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(353 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | Taeschner,F.
, a Persian word meaning "source, fountain" which has passed into Turkish with the same sense. It is the name of a market-town in Asia Minor with a wide and safe natural harbour on the Mediterranean coast, at the entrance to the Gulf of the same name, at the north-western extremity of the peninsula of Urla opposite the island of Chios, 26° 20′ W., 38° 23′ N. It is the chief town of a kaza in the vilayet of Izmir. The town has (1950) 3,706 inhabitants; the kaza, 12,337. Originally part of the principality (later sand̲j̲aḳ ) of Aydi̊n, it was Ottoman from the time of Ba…

Ṣari̊ ʿAbd Allāh Efendī

(558 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | Burrill, Kathleen
, Ottoman poet, man of letters and bureaucrat (?992-?1071/? 1584-?1661). He was also reported to have been a good calligraphier and an ardent lover and cultivator of flowers, Ibrāhīm I dubbing him sers̲h̲üküfed̲j̲i ( čičekči bas̲h̲i̊ ) (see Omer Faruk Akün, in İA , art. Sarı Abdullah ). In his own works he is referred to as ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Seyyid (or al-S̲h̲erīf) Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh (Akün, loc. cit.). He seems to have been born in Istanbul, but the sources disagree on the date of birth. His father Sayyid Muḥammad had fled from the Mag̲h̲rib to Istanbul and se…

Kay Kāʾūs

(471 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, mythical second king of the line of Kayānids [ q.v.] whose name contains twice over the royal title kay (Kay Ūs> Kāʾūs). His history has been delineated by A. Christensen from the Iranian religious tradition and from the national tradition echoed by the later Muslim historians ( Les Kayanides , Copenhagen 1931, 73-90, 108-14). This Islamic historical tradition makes him the son of Kay Abīwēh > Abīh (except for Balʿamī, Firdawsī and al-T̲h̲aʿālibī, who make him the son of Kay Kubād [ q.v.]). He was a warrior-king who, according to Firdawsī, led a campaign into Māzandarān, whi…


(244 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(in Āzerī Turkish “Red River”), the ancient Amardus, a river which flows through Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲an and enters the Caspian Sea forty miles east of Sefīd-Rūd, “White River”, at its junction with the river S̲h̲āh-Rūd at Mend̲j̲il. Its source lies in the province of Ārdilān, and it begins by crossing ʿIrāḳ ʿAd̲j̲amī to the north; its right-bank tributary is the Zand̲j̲ān, on the left it receives the Ḳara-göl at Miyāne, then it runs along the southern slopes of Elburz, describing a great arc 125 miles…


(3,490 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | Massé, H.
( Ferdosi ), Persian poet, one of the greatest writers of epic, author of the S̲h̲āhnāma ( S̲h̲āhnāmè , the Book of Kings). His personal name and that of his father are variously reported (Manṣūr b. Ḥasan, according to al-Bundārī [ q.v.]); it is agreed that his kunya [ q.v.] and his pen-name were Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Firdawsī. According to Niẓāmī ʿArūḍī, the oldest source ( Čahār maḳāla , tr. E. G. Browne, 54), he was born at Bāz̲h̲, a village in the Tabaran quarter of Ṭūs [ q.v.]. The date of his birth (ca. 329-30/940-1) is reliably deduced from his statement that in the year of the acce…


(112 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p.), charm, incantation; for etymology and usage in old Persian, see Salemann, in Gr.I.Ph . i/1, 304, and especially H. W. Bailey, in BSOAS, 1933-5, 283 ff. This word is now used in Persia to designate especially a charm against the biting of poisonous animals; certain darwīs̲h̲es who pretend to have the power to charm serpents, scorpions etc., will, for some gratuity, communicate their invulnerability to other persons. Often it is one part of the body which is so protected, as for instance the right or the left hand, and it is with this that the animals of this kind must be seized (Polak, Persie…


(926 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | Grohmann, A.
(κάλαμος, reed), the reed-pen used for writing in Arabic script. It is a tube of reed cut between two knots, sliced obliquely (or concave) at the thicker end and with the point slit, in similar fashion to the European quill and later the steel pen. The reed has to be very firm so that it does not wear away too quickly; the best kind comes from Wāsiṭ and grows in the marshes ( baṭāʾiḥ ) of ʿIrāḳ, but those from the swamps of Egypt (al-Muḳaddasī, BGA, iii, 203, 1. 13) or from Fāris were also recommended. Those from a rocky ground were called ṣuk̲h̲rī , those from the seashore baḥrī (Ibn ʿAbd Rabbihi, al-ʿIḳd…

Abū Ayyūb Ḵh̲ālid b. Zayd b. Kulayb al-Nad̲j̲d̲j̲ārī al-Anṣārī

(741 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E. | Mordtmann, J.H. | Huart, Cl.
, generally known by his kunya , companion of the Prophet. It was in the ¶ house of Abū Ayyūb that the Prophet stayed on his emigration to Medina, before his own mosque and house were built. He took part in all the Prophet’s expeditions, was present at all the battles of early Islam and served under the command of ʿAmr b. al-ʿĀsī during the conquest of Egypt. Later on he was appointed by ʿAlī to the governorship of Medina, but was obliged to rejoin ʿAlī in ʿIrāḳ when Busr b. Abī Arṭāt approched the town with a…


(978 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | Sadan, J.
, an Arabic word borrowed from Aramaic (Syriac form kurseyāʾ , in Hebrew: kissé ; see Th. Nöldeke, Mandäische Grammatik , 128; Fraenkel, De vocabulis peregrinis, 22; L. Koehler, W. Baumgarten, Lexicon in Veteris Testamenti libros, 446) which can signify seat, in a very general sense (chair, couch, throne, stool, even bench). In the daily life of mediaeval Muslims it refers more specifically to a stool (i.e. seat without back or arm-rests), and there are a number of other terms which are applied to a throne ( sarīr and tak̲h̲t , for example). Kursī is found on two o…

ʿAmīd al-Dīn al-Abzārī

(194 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
al-anṣāri , asʿad b. naṣr , minister and poet, hailing from Abzār, south of S̲h̲īrāz. He was in the service of Saʿd b. Zangī, atabeg of Fārs; was sent by his master as an ambassador to Muḥammad Ḵh̲wārizms̲h̲āh, refused the offers which were made to him, succeeded Rukn al-Dīn Salāḥ Kirmānī as minister and held his position until the death of Saʿd. Saʿd’s son and successor, Abū Bakr, had him arrested on the charge of having held a correspondence with the ruler of Ḵh̲wārizm and of having acted as a spy for him. He was imprisoned in the fortress of Us̲h̲kunwān, near Iṣṭak̲h̲r and …


(378 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(t. “Red River”), the ancient Halys (῞Αλυς) or Alys(῎Αλυς), the largest river in Asia Minor. It rises in the mountains which separate the wilāyet of Sīwās from that of Erzerūm, waters the towns of Zarra (4,530 feet high) and Sīwās (4,160 feet high), then enters the province of Anḳara where it meets the mountain of Ard̲j̲īs̲h̲ and the Ḳod̲j̲a Dāg̲h̲ range which force it to make an immense detour of over 160 miles. Its course is at first southeast, then it turns northwards, and finally it reaches t…

Ẓahīr-i Fāryābī

(458 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | de Bruijn, J.T.P.]
, or Ẓahīr al-Dīn Abu ’l-Faḍl Ṭāhir b. Muḥammad al-Fāryābī , Persian poet of the 6th/12th century, born at Fāryāb (modern Dawlatābād) near Balk̲h̲ about 550/1156, d. 598/1201. As a court poet he served patrons in various parts of Persia; the earliest known to us was ʿAḍud al-Dīn Ṭug̲h̲āns̲h̲āh, a local ruler of Nīs̲h̲āpūr. In 582/1186-7 he went to Iṣfahān and three years later from there to Māzandarān, where he was attached to the ispahbād Ḥusām al-Dīn Ardas̲h̲īr b. Ḥasan of ¶ the Bāwandids [ q.v.]. Still later he settled down at the court of the Eldigüzids or Ildeñizids [ q.v.], writing paneg…


(286 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | Spuler, B.
(a.), occasionally also Ḳawwāṣ ( e.g. in the Arabian Nights), in modern Turkish kavas , properly bowman (from ḳaws “bow”), came to denote in general “musketeer” and finally also “policeman-soldier”, especially the one in the service of highly-placed Turkish officials and foreign ambassadors. From this term is derived the French “cawas” and the German “Kawasse”. In Turkey the Ḳawwās were, until 1826, chosen among the Janissaries ( Yeñi čeri [ q.v.]) and were called yasaḳči̊ . Their function was to protect foreign embassies and consulates and to esc…


(763 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | Aydin Sayili
, (Arabic form Ḏj̲undaysābūr) a town in Ḵh̲ūzistān founded by the Sāsānid S̲h̲āpūr I (whence the name wandēw S̲h̲āpūr “acquired by S̲h̲āpūr”, cf. Nöldeke, Geschichte derPerser , 41, n. 2), who settled it with Greek prisoners. It is the town known as Bēth-Lāpāt in Syriac, corrupted to Bēl-Ābād̲h̲, now almost unrecognizable in the form nīlāb and nīlāṭ ; the site is marked at the present day by the ruins of S̲h̲āhābād (cf. Rawlinson in the Journ . of the Royal Geogr . Soc , ix, 72; de Bode, Travels in Luristan , ii, 167). The town was taken by the Muslims in the ca…


(1,336 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | Massé, H.
, Mawlanā Nūr al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān , the great Persian poet. He was born in K̲h̲ard̲j̲ird, in the district of Ḏj̲ām which is a dependency of Harāt, on 23 S̲h̲aʿbān 817/7 November 1414 and died at Harāt on 18 Muḥarram 898/9 November 1492. His family came from Das̲h̲t, a small town in the neighbourhood of Iṣfahān; his father, Niẓām al-Dīn Aḥmad b. S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muḥammad, had left that district and settled near Harāt; consequently the poet had for some time signed his works with the tak̲h̲alluṣ Das̲h̲tī before adopting the tak̲h̲alluṣ D̲j̲āmī. In the regular cour…


(561 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | Massé, H.
, Persian epic, attributed to Abu ’l-ʿAlāʾ ʿAṭāʾ b. Yaʿḳūb, known as Nakūk (called ʿAṭāʾī b. Yaʿḳūb, known as ʿAṭāʾī Rāzī in Blochét, Catal . Mss. persans Biblio . Nat . Paris, iii, 15, no. 1189). According to Riḍā Ḳulī Ḵh̲ān Hidāyat, “some people have wrongly considered these two names to represent two poets. This is not so; they are the same person” ( Mad̲j̲maʿ al-Fuṣaḥāʾ , i, 342). ʿAṭāʾ was a poet in both Arabic and Persian (see his account in Bāk̲h̲arzī, Dumyat al-Ḳaṣr ) and an official in the reign of the G̲h̲aznawid sultan Ibrāhīm (1059-1099) who, di…


(1,021 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | Grohmann, A.
, Kāg̲h̲id (from the Persian kāg̲h̲ad̲h̲ perhaps of Chinese origin), paper. In the early period of development of Muslim culture the east was acquainted only with papyrus ( ḳirṭās ) as writing-material. It was Chinese prisoners of war brought to Samarḳand after the battle of Aṭlak̲h̲ near Tālās who first introduced in 134/751 the industry of papermaking from linen, flax or hemp rags after the method used in China. “The various kinds of paper then made were the following: firʿawnī (“Pharaonic”), a kind which was to compete with papyrus even in the land…

Āg̲h̲ā Muḥammad Shāh

(324 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | Lockhart, L.
, founder of the Ḳādjār [ q.v.] dynasty of Persia, who was born in 1155/1742, was the elder son of Muḥammad Ḥasan Ḵh̲ān, hereditary chief of the powerful Ḳād̲j̲ār tribe. When a child he was castrated by order of ʿĀdil S̲h̲āh, Nādir S̲h̲āh’s nephew, an act which warped his character in later life. On his father’s murder in 1758, he became chief of the Ḳādjārs. He spent his youth at Karīm Ḵh̲ān’s court at S̲h̲īrāz; on Karīm’s death in 1779 he fled to Astarābād and engaged in a long struggle with his des…


(650 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | Massé, H.
Sīstānī , Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. D̲j̲ūlūg̲h̲ , the celebrated Iranian poet, a native of the town of Sīstān (cf. Yāḳūt, s.v.; Ḳazwīnī, Nuzhat , s.v.), as he says in a hemistich: “I place (other towns) after Sīstān, because it is my (native) town”. The tak̲h̲alluṣ Farruk̲h̲ī unites the ideas of happiness and physical beauty. His father, Ḏj̲ūlūg̲h̲ (according to ʿAwfī and Dawlats̲h̲āh) or Kūlūg̲h̲ (according to Ad̲h̲ar and Hidāyat) was in the service of the governor of the province of Sīstān. Accordin…


(238 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | Bowen, H.
, meaning in Ottoman Turkish "a tree", "wood", in Eastern Turkish (in which the forms yi̊g̲h̲ač , yi̊g̲h̲āč are the more frequent) means also "the male member" and "parasang"; cf. al-Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī, Dīwān Lug̲h̲āt al-Turk , Istanbul 1933, iii, 6, and Brockelmann, Mitteltürkische Wortschatz , Budapest-Leipzig 1928, 87. Al-Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī shows only the forms yi̊g̲h̲āč and yi̊g̲h̲ač, but W. Radloff, Versuch eines Wörterbuches der Türk-Dialekte , 1893, i, 150, shows also ag̲h̲ač and other forms of the word such as ag̲h̲atz , ag̲h̲as and yag̲h̲ač , as signifying…
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