from that of Erzerūm, waters the towns of Zarra (4,530 feet high) and Sīwās (4,160 feet high), then enters the province of Anḳara where it meets the mountain of Ard̲j̲īs̲h̲ and the Ḳod̲j̲a Dāg̲h̲ range which force it to make an immense detour of over 160 miles. Its course is at first southeast, then it turns northwards, and finally it reaches t…


(270 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Persian word denoting an oval bowl of metal, wood or coconut (calabash), worn suspended by a chain from the shoulder, in which the dervishes put the alms they receive and the food which is given them. The etymology of this word is obscure; a popular one is given by the Persians: kas̲h̲ “draw” (imperative) and kūl “shoulder”, “what one draws over the shoulder”; but as we find a form k̲h̲ačkūl attested in the older poets (Anwārī, Sayf Isfarangī), this explanation can hardly be accepted. The dictionaries give as the first sense “beggar” and t…

Köprü Ḥiṣāri̊

(120 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
“fortress of the bridge”, a village in the Ottoman province of K̲h̲udāwendigār [ q.v.] in northwestern Anatolia, and situated on the Čürük Ṣū river near Yeñis̲h̲ehir. It owes its historical fame to its being the site of a Byzantine fortress taken in 688/1289 by ʿOt̲h̲mān b. Ertog̲h̲rul, chief of the ʿOt̲h̲mānli̊ group of Türkmens based on Eskis̲h̲ehir, after the previous capture of Biled̲j̲ik and during the course of the extension of Ottoman influence within the province towards Bursa [ q.v.]; cf. H. A. Gibbons, The foundation of the Ottoman empire, Oxford 1916, 32-3. (Cl. Huart) Bibliogr…

ʿĀdila K̲h̲ātūn

(159 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, daughter of Aḥmad Pas̲h̲ā, wife of Sulaymān Pas̲h̲a Mizrāḳli̊ ("Abū Laylā"), Ottoman governor of Bag̲h̲dād. During the lifetime of her husband she took part in the government of the province, holding audiences where the petitions were presented to her through the intermediary of an eunuch. She had also a mosque and a caravanseray built, bearing her name. When on the death of Sulaymān (1175/1761) power was about to slip from her hands, she stirred up against his successor, ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a, first t…

Kay K̲h̲usraw

(455 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, the third mythical ruler of the Iranian dynasty of the Kayānids [ q.v.], corresponding to Kavi Haosrovah of the religious tradition (see A. Christensen, Les Kayanides , Copenhagen 1931, 90-2 and index). He is reckoned as the son of Siyāwus̲h̲/Siyāwak̲h̲s̲h̲ [ q.v.] and the grandson, through his mother, of Afrāsiyāb [ q.v.], and according to the national tradition (Christensen, 114-17) was born after his father’s death and was brought up amongst the mountain shepherds of Ḳalū near Bāmiyān, in ignorance of his illustrious origin. This, however, s…


(205 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(t.) (a word which has passed into French in the form tabor ), from Eastern Turkī tapḳūr and ṭapḳūr , denoting a pallisade formed of waggons arranged in a circle or square; a body of troops sent out for reconnaissance; a battalion; or a body of about 1,000 men commanded by a biñbas̲h̲i̊ (chief of a thousand). In Morocco, from the mid-19th century, it denoted the first permanent military units. Under the French Protectorate, the term was applied to a group made up of several goums ( gūm , an armed group of ca. 150 men commanded by officers of the Indigenous Affairs Department), hence par…


(99 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
the ceremony of raising the bride’s veil, and the present made by the husband to the wife on This occasion. According to al-Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ānī who bases himself on Muḥyi ’l-Dīn al-ʿArabī ( Definitiones , ed. Flugel, 80, 294), d̲j̲ilwa is the name of the state in which the mystic is on coming out of the k̲h̲alwa: filled with the emanations of divine attributes, his own personality has disappeared and mingles with the being of God (cf. Guys, Un derviche Algérien , 203). One of the two sacred books of the Yazīdīs is called Kitāb al-Ḏj̲ilwa [ q.v.]. (Cl. Huart)


(922 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Turkish name for the Abazes (see abk̲h̲āz ), given as a surname to many persons in Ottoman history who descended from those people. 1) Ābāza pas̲h̲a , taken prisoner at the defeat of the rebel Ḏj̲anbulād, whose treasurer he was, was brought before Murād Pas̲h̲a and had his life spared only through the intercession of Ḵh̲alīl, ag̲h̲a of the Janissaries, who, having become ḳapūdān-pas̲h̲a , gave him the command of a galley, and conferred upon him the government of Marʿas̲h̲ when he was promoted to the dignity of grand vizier. Later he be…


(224 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Gīlān-s̲h̲āh , ispahbad of Ṭabaristān, known as the Great ( buzurg ) and the Virtuous ( d̲h̲u ’l-manāḳib ), son of Dābūya, conquered Māzandarān and restored peace to the frontiers. When defeated by the Daylamīs in their revolt, he fled to Āmul and entrenched himself in the castle of Fīrūzābād; he saved himself by the ruse of making his besiegers believe that he had enormous stocks of bread. He gave asylum to the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲īs when they were being pursued by al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲, but fought aga…


(353 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | Taeschner,F.
, a Persian word meaning "source, fountain" which has passed into Turkish with the same sense. It is the name of a market-town in Asia Minor with a wide and safe natural harbour on the Mediterranean coast, at the entrance to the Gulf of the same name, at the north-western extremity of the peninsula of Urla opposite the island of Chios, 26° 20′ W., 38° 23′ N. It is the chief town of a kaza in the vilayet of Izmir. The town has (1950) 3,706 inhabitants; the kaza, 12,337. Originally part of the principality (later sand̲j̲aḳ ) of Aydi̊n, it was Ottoman from the time of Ba…

Ṣari̊ ʿAbd Allāh Efendī

(558 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | Burrill, Kathleen
, Ottoman poet, man of letters and bureaucrat (?992-?1071/? 1584-?1661). He was also reported to have been a good calligraphier and an ardent lover and cultivator of flowers, Ibrāhīm I dubbing him sers̲h̲üküfed̲j̲i ( čičekči bas̲h̲i̊ ) (see Omer Faruk Akün, in İA , art. Sarı Abdullah ). In his own works he is referred to as ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Seyyid (or al-S̲h̲erīf) Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh (Akün, loc. cit.). He seems to have been born in Istanbul, but the sources disagree on the date of birth. His father Sayyid Muḥammad had fled from the Mag̲h̲rib to Istanbul and se…


(3,490 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | Massé, H.
( Ferdosi ), Persian poet, one of the greatest writers of epic, author of the S̲h̲āhnāma ( S̲h̲āhnāmè , the Book of Kings). His personal name and that of his father are variously reported (Manṣūr b. Ḥasan, according to al-Bundārī [ q.v.]); it is agreed that his kunya [ q.v.] and his pen-name were Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Firdawsī. According to Niẓāmī ʿArūḍī, the oldest source ( Čahār maḳāla , tr. E. G. Browne, 54), he was born at Bāz̲h̲, a village in the Tabaran quarter of Ṭūs [ q.v.]. The date of his birth (ca. 329-30/940-1) is reliably deduced from his statement that in the year of the acce…


(926 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | Grohmann, A.
(κάλαμος, reed), the reed-pen used for writing in Arabic script. It is a tube of reed cut between two knots, sliced obliquely (or concave) at the thicker end and with the point slit, in similar fashion to the European quill and later the steel pen. The reed has to be very firm so that it does not wear away too quickly; the best kind comes from Wāsiṭ and grows in the marshes ( baṭāʾiḥ ) of ʿIrāḳ, but those from the swamps of Egypt (al-Muḳaddasī, BGA, iii, 203, 1. 13) or from Fāris were also recommended. Those from a rocky ground were called ṣuk̲h̲rī , those from the seashore baḥrī (Ibn ʿAbd Rabbihi, al-ʿIḳd…


(978 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | Sadan, J.
, an Arabic word borrowed from Aramaic (Syriac form kurseyāʾ , in Hebrew: kissé ; see Th. Nöldeke, Mandäische Grammatik , 128; Fraenkel, De vocabulis peregrinis, 22; L. Koehler, W. Baumgarten, Lexicon in Veteris Testamenti libros, 446) which can signify seat, in a very general sense (chair, couch, throne, stool, even bench). In the daily life of mediaeval Muslims it refers more specifically to a stool (i.e. seat without back or arm-rests), and there are a number of other terms which are applied to a throne ( sarīr and tak̲h̲t , for example). Kursī is found on two o…


(286 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | Spuler, B.
(a.), occasionally also Ḳawwāṣ ( e.g. in the Arabian Nights), in modern Turkish kavas , properly bowman (from ḳaws “bow”), came to denote in general “musketeer” and finally also “policeman-soldier”, especially the one in the service of highly-placed Turkish officials and foreign ambassadors. From this term is derived the French “cawas” and the German “Kawasse”. In Turkey the Ḳawwās were, until 1826, chosen among the Janissaries ( Yeñi čeri [ q.v.]) and were called yasaḳči̊ . Their function was to protect foreign embassies and consulates and to esc…


(763 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | Aydin Sayili
, (Arabic form Ḏj̲undaysābūr) a town in Ḵh̲ūzistān founded by the Sāsānid S̲h̲āpūr I (whence the name wandēw S̲h̲āpūr “acquired by S̲h̲āpūr”, cf. Nöldeke, Geschichte derPerser , 41, n. 2), who settled it with Greek prisoners. It is the town known as Bēth-Lāpāt in Syriac, corrupted to Bēl-Ābād̲h̲, now almost unrecognizable in the form nīlāb and nīlāṭ ; the site is marked at the present day by the ruins of S̲h̲āhābād (cf. Rawlinson in the Journ . of the Royal Geogr . Soc , ix, 72; de Bode, Travels in Luristan , ii, 167). The town was taken by the Muslims in the ca…
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