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Ẓuhūrī

(207 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Nūr al-Dīn Muḥammad Turs̲h̲īzī, a Persian poet of the school of Herāt, who lived for a long time in India and was assassinated in a rising in the Deccan at the same time as his father-in-law Malik of Ḳumm (1024 = 1615, 1025 = 1616 or 1027 = 1618). His poetry is not much esteemed in Persia but is admired in India as is especially his prose with its very florid phraseology. His chief works are a Dīwān, Gulzār-i Ibrāhīm, Ḵh̲wān-i Ḵh̲alīl, Ruḳʿāt, Abdālīya, lithographed several times in India, and a Sāḳīnāme, “Book of the Cup-bearer”, dedicated to Burhān Niẓām S̲h̲āh II of Aḥmadnagar (999…

Bībī

(124 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a word of Eastern Turkī origin meaning “lady” in Persian is found quite early in a verse by Enweri (xiith century) quoted in the Farhang-i Nāṣirī. The mausoleum of the daughter of Yezdigerd III, the last Sāsānian king, the wife of Ḥusain, son of ʿAlī, is known by the name of Bībī S̲h̲ahrbānū and lies near Teherān on the ruined site of Ray. Bībī Maryam is the Virgin Mary. — The queen in cards is also called Bībī. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Edw. G. Browne, A Year amongst the Persians, p. 88 do. A Literary History of Persia, i. 130 Gobineau, Religions et philosophies, p. 275 Yaʿḳūbī (ed. Houtsma), ii. …

Farruk̲h̲ī

(180 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Ḏj̲ūlūg̲h̲, a Persian poet born in Sīstān, a pupil of ʿUnṣurī. Ras̲h̲īd Waṭwāṭ has compared him with the Arabic poet Mutanabbī, on account of the simplicity of his style combined with the originality of his genius. He was the panegyrist of Sulṭān Maḥmūd of G̲h̲azna and of the Emīr Abu ’l-Muẓaffar Ṭāhir b. Naṣr Čag̲h̲ānī, governor of Balk̲h̲. He wrote a treatise on the art of poetry entitled ((GAP)) d̲j̲umān al-Balāg̲h̲a. The Dīwān of his poems enjoyed a certain fame in Transoxiana but he was forgotten in Ḵh̲orāsān. He died in 429 (1038). His Dīwān was lithographed in Ṭe…

Ḳūla

(142 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a town in Asia Minor in the province of Aϊdīn in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Sarūk̲h̲ān, 130 miles east of Mag̲h̲nīsā (Magnesia), capital of a ḳaẓā; it is 2,200 feet above sea-level, has 6,100 inhabitants, of whom 5,655 are Muslims and 345 Greek Orthodox; it has 38 schools, four of which are secondary, 30 mosques, 2 Orthodox Churches, 3 baths and 2 caravanserais. It manufactures Smyrna carpets. The town is built of black lava except the mosques, the walls of which are white; it lies at the head of a vall…

Ibn Isfandiyār

(250 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan, a Persian historian, of whom we only know what little he tells us in the beginning of his chronicle of his native land of Ṭabaristān, returned in 606 (1210) from Bag̲h̲dād to ʿIrāḳ ʿAd̲j̲amī after hearing of the murder of his patron Rustam b. Ardas̲h̲īr, governor of Ṭabaristān. In deep grief he spent two months in Raiy collecting material for his work and studying in the libraries. He then spent five years in the town of Ḵh̲wārizm, where he found by accident in a bookseller’…

Ala-s̲h̲ehr

(196 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Ala-S̲h̲ehir (t.) = “the spotted town”, the ancient Philadelphia) is the capital of a ḳaza in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Ṣārūk̲h̲ān (wilāyet of Aidīn-Smyrna), at the foot of the Būz-dag̲h̲ (Tmolus), 31 miles from the Ḳūzū-čai, at an elevation of 574 ft; it has 22000 inhabitants, amongst whom there are 17000 Mussulmans and 4326 Greek Orthodox. Ala-S̲h̲ehr is the terminus of the railway Smyrna-Ḳaṣaba. There are cotton-mills, liquorice factories, spinning-mills and tanneries, and it is famous for its ḥalwā. The place was conquered by the Ottomans in 1391, though not until 1423 ¶ a definitive occu…

Bende

(301 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, the Persian word for slave. The number of slaves still in existence in Persia is gradually decreasing. The black slaves come from Africa and are introduced while still young, usually via Masḳaṭ and Būs̲h̲ire, more rarely via Arabia and Bag̲h̲dād. A distinction is made between Abyssinians ( Ḥabas̲h̲ī) and negroes ( Zand̲j̲ī); the former are preferred for their beauty and intelligence. The few white slaves are Turkomans or Balōčīs. Some Kurdish tribes sell their daughters to Persian families, but these girls are usually afterwards married to a me…

Aḥmed II

(189 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Ottoman sultan, born on the 5th Ḏj̲umādā I 1052 (lst August 1642), brother of Sultan Sulaimān II, whom he succeeded on his death at Adrianople (26th Ramaḍān 1102 = 23d June 1691) and was enthroned in the old mosque of that town. He confirmed Muṣṭafā Köprülü in the office of grand vizier; the latter lost the battle of Slankamen (19th August 1691) against the Imperials and perished on the battle-field. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ ʿAlī of Merzifūn, who took his place, succeeded in having the siege of Belgrade raised (18th Muḥarram 1104 = 29th Sept. 1692); but a third minister, Surmeli ʿAlī of Dimetoḳa,…

Bender

(75 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, in Persian, a harbour on the sea or on a large river; it has passed into the Arabic of Syria and Egypt with the sense of place of trade or exchange of moneys (Bocthor, Vollers) and even workshop (Cliche); S̲h̲āh-bender is the Syndic of the merchants; the Ottomans use the word to designate their consuls abroad. Bender-i Gaz is the name of the harbour of Astarābād on the Caspian Sea. (Cl. Huart)

Ḥaidar

(278 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ḥaidar), son of the Ṣafawī S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ḏj̲unaid of Ardabīl (grandfather of Ismāʿīl S̲h̲āh) and of Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲a Begam, Uzun Ḥasan’s sister. On the death of his father, who was killed by an arrow in a battle against Ḵh̲alīl, Sulṭān of S̲h̲irwān (shortly before 860 = 1456) he was recognised as his successor by his followers. His uncle Uzun Ḥasan gave him his daughter Ḥalīma Begam, who was called ʿĀlam S̲h̲āh, to wife. She became the mother of Sulṭān ʿAlī, Saiyid Ibrāhīm and S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl. When Uzun Ḥasan ¶ died, Ḥaidar collected his retainers ostensibly for a raid into Geo…

ʿImāret

(249 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(a.), “building”, “edifice”, the name given in Turkey to eating-houses or hostels where schoolchildren and theological students receive their meals, which consist of bread and one or two hot dishes of mutton and vegetables. Similarly, such food along with a small present in money of 3—5 aspers a day per person, sometimes even as much or 10 aspers, is given to the poor. These institutions are maintained by pious foundations. The first of the kind was erected by Sulṭān Ork̲h̲ān in 1336 in Nicaea (…

Ḏj̲aʿfar Čelebi

(264 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, an Ottoman poet, whose father Tād̲j̲ī-Bey was attached to the personal service of Sulṭān Bāyazīd II, while the latter was governor of Amasia in the lifetime of his father Muḥammad II, displayed precocious talent and was therefore appointed Mudarris in Maḥmūd Pas̲h̲a’s school in Constantinople; from this post he was called to fill the office of Nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲ī (secretary to the Dīwān) and Bāyazīd appointed him supervisor of the Defterdārs, at the same time giving him the rank of Pas̲h̲a, whence the name Nishānd̲j̲ī Pas̲h̲a by which he was popularly kno…

Bāiburt

(158 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a town in Asia Minor, the capital of a Ḳaza in the province and Sand̲j̲aḳ of Erzerūm, 60 miles from this town, divided into two parts by the Čuruk-Ṣū; it has about 8000 inhabitants; ancient ruins; manufactures of silver vessels and carpets. — The district of Bāiburt comprises 4 nāḥiyas and 169 villages; total population (including the capital) 58,213 souls. It is a fertile country and has numerous bee-farms and trade in wax with France. — The town was besieged and taken by the Kurd chief Muṣṭa…

Farsak̲h̲

(145 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, an Arabic loanword derived from a North Iranian form (proved by the Armen. hrasak̲h̲ and the Syr. prasak̲h̲ā), modern Persian farsang (Pehl. frasang, Old Persian in Herodotos and Xenophon παρασάγγηΣ), a Persian measure of length, equivalent to the distance covered in an hour by a horse walking. This farsak̲h̲ contains 6000 trade-ells ( d̲h̲irāʿ or d̲h̲arʿ-i rasmī) of 1.0387 metres each = 6232.2 metres. The Arab farsak̲h̲ was three Arab miles or 12000 ells = 5762.8 metres. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography P. Horn in the Grundr. der iran. Philol., i. 2, p. 127 J. A. Decourdemanche, Traité pratique…

Kučak

(117 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Mīrzā) Wiṣāl, surname of Muḥammad S̲h̲afīʿ, Persian poet of the xixth century, born at S̲h̲īrāz, a clever calligrapher and musician, died in 1262 (1846). Author of numerous poems ( dīwān lithographed at Ṭeherān 1275) the Bazm-i Wiṣāl, the completion of the Farhād u-S̲h̲īrīn of Waḥs̲h̲ī (lithographed at Ṭeherān 1263) and of a translation into Persian of the Aṭwāḳ al-Ḏh̲ahab (golden collars) of Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲arī. His sons, Wiḳār, Maḥmūd Ḥakīm (the physician), Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Farhang, Dāwarī, Yazdānī and Himmet had inherited the paternal talent. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Riḍā-Ḳuli Ḵh̲ān…

Bog̲h̲āz

(417 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(t.) “Ravine”, “gully” (literally “strangling” from the root bog̲h̲) hence in geographical names “pass” or „strait”. It is particularly applied to the Thracian Bosporus ( Ḵh̲alīd̲j̲-i Ḳusṭantīnīye) a strait 18 miles long and from 600 to 3,500 yards broad with 7 bays and 7 promontories. The various parts into which it is broken up, together form the bog̲h̲āz-iči, “the interior of the Bosporus”. This runs from the heights of the Serai cape and Scutari up to the Black Sea. It separates the European coast from the Asiatic and is traversed by two lines of …

Ḳohrūd

(126 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, arabicised form of Kōh-rūd, “river of the mountain”, a village seventy-five miles from Iṣfahān on the road from Kās̲h̲ān [q.v.] in a valley in the midst of trees and orchards. The col which separates the two slopes of the mountain is here; Oliver St. John in 1871 from this applied the name to the chain of mountains which separates ʿIrāḳ-ʿAd̲j̲amī from Fārs and stretches into Balūčistān (chief peaks: S̲h̲īr-kūh ¶ south of Yazd c. 12,000 feet high and Hazār-kūh south of Kirmān c. 13,500 feet high). (Cl. Huart) Bibliography de Gobineau, Trois ans en Asie, p. 235 Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī, Nuzhat al-Ḳu…

Barg̲h̲ūt̲h̲

(80 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Pl. barāg̲h̲īth, the name of the flea in Arabic, applied by the people of Syria to the little Turkish coin of I piastre; so called on account of the ease with which it slips out of the hand. — Nahr Barg̲h̲ūt̲h̲ is a stream on the Syrian coast which flows into the Mediterranean a little to the south of Ṣaidā (Sidon); it is the Asclepios of the ancients. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Baedeker, Palestine and Syria 4, pp. 271—273.

Āk̲h̲ūnd

(141 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, also āk̲h̲ūn (Castelli; Shakspear; Polak, Persien i. 269) and āk̲h̲awānd (Shakspear, Richardson, Vullers) = “schoolmaster”; East Turkisch ak̲h̲ond, ak̲h̲on (Vambéry, Čagataische Sprachstudien p. 205; Sulaimān-Efendi, Lug̲h̲at-i Čagatāi p. 6); āk̲h̲ūndī and āk̲h̲awāndī = “office of schoolmaster” (Quatremère, Hist, des Sultans mamlouks, i. 69). — The original meaning of the word is “under-master”, “substitute”, from ā + k̲h̲wānd ( k̲h̲wand, k̲h̲und), contraction of k̲h̲udawend), which occurs in the compound names of Mīr-Ḵh̲ond and Ḵh̲ond-Emīr. According to Quatremère ( ib…

Kemāl K̲h̲od̲j̲andī

(239 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Kamāl al-Dīn Masʿūd), a Persian lyric poet, born in Ḵh̲ud̲j̲and in Transoxania. He followed the mystic path, went on a pilgrimage to Mecca and on his return settled in Tibrīz the climate of which had pleased him. On the capture of this town by Toḳtamis̲h̲-Ḵh̲ān, he was taken to the town of Sarāi at the request of this prince’s wife. He remained there four years. Having returned to Tibrīz the Ḏj̲alāʾirid Sulṭān Ḥusain, son of Sulṭān Uwais, had a house built for him. He likewise received favours fr…
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