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Fārs

(414 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(arabiciscd from the Old Persian Pārça [Achaemenid inscriptions]), the ancient Persis or Persia in the narrowest sense, the ancestral home of the Persians, a province of Persia in the S. E. of the modern Īrān with its capital S̲h̲īrāz, bounded in the N. by ʿIrāḳ ʿAd̲j̲amī, in the S. by the Persian Gulf, in the E. by Kirmān and in the W. by Ḵh̲ūzistān. It was divided into five districts in the middle ages; Iṣṭak̲h̲r, Ardas̲h̲īr-k̲h̲urra, Dārābd̲j̲ird, Sābūr and Fennā-Ḵh̲usraw besides five ramm or camps of Kurds. — In the caliphate of ʿOmar, al-ʿAlā b. al-Ḥaḍramī, governor of B…

Bās̲h̲i-Bozūḳ

(122 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(t.), “one whose head is turned”, is applied in Turkey to the irregular volunteers, chiefly recruited from the Albanians, Kurds and Circassians, and raised when there is a great war; a militia of undoubted bravery but quite undisciplined whose savagery and love of pillage have earned them an unenviable notoriety. The name appears to have been first used in 1853 during the war with Russia. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Barbier de Meynard, Supplément aux dictionnaires turcs, Vol. i. p. 263 A. Gallenga, Two Years of the Eastern Question, London, 1877, Vol. i. p. 391 (warsong), Vol. ii. p. 139 A. Ubi…

Farruk̲h̲ān

(224 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Gīlān-s̲h̲āh , ispahbad of Ṭabaristān, known as the Great ( buzurg ) and the Virtuous ( d̲h̲u ’l-manāḳib ), son of Dābūya, conquered Māzandarān and restored peace to the frontiers. When defeated by the Daylamīs in their revolt, he fled to Āmul and entrenched himself in the castle of Fīrūzābād; he saved himself by the ruse of making his besiegers believe that he had enormous stocks of bread. He gave asylum to the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲īs when they were being pursued by al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲, but fought aga…

ʿĀdila K̲h̲ātūn

(159 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, daughter of Aḥmad Pas̲h̲ā, wife of Sulaymān Pas̲h̲a Mizrāḳli̊ ("Abū Laylā"), Ottoman governor of Bag̲h̲dād. During the lifetime of her husband she took part in the government of the province, holding audiences where the petitions were presented to her through the intermediary of an eunuch. She had also a mosque and a caravanseray built, bearing her name. When on the death of Sulaymān (1175/1761) power was about to slip from her hands, she stirred up against his successor, ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a, first t…

Kay K̲h̲usraw

(455 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, the third mythical ruler of the Iranian dynasty of the Kayānids [ q.v.], corresponding to Kavi Haosrovah of the religious tradition (see A. Christensen, Les Kayanides , Copenhagen 1931, 90-2 and index). He is reckoned as the son of Siyāwus̲h̲/Siyāwak̲h̲s̲h̲ [ q.v.] and the grandson, through his mother, of Afrāsiyāb [ q.v.], and according to the national tradition (Christensen, 114-17) was born after his father’s death and was brought up amongst the mountain shepherds of Ḳalū near Bāmiyān, in ignorance of his illustrious origin. This, however, s…

Ṭabūr

(205 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(t.) (a word which has passed into French in the form tabor ), from Eastern Turkī tapḳūr and ṭapḳūr , denoting a pallisade formed of waggons arranged in a circle or square; a body of troops sent out for reconnaissance; a battalion; or a body of about 1,000 men commanded by a biñbas̲h̲i̊ (chief of a thousand). In Morocco, from the mid-19th century, it denoted the first permanent military units. Under the French Protectorate, the term was applied to a group made up of several goums ( gūm , an armed group of ca. 150 men commanded by officers of the Indigenous Affairs Department), hence par…

Bālā

(82 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, (p.) “height”, “high”, also a preposition “over”, is frequently found in composition in place-names; examples will be found below. — The word comes to be the name of a Turkish government official, corresponding to the rank of general of a division of the first class, immediately below the Mus̲h̲īr and Wazīr; in correspondence, officials of this rank are addressed as follows: ʿOṭūfetlü efendim ḥazretleri (To his Gracious Excellency, my lord etc.). (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Sālnāma 1325, p. 38 et seq.

Afsūn

(107 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p), charm, incantation; secondary form of afsān, derived from afsāyīdan (comp. fasā, fasāi, fasāyīdan etc.), root (Salemann, in Grundr. d. iran. Philol., i. 1, 304). This word designates especially now, in Persia, a charm against the biting of poisonous animals; certain derwīs̲h̲es who pretend to have the power to charm serpents, scorpions etc., will, for some gratuity, communicate their invulnerability to other persons. Often it is one part of the body which is so protected, ¶ as for instance the right or the left hand, and it is with this that the animals of this …

Selefke

(278 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, the ancient Σελεύκια, Seleucia Trachaea or Ciliciae, a small town, capital of the sand̲j̲aḳ of Ič-Il in the province of Adana. It was built by Seleucus Nicator towards 300 b. c. The river Gök-Ṣū (Calycadnus) runs past it, about 10 miles from its mouth. In it is a reservoir called Tekfūr Anbāri, “the Emperors storehouse”, hewn out of the rock and covered by a vaulted roof; it is a great cistern carved out of the rock, 30 cubits broad and deep and 60 long; the aqueduct which brought the water to it has been destroyed. There are numerous ancient r…

Abū Bekr

(281 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
b. Saʿd b. Zengī, atābeg of Fārs of the Salg̲h̲uride dynasty. He did not wish to accept the conditions of the peace concluded by his father with Sultan Muḥammed Ḵh̲wārizm S̲h̲āh in 623 (1226), laid an ambuscade for the former on his return to S̲h̲īrāz and even struck him with his sword without wounding him; his father countered with a mace which stretched him at his feet and threw him into prison in the citadel of Iṣṭak̲h̲r. He regained his freedom the same year on the death of the atābeg Saʿd (21st Ḏj̲umādā I 623 = 20th May 1226), restored prosperity to the province of Fārs and added to i…

Kās̲h̲ī

(318 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(in Yāḳūt: Ḳās̲h̲ānī, Ḳās̲h̲ī; in Ibn Baṭṭūṭa: Ḳas̲h̲ānī), the name derived from that of the town of Kās̲h̲ān [q. v.] in Persia, given to square, sometimes hexagonal, plaques of faience used in the exterior decoration of buildings or of interior walls. It is one of the most ancient arts of nearer Asia (already known to the Assyrians and then to the Achaemenids) which survived in Persia in the middle ages, and more especially, it appears, in the town of Kās̲h̲ān. The monuments of modern Persia from the time of the Ṣafawids to our day (t…

Ḏj̲ilwatī

(89 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a religious order founded by Muḥammad Ḏj̲ilwatī, called Pīr Uftāda, a pupil of Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Bairam, who died at Brusa, his native town, in 988 (1580). Their cloth turban has eighteen folds and they wear their hair long. The mother-house is at Brusa, near the mosque of the citadel in which the founder is buried. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography M. d’Ohsson, Tableau, iv. 624, 630: Hammer, Travels of Evliya-Efendi ii. 27 Ewliyā-Efendī, Siyāḥat-nāmah (ed. 1314), ii. 53 (chronogram giving the above date, wrong in Sāmī-bey, Ḳāmūs al-Aʿlām, ii. 299).

al-Sīrd̲j̲ān

(334 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a town in Persia, in the province of Kirmān, near the Fārs frontier; it used to be called al-Ḳaṣrāni, “the two castles”, ¶ and was the capital of Kirmān. The streets are broad, the gardens well irrigated, the climate healthy and temperate. The palace and mosque were built by the Būyid ʿAḍud al-Dawla. The canals which water it were dug by the Ṣaffārids ʿAmr and Ṭāhir b. Lait̲h̲. Wood being scarce, all the houses are covered with brick vaulting. It had eight gates, two markets, the old and the new, with the mosque bet…

Zāwa

(145 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a town in Persia, in Ḵh̲orāsān near Naisābūr. In the time of Muḳaddasī, it was a rural district which did not contain a town; but later (xivth century) there was a fine town there with a citadel built of brick. It contains the tomb of the s̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ḳuṭb al-Dīn Ḥaidar, who was still alive in 617 (1220) whence the name of Turbat-i Ḥaidarī now given to the town. Muḳaddasī mentions a town of the same name near G̲h̲azna ( B. G. A., iii. 50, 297). (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, ii. 770, 910 = Barbier de Meynard, Dict. de la Perse, p. 282 B. G. A., iii. 319c Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, Voyages, iii. 79 Ḳazwīnī, Āt̲…

Lamas-Sū

(396 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Turk, “river of Lamas”; Ar. Lāmis), a river in Cilicia, coming from the Taurus, a day’s journey from Ṭarsūs between Ayās̲h̲ and Mersina; in ancient times it marked the boundary between the two Cilicias (of the mountains and the plains). On the banks of this river exchanges of prisoners with the Greeks and the payment of ransoms were several times made. The first of these took place in the reigns of Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd and the emperor Nicephorus I in 189 (805); the second under the same caliph and empe…

Fidāʾī

(245 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(in vulgar Arabic fidāwī), he who offers up his life, a name given to the Ismāʿīlis, particularly to the assassins appointed to murder their victims (Ibn Baṭūṭa, i. 167; v. Hammer, Funagruben des Orients, iii. 204; do., Assassinen, p. 88); but the word has frequently also a good sense, “paladin, knightly, courageous, brave, undaunted” (Quatremère, Mongols, 124a; cf. v. Oppenheim, Vom Mittelmeer zum Persischen Golf, ii. 100). In Algeria fidāwī means a narrater of heroic deeds and fidāwīya, a tale or song of heroic deeds. During the Persian revolution fidāwī was applied in the first p…

Iʿtimād al-Dawla

(292 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Arabic: support of the kingdom), title of the Persian Prime Minister under the Ṣafawids; also called wazīr-i aʿẓam, “great minister”, nuwwāb (“Nabob”, deputy) or Īrān madārī, “the hinge of Persia”. As the chief administrator of the kingdom he possessed far-reaching powers and no document of the king was valid without his seal; his position however was exceedingly precarious as his fate depended entirely on his master’s humour. A controller ( nāẓir, supervisor) appointed by the king assisted him as secretary. The residence of the Prime Minister was near the royal …

ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a

(335 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Dāmād, Turkish statesman and general born at the village of Seloz, on the banks of Lake Nicæa, succeeded the Abaze Sulaimān as Siliḥdār; became the favourite of Sultan Aḥmed III, who gave him his daughter Fāṭima, then aged four years, in marriage (6 Rabīʿ I 1121 = May 16, 1709); succeeded in bringing about the dismissal from office of his enemy, ʿAlī Pās̲h̲a of Čorlū, and the appointment ¶ in his stead of the incapable Noʿmān Köprülü, afterwards of Balṭad̲j̲i Muḥammed Pas̲h̲a; the Ḳapūdān-pas̲h̲a, Ibrāhīm Ḵh̲od̲j̲a, who had been appointed Grand Wezīr, plotted to…

Bahādur

(168 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Turkish word of Mongol origin ( bak̲h̲atur, Eastern Turkish bātūr, bātōr) signified originally “brave”, “courageous” and became a title of honour at the court of the Great Mug̲h̲als (cf. bātūr-bāshi, a title in Turkestan: Sulaimān-Efendi, Lug̲h̲āti d̲j̲ag̲h̲atāi, p. 66). The word is met with as early as 927 of our era in the name of the Bulgarian chief Alobogotur, which is explained as Alp bagatūr, “the brave hero” (J. Marquart, Osteur. u. ostasiat. Streifzüge, p. 156). — In the middle of the nineteenth century there was in Persia a regiment, composed of Christians called bahādurān “th…

Ālāi

(164 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(t.) = “procession”, “pageant”, “ceremony”; also “regiment” in the military organisation of the Turks. — Gelīn ālāyi = bridal procession to the husband’s home. — Ṣürrè ālāyi = ceremony at the departure of the ṣürrè-emīni (d’Ohsson, Tableau de l’empire ottoman iii. 202). — Bairām-ālāyi = the Sultan’s solemn procession to the mosque for the mid-day prayer on the two Bairāms. — Ālāi čaws̲h̲lari — “sergeants of the procession”, the title of twelve subaltern officers charged with the organisation of the public processions; they were dressed in red velvet and ca…
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