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(198 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Bālikeser, a town in Turkey in Asia, capital of the Sand̲j̲aḳ of Ḳarasi in the Wilāyet of Ḵh̲udāwend giār, with 13,118 inhabitants, of whom 9175 are Muḥammadans, 1266 Orthodox Greeks and 1941 Gregorian Armenians. Built at the foot of the Yilān-dāg̲h̲, Bālikesrī is watered in winter by a brook. In summer when this is dried up, water has to be brought from Batlāḳ. It was the ancient capital of the Princes of Ḳarasi and was conquered in 737 (1336) by ʿAd̲j̲lān-zāde in the time of Sulṭān Ork̲h̲ān. It has a weekly market and an annual fair, and manufactures a coarse kind of cloth called ʿabā [q. v.]. …

Ḳābūs b. Was̲h̲mgīr

(438 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, S̲h̲ams al-Maʿālī, Abu ’l-Ḥasan, nephew of Merdāwīd̲j̲ b. Ziyār and fourth ruler of the Ziyārid dynasty (his genealogy is given by his grandson, Ḳābūs Unṣur al-Maʿālī in his preface to the Ḳābūsnāmah). Called to the throne by a military conspiracy, in 366 (976) he succeeded his brother Ẓahīr al-Dīn Bahistūn as ruler of Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ān and Ṭabaristān. When the Būyid Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla [q. v.] had quarrelled with his brother ʿAḍud al-Dawla [q. v.] and the latter deprived him of his whole kingdom in 369 (979/80) Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla took…


(92 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, an order of Dervishes, founded by Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Bairam of Angora. The founder died there in 833 (1429-1430). His grave adjoins the ruins of the temple of Roma and Augustus, the walls of which bear the famous inscription, the Monumentum Ancyranum. The Bairamī Order is a branch of the Naḳs̲h̲bandīs, which is represented in Turkey in Europe. In Constantinople it has settlements in Stambul, Eiyūb, Skutarī and Ḳāsim-Pas̲h̲ā. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Gibb, History of Ottoman Poetry, i. 299 Anm. Depont et Coppolani, Confréries religieuses, p. 532 Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, Ḏj̲ihān-numā, p. 643.

Bālṭa Līmānī

(125 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a bay on the European shore of the Bosporus between Boyad̲j̲i-K öi and Rūmili Ḥiṣār, so called after Bālṭa-Og̲h̲lū Sulaimān-Bey, the first admiral of the Turkish fleet, who equipped the fleet of 420 ships here, which co-operated in 857 (1453) at the siege of Constantinople; it is the ancient Phidalia. Ras̲h̲īd-Pas̲h̲a’s old palace stands here. The commercial treaty with France of 1838, the Treaty of the Five Powers of 1841 and the agreement of 1849 relative to the principalities of the Danube were all concluded here. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography ʿAlī Ḏj̲ewād, Ḏj̲og̲h̲rāfiyā lūg̲h̲āti, p. …


(602 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(ʾΙωάννινα, ʾΙάννινα, turkish Yāniya), a town in lower Albania, on the west bank of the lake of the same name, at the foot of Mount Mitzikélis, 1900 feet above the sea-level. It was formerly the capital of the vilāyet of the same name. The palace of the Pas̲h̲a and two of its mosques are situated on a peninsula which runs out to the middle of the lake. It was defended by several forts. It replaced the ancient Dodona which had become the see of a bishopric, and the ruins of which are still to be see…


(210 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, the greatest of Ottoman lyrical poets, properly called Maḥmūd ʿAbd al-Bāḳī, born in Constantinople in 933 (1529-1527) the son of a Muʾad̲h̲d̲h̲in of the Muḥammadīya; learned at first the saddler’s trade and afterwards studied law to prepare himself for a judicial career. In 962 (1555) Sulṭān Sulaimān to whom he had dedicated a congratulatory Ḳaṣīda on his return from Persia, attached him to the court, where he also enjoyed the Imperial favour of Selīm II and Murād III. After being successively…


(639 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(t.), a title of Mongol empresses and princesses, and of ladies of high rank; later simply “lady”. The term is an old one. As early as the sixth century of our era we see from the Chinese annals that it was given by the Tu-kiue to the wife of the Ḵh̲āḳān; the Chinese transcription is k̲h̲o-ho-tun (Stanislas Julien, Notice sur les Tou-kioue J. A., Ser. ii., Vol, iii., p. 331 sqq.; date c. 553—581). It is found in the form ḳatun, in the inscriptions of the Ork̲h̲on, (cf. W. Thomsen, I.E., ii., p. 101; ögäm Ilbilgä Ḳatun “my mother the queen Ilbilge”, I.E. 25, p. 106 and 31, p. 108; I.N.G., p…

Ṭāhir Waḥīd

(145 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Muḥammad, ʿImād al-Dawla, a Persian poet of Ḳazwīn, who was the secretary of the two Prime Ministers Mīrzā Taḳī al-Dīn Muḥammad and Ḵh̲alīfa Sulṭān; in 1055 (1645—6) appointed historiographer to S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās II, he became minister in 1101 (1689—90) in the reign of Sulaimān; afterwards he retired into private life and died most probably in 1110 (1698-99) aged 90. The British Museum has five MSS. of his historical works. The Ātas̲h̲-kedè (Bombay 1277, not paginated) says that his poems were mainly admired because of the rank of the author. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Hammer, Gesch. Redek. …

(64 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(cf. Beg), in Buk̲h̲ārā, a title of viziers and officials of high rank. With it is connected bīke, a title of Muḥammadan women of Turkish birth, which at the present day, is still occasionally found in Asia Minor. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Vámbéry, Čagataische Sprachstudien, p. 250 Sulaimān-Efendi, Lug̲h̲āti-d̲j̲ag̲h̲ataï, p. 88 Mohammed Ḏj̲ingiz in the Revue du Monde Musulman, Vol. iii. (1907), p. 249.


(285 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Ḥabīb Allāh, a modern Persian poet, son of the versifier Mīrzā Muḥammad ʿAlī Guls̲h̲an, born at S̲h̲īrāz, was court poet to Muḥammad S̲h̲āh, successor to Fatḥ ʿAlī S̲h̲āh (1250—64 = 1834—48) and to Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh. He was very precocious and attracted attention from the age of eight. His father died when he was eleven ( Perīs̲h̲ān, Bombay, 1277, p. 19) and he had to go to Ḵh̲orāsān to complete his studies. Prince S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ al-Salṭana Ḥasan ʿAlī Mirzā, governor of Mas̲h̲had, took him under his protection. This was the beginning of his good fort…


(68 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p.; Avestan dvar) “door or gate”, particularly the gate or outer court of a royal palace. Dar-gāh (Pahl. dargās) “door”, properly “place of the door”. Dar-i Saʿādat (formerly dar-i dawlat) “gate of bliss”, a name given to Constantinople. Dar-bār (Anglo-Indian durbar) is the name given in India to solemn court ceremonials, receptions and morning audiences. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Gibb, History of Ottoman Poetry, iii. 214, note 1.


(180 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
II, son of Sām Mīrzā (S̲h̲āh Ṣafī) and great-grandson of ʿAbbās I, was born in 1043 (1633), died in 1077 (1666) at Dāmag̲h̲ān, and was buried at Ḳumm. He ascended the throne of Persia at the age of ten (1052 = 1642), he saw a reaction of religious intolerance introduced against the abuse of wine which had been encouraged by the example of his predecessors, but the severe measures adopted by his ministers were unable to put a stop to it. ʿAbbās II, as he grew older, returned to the drunken habit…


(184 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Ferheng (Pehl. frahang “education, instruction”) the name given by the Persians to dictionaries of their language. The four principal ones are the Farhang-i Ḏj̲ahāngīrī begun in 1005 (1597) by order of Akbar by Ḏj̲amāl al-Dīn Ḥusain Ind̲j̲ū, an ʿAlid of S̲h̲īrāz, and finished in 1017 (1608) in the reign of Ḏj̲ahāngīr; the Farhang-i Ras̲h̲īdī of ʿAbd al-Ras̲h̲īd, an ʿAlid of Tatta, who was still alive in 1069 (1618); the Farhang-i S̲h̲oʿūrī, printed at Constantinople in 1155 = 1742; the Farkang-i Nāṣirī (And̲j̲umanārāi) of Riḍā Ḳulī Ḵh̲ān lithographed at Teheran in 1288 = 18…


(140 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(a., “pearl”), a fortress near Ṭarsūs in Cilicia, which was besieged by the Caliph al-Maʾmūn in 217 (832). It was the strongest of the Greek citadels and the one that wrought most havoc among the Muslims; it had a large garrison and was well supplied with arms. The caliph, not having succeeded in taking it, blockaded it for a hundred days with two forts, the troops of which routed the Emperor Theophilus; ¶ as a result of this defeat, the people of Luʾluʾa appealed to ʿUd̲j̲aif b. ʿAnbasa who was their prisoner to negotiate for them and capitulated on obtaining safeguards ( amān) granted by al-Ma…

ʿĀkif Pas̲h̲a

(286 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Muḥammed was a Turkish statesman and man of letters during the reign of Sultan Maḥmūd II; he held the posts of Minister for Foreign Affairs and of Home-minister. He was the son of the ḳāḍī ʿAintābī-zāde Maḥmūd and was born at Yuzg̲h̲ad on 15 Rābīʿ I 1202 (25 Dec. 1787). In 1228 (1813) he came to Constantinople and entered the administration under the auspices of his uncle Muṣṭafā-Maẓhar, raʾīs-efendi, whom he succeeded afterwards; when in 1251 (1836) this function was abolished, he was appointed Prime Minister for Foreign Affairs of the reform ( Tanẓīmāt), but was soon supplanted by his…

Alī Tepedilenli

(376 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, born at Tepe-dilen (Albania) in 1741, was a descendant of the old Beys of the land. His father having been deprived of his fief, ʿAlī gathered together a number of brigands and succeeded in re-capturing Tepe-dilen. To the Sublime Porte he rendered the service of subduing the Pas̲h̲as of Scutari (S̲h̲ḳodra) and Delvino; was confirmed in his office of Bey; became Pas̲h̲a of Trikala in 1787; took Janina in the following year and became Governor of it; in 1797 he had it fortified by French enginee…


(420 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Chief of the Ḵh̲urrami-sect; the name is the arabicised form of the Iranian Pāpak. He was, it is said, the son of an itinerant oilmerchant, and was engaged in a very humble occupation when Ḏj̲āwīd̲h̲ān b. Sahl, chief of the Ḵh̲urramīs noticed his gifts. On the death of the latter he claimed that his spirit had entered him and began to stir up the population of the district of al-Bad̲h̲d̲h̲ in Arrān (201=816-817). In 204 (819-820) Yaḥyā b. Muʿād̲h̲ attacked him without success. Afterwards in th…


(92 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(comparative from kalān “great”) means at the present day in Persia the chief personage in a town, a kind of mayor, burgomaster, bailiff. This office is filled by election; the person elected has to be approved by the higher authority. The main duty of this official is to levy taxes. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Riḍā Ḳulī Ḵh̲ān, Ferheng-i Nāṣirī, s. v. kalān Raphaël du Mans, Estat de la Perse en 1660, ed. Schefer, p. 36 E. Flandin, Voyage en Perse, ii. 421 E. G. Browne, A Year amongst the Persians, p. 455.


(503 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Kag̲h̲id (from the Persian kāg̲h̲ad̲h̲, perhaps of Chinese origin), paper. In the early period of development of Muslim culture the east was only acquainted with papyrus ( ḳirṭās) as writingmaterial. It was Chinese prisoners of war brought to Samarkand after the battle of Aṭlak̲h̲ near Tālās, that first introduced in 134 (751) the industry of paper-making from linen, flax or hemp rags after the method used in China. The various kinds of ¶ paper then made are the following: firʿawnī (Pharoah’s paper), a kind which was destined to compete with papyrus even in the land of it…

Aḥmed Pas̲h̲a

(157 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, son of the ḳāḍī ʿaskar Walī al-Dīn, Ottoman poet of the time of Sultan Muḥammed II, was at first professor at the madrasa of Sultan Murād II in Brussa, ḳāḍī of Adrianople, afterwards tutor of the princes, and Vizier. He composed 33 g̲h̲azals, imitated from those of Mīr ʿAlī S̲h̲ēr Newāyī. He died in 902 (1496) and was buried at Brussa, near the mosque which he had founded and whence he had been banished because of an immoral adventure. Sultan Bāyazīd II had commissioned him with the administra…
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