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Kay Kāʾūs

(471 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, mythical second king of the line of Kayānids [ q.v.] whose name contains twice over the royal title kay (Kay Ūs> Kāʾūs). His history has been delineated by A. Christensen from the Iranian religious tradition and from the national tradition echoed by the later Muslim historians ( Les Kayanides , Copenhagen 1931, 73-90, 108-14). This Islamic historical tradition makes him the son of Kay Abīwēh > Abīh (except for Balʿamī, Firdawsī and al-T̲h̲aʿālibī, who make him the son of Kay Kubād [ q.v.]). He was a warrior-king who, according to Firdawsī, led a campaign into Māzandarān, whi…

Ḳizil-Üzen

(244 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(in Āzerī Turkish “Red River”), the ancient Amardus, a river which flows through Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲an and enters the Caspian Sea forty miles east of Sefīd-Rūd, “White River”, at its junction with the river S̲h̲āh-Rūd at Mend̲j̲il. Its source lies in the province of Ārdilān, and it begins by crossing ʿIrāḳ ʿAd̲j̲amī to the north; its right-bank tributary is the Zand̲j̲ān, on the left it receives the Ḳara-göl at Miyāne, then it runs along the southern slopes of Elburz, describing a great arc 125 miles…

Afsūn

(112 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p.), charm, incantation; for etymology and usage in old Persian, see Salemann, in Gr.I.Ph . i/1, 304, and especially H. W. Bailey, in BSOAS, 1933-5, 283 ff. This word is now used in Persia to designate especially a charm against the biting of poisonous animals; certain darwīs̲h̲es who pretend to have the power to charm serpents, scorpions etc., will, for some gratuity, communicate their invulnerability to other persons. Often it is one part of the body which is so protected, as for instance the right or the left hand, and it is with this that the animals of this kind must be seized (Polak, Persie…

ʿAmīd al-Dīn al-Abzārī

(194 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
al-anṣāri , asʿad b. naṣr , minister and poet, hailing from Abzār, south of S̲h̲īrāz. He was in the service of Saʿd b. Zangī, atabeg of Fārs; was sent by his master as an ambassador to Muḥammad Ḵh̲wārizms̲h̲āh, refused the offers which were made to him, succeeded Rukn al-Dīn Salāḥ Kirmānī as minister and held his position until the death of Saʿd. Saʿd’s son and successor, Abū Bakr, had him arrested on the charge of having held a correspondence with the ruler of Ḵh̲wārizm and of having acted as a spy for him. He was imprisoned in the fortress of Us̲h̲kunwān, near Iṣṭak̲h̲r and …

Ki̊zi̊l-Irmāḳ

(378 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(t. “Red River”), the ancient Halys (῞Αλυς) or Alys(῎Αλυς), the largest river in Asia Minor. It rises in the mountains which separate the wilāyet of Sīwās from that of Erzerūm, waters the towns of Zarra (4,530 feet high) and Sīwās (4,160 feet high), then enters the province of Anḳara where it meets the mountain of Ard̲j̲īs̲h̲ and the Ḳod̲j̲a Dāg̲h̲ range which force it to make an immense detour of over 160 miles. Its course is at first southeast, then it turns northwards, and finally it reaches t…

Kas̲h̲kūl

(270 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Persian word denoting an oval bowl of metal, wood or coconut (calabash), worn suspended by a chain from the shoulder, in which the dervishes put the alms they receive and the food which is given them. The etymology of this word is obscure; a popular one is given by the Persians: kas̲h̲ “draw” (imperative) and kūl “shoulder”, “what one draws over the shoulder”; but as we find a form k̲h̲ačkūl attested in the older poets (Anwārī, Sayf Isfarangī), this explanation can hardly be accepted. The dictionaries give as the first sense “beggar” and t…

Köprü Ḥiṣāri̊

(120 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
“fortress of the bridge”, a village in the Ottoman province of K̲h̲udāwendigār [ q.v.] in northwestern Anatolia, and situated on the Čürük Ṣū river near Yeñis̲h̲ehir. It owes its historical fame to its being the site of a Byzantine fortress taken in 688/1289 by ʿOt̲h̲mān b. Ertog̲h̲rul, chief of the ʿOt̲h̲mānli̊ group of Türkmens based on Eskis̲h̲ehir, after the previous capture of Biled̲j̲ik and during the course of the extension of Ottoman influence within the province towards Bursa [ q.v.]; cf. H. A. Gibbons, The foundation of the Ottoman empire, Oxford 1916, 32-3. (Cl. Huart) Bibliogr…

ʿĀdila K̲h̲ātūn

(159 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, daughter of Aḥmad Pas̲h̲ā, wife of Sulaymān Pas̲h̲a Mizrāḳli̊ ("Abū Laylā"), Ottoman governor of Bag̲h̲dād. During the lifetime of her husband she took part in the government of the province, holding audiences where the petitions were presented to her through the intermediary of an eunuch. She had also a mosque and a caravanseray built, bearing her name. When on the death of Sulaymān (1175/1761) power was about to slip from her hands, she stirred up against his successor, ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a, first t…

Kay K̲h̲usraw

(455 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, the third mythical ruler of the Iranian dynasty of the Kayānids [ q.v.], corresponding to Kavi Haosrovah of the religious tradition (see A. Christensen, Les Kayanides , Copenhagen 1931, 90-2 and index). He is reckoned as the son of Siyāwus̲h̲/Siyāwak̲h̲s̲h̲ [ q.v.] and the grandson, through his mother, of Afrāsiyāb [ q.v.], and according to the national tradition (Christensen, 114-17) was born after his father’s death and was brought up amongst the mountain shepherds of Ḳalū near Bāmiyān, in ignorance of his illustrious origin. This, however, s…

Ṭabūr

(205 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(t.) (a word which has passed into French in the form tabor ), from Eastern Turkī tapḳūr and ṭapḳūr , denoting a pallisade formed of waggons arranged in a circle or square; a body of troops sent out for reconnaissance; a battalion; or a body of about 1,000 men commanded by a biñbas̲h̲i̊ (chief of a thousand). In Morocco, from the mid-19th century, it denoted the first permanent military units. Under the French Protectorate, the term was applied to a group made up of several goums ( gūm , an armed group of ca. 150 men commanded by officers of the Indigenous Affairs Department), hence par…

D̲j̲ilwa

(99 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
the ceremony of raising the bride’s veil, and the present made by the husband to the wife on This occasion. According to al-Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ānī who bases himself on Muḥyi ’l-Dīn al-ʿArabī ( Definitiones , ed. Flugel, 80, 294), d̲j̲ilwa is the name of the state in which the mystic is on coming out of the k̲h̲alwa: filled with the emanations of divine attributes, his own personality has disappeared and mingles with the being of God (cf. Guys, Un derviche Algérien , 203). One of the two sacred books of the Yazīdīs is called Kitāb al-Ḏj̲ilwa [ q.v.]. (Cl. Huart)

Ābāza

(922 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Turkish name for the Abazes (see abk̲h̲āz ), given as a surname to many persons in Ottoman history who descended from those people. 1) Ābāza pas̲h̲a , taken prisoner at the defeat of the rebel Ḏj̲anbulād, whose treasurer he was, was brought before Murād Pas̲h̲a and had his life spared only through the intercession of Ḵh̲alīl, ag̲h̲a of the Janissaries, who, having become ḳapūdān-pas̲h̲a , gave him the command of a galley, and conferred upon him the government of Marʿas̲h̲ when he was promoted to the dignity of grand vizier. Later he be…

ʿAmīd al-Dīn al-Abzārī

(192 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
al-Anṣārī, Asʿad b. Naṣr, ministre et poète, originaire d’Abzār, au Sud de S̲h̲īrāz. Il était au service de Saʿd b. Zangī, atabeg du Fārs; envoyé par son maître comme ambassadeur auprès de Muḥammad Ḵh̲wārizms̲h̲āh, il refusa les offres qui lui furent faites, succéda à Rukn al-dīn Ṣalāḥ Kirmānī en qualité de ministre et resta en fonction jusqu’à la mort de Saʿd. Le fils et successeur de ce dernier, Abū Bakr, le fit arrêter en l’accusant d’avoir entretenu une correspondance avec le souverain du Ḵh̲wārizm et d’avoir agi comme espion à son profit. Il fut emprisonné dans la fortere…

Ḳi̊zi̊l I̊rmāk

(373 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(turc: «fleuve rouge»), ancien ["AλυΣ) Halys ou ("AλυΣ), Alys, le fleuve le plus considérable de l’Asie Mineure. Il prend sa source dans les montagnes qui séparent le wilāyet de Sīwās de celui d’Erzerūm, arrose les villes de Zarra (ait. 1360 m.) et de Sīwās (1250 m.); puis il entre dans la province d’Anḳara où il rencontre le mont Ard̲j̲īs̲h̲ et la chaîne du Ḳod̲j̲a-Dāg̲h̲ qui l’obligent à décrire une immense courbe de plus de 250 kilomètres; son cours, dirigé d’abord vers le Sud-ouest, se redresse et prend la direction du Nord, où il finit par se jeter dans la mer Noire, en aval de ¶ Bāfrā, au mi…

ʿĀdila Kā̲h̲ātūn

(139 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, fille d’Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a, épouse de Sulaymān Pas̲h̲a, gouverneur ottoman de Bag̲h̲dād, prenait part, du vivant de son mari, au gouvernement de la province; elle avait ses jours d’audience, où les requêtes des particuliers lui étaient soumises par l’intermédiaire d’un de ses eunuques; elle fit bâtir une mosquée et un caravansérail qui portent son nom. A la mort de Sulaymān (1175/1761), voyant le pouvoir lui échapper, elle souleva contre son successeur, ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a, le corps des janissaires, puis …

Ābāza

(848 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, nom turc des Abazes (v. Abk̲h̲āz), donné comme surnom à plusieurs personnages de l’histoire ottomane, originaires de ce peuple: 1. Ābāza-Pas̲h̲a, fait prisonnier lors de la défaite du rebelle Ḏj̲ānbulād, dont il était trésorier, avait été conduit devant Murād-pas̲h̲a et n’avait obtenu la vie sauve que par l’intercession de Ḵh̲alīl, ag̲h̲a des janissaires, qui, devenu ḳapūdān-pas̲h̲a, lui donna le commandement d’une galère, et lui conféra le gouvernement de Marʿas̲h̲ quand il fut promu grand-vizir. Plus tard, il devint gouverneur d’Erzerūm et forma …

Ḳi̊zi̊l-üzen

(247 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(en turc ād̲h̲arī, «rivière rouge») l’ancien Amardus, fleuve qui traverse l’Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān et se jette dans la mer Caspienne, à 63 km. à l’Est d’Enzeli, après avoir pris le nom persan de Sefīd Rūd «rivière blanche» à son confluent avec le S̲h̲āh-Rūd, à Mend̲j̲il. Sa source est située dans la province d’Ārdilān, puis il traverse le ʿIrāḳ-i ʿad̲j̲amī vers le Nord; il a pour affluent de droite la rivière de Zand̲j̲ān et reçoit à gauche, le Kara-göl à Miyāne, puis longe le versant Sud de l’Elburz en…

Farruk̲h̲ān

(224 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Gīlān-s̲h̲āh , ispahbad of Ṭabaristān, known as the Great ( buzurg ) and the Virtuous ( d̲h̲u ’l-manāḳib ), son of Dābūya, conquered Māzandarān and restored peace to the frontiers. When defeated by the Daylamīs in their revolt, he fled to Āmul and entrenched himself in the castle of Fīrūzābād; he saved himself by the ruse of making his besiegers believe that he had enormous stocks of bread. He gave asylum to the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲īs when they were being pursued by al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲, but fought aga…

Bairam

(88 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, an Osmanli-Turkish word which denotes the two great Musulman festivals: Küčük-bairam “the little festival”, also called S̲h̲ekerbairam “feast of sweets” on account of the custom of making presents of sweetmeats then, is the festival on the breaking of the fast ( ʿīd al-fiṭr) which lasts three days. The böyük-bairam, “the great festival”, usually called ḳurbān-bairam, “feast of the sacrifice”, is the ʿīd al-aḍḥā which lasts four days. A rikiāb-i humāyūn, “official reception”, is held at the Imperial Palace on each of these two festivals. (Cl. Huart)

Harkarn

(148 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Persian stylist, son of Mathurādās Kanbū of Multān; was for many years muns̲h̲ī (secretary) to Nawwāb lʿtibār-Ḵh̲ān, a eunuch in the service of the Mog̲h̲ul - emperor Ḏj̲ahāngīr and was then appointed ṣubadār (governor of Akbarābād (Agra) (1031 = 1622). He is the author of a collection of letters ( ins̲h̲āʾ), divided into seven sections, which bears his name and contains model letters as well as official documents (ed. with English transl. by Francis Balfour, Calcutta 1781, 21804, reprinted 1831; lith. Lahore 1869). The work was used by the English authorities as a mod…
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