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(1,105 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a dynasty, which reigned from 398 (1007) to 443 (1051) over the provinces of Iṣfahān and Hamad̲h̲ān. It descends from Dus̲h̲manziyār Rustam b. al-Marzubān, a native of Dailam, who held the fief of S̲h̲ahriyār and received the title of ispahbad̲h̲ from the Būyid Mad̲j̲d al-Dawla (cf. Ibn Isfandiyār, Hist. of Ṭabaristān, transl. Browne, p. 228, 230, 231, 239; Ẓahīr al-Dīn, Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Ṭabaristān, ed. Dorn, p. 195, 209; Mīrkhond, Rawḍat al-Ṣafāʾ, iv. 26). Kākōye in the dialect of Dailam is the hypocoristic ¶ diminutive of Kākū “maternal uncle” (cf. J. de Morgan, Mission scientifique en …


(314 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
b. Musāfir (S̲h̲aik̲h̲ ʿAdī), a Mussulman ascet, said to have been born in the village of Bait Fār, near Baʿlabakk (Baalbek), where the house of his birth was in Ibn Ḵh̲allikān’s time still the place of pious pilgrimage. ʿAdī, who was celebrated on account of his saintly life, founded a religious order called after himself, al-ʿAdawīya. He had fixed his residence in the mountains of the Hakkārī Kurds in the region north of Mosul, and died at the age of 90, in 557 (1162), or according to others in 5…


(184 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Old Persian drayah, Pahlavi daryāk) in Persian, sea or large river. Daryā-i Ḵh̲azar is the Caspian Sea; Āmū-Daryā [q. v., p. 339] and Sīr-Daryā are the Oxus and Jaxartes of the ancients, the Ḏj̲aiḥūn and Saiḥūn of the Arabs. The south coast of Lāristān and Kirmān bears the name daryā-bār (Quatremère, Not. et Extraits, xiv. 281, note 1). The naval commander at Bandar-ʿAbbās bears the tittle daryā-begi; among the Ottomans, this name has been sometimes given to the Ḳapūdān-Pas̲h̲a or Admiral-in-Chief; the daryā-ḳalami were, before the reforms, the administrative offices of the …


(275 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(a.), castle, fortress, citadel (from the Arabic ḥaṣara, “to compress, to surround in order to capture”; ḥāṣara “to enclose, to besiege”). Anadolu Ḥiṣār is the name of the fortress, now in ruins, built by the Ottoman Sulṭān Bāyazīd I Yildirim on the Bosphorus between Ḳandīl-lī and Gök-Ṣū (“the sweet waters of Asia”) to facilitate the siege of Constantinople; in conjunction with Rumili-Ḥiṣār, which Muḥammad II Fātiḥ built in 1452 opposite it, it completely commanded the passage and the latter actually earned its name Bog̲h̲āz-Kasan (throat-cutter), [see bog̲h̲āz, i. p. 737b]. Ḥiṣār is…


(474 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(in Arab authors often Ḳās̲h̲ān), a town in ʿIrāḳ ʿAd̲j̲amī (al-Ḏj̲ibāl, Media) three days’ journey from Iṣfahān and twelve farsak̲h̲’s from Ḳumm. It is an ancient town which is said to have been rebuilt by Zubaida, wife of Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd. The heat there is excessive in summer, but the winter is very mild. Water, which is scarce, is brought by an aqueduct from the spring at the castle of Fīn outside the town, to which ¶ the inhabitants go on pilgrimage once a year. The melons and figs of this locality are esteemed. Large numbers of big, black and very dangerous scor…


(286 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Persi an word meaning “source, fountain” which has passed into Turkish with the same sense. It is the name of a market-town in Asia Minor with a wide and safe natural harbour on the Mediterranean coast, at the entrance to the Gulf of the same name, at the north-western extremity of a peninsula opposite the island of Chios. It is the chief town of a ḳaẓā in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Smyrna, Wilāyet Aidin. The town has 5550 inhabitants of whom 4000 are Muḥammadans and 1000 Orthodox Greeks; there are 5 …


(116 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a portable waterholder, with a cock, placed upon a stand and used for ritual ablutions; the name comes from the Ḥanafīs, who must use running water for washing or at least water which runs from a receptacle at least 10 ells in height and breadth. These vessels are usually of copper gilt; after use the water runs into a copper basin. The Turks have similar water-vessels but of marble; they are called musluḳ. They are also found in baths. As the most important part of them is the water-cock, the word ḥanafīya has also received this meaning. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography E. W. Lane, Modern Egyptians 3, i.…


(524 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, the designation of the followers of the Bāb who however prefer to call themselves Ahl-i bayān. The preaching of the doctrine began with the sending of missionaries into various Persian provinces [see bāb]; their teaching, which aroused the protestations of the S̲h̲īʿa population brought about persecutions which the Bābīs resisted; in consequence the sect, at first of a purely religious character, became a political party. After a counsel held at Bedes̲h̲t, Mollā Ḥusain of Bus̲h̲rūye set out for Bārfurus̲h̲ at the head of a li…

ʿĀlī Pas̲h̲a

(388 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Muḥammed Emīn, Turkish diplomatist and statesman, was born at Constantinople in Rabīʿ I 1230 (Feb. 1815). He was a pupil of Ras̲h̲īd Pas̲h̲a, chargé d’affaires at London (1838), ambassador (1841), president of the Tanẓīmāt (reform) Wezīr Council, Grand (1855), plenipotentiary at the Congress of Paris (1856) while the Ḵh̲aṭṭ-i humāyūn was being proclaimed (Feb. 18), the result of his efforts and those of Fuʾād Pas̲h̲a; Grand Wezīr 1857 and 1861, and also in 1867; went to Crete in person to treat with the insurgents (Oct. 4), but without success…


(262 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Ṣafī al-Dīn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Sarāyā, an Arab poet, born on the 5th Rabīʿ II 677 (26th Aug. 1278) at Ḥilla on the Euphrates, settled at the court of the Urtuḳids of Mārdīn and sang their praises. In 726 (1326) he went to Cairo to the court of al-Malik al-Nāṣir but soon returned to Mārdīn and died in 750 (1349) or 752 (1351) in Bag̲h̲dād. As a rule he only follows in the footsteps of his predecessors in his very numerous poems. Only in popular poetry did ¶ he introduce an innovation by inventing a kind of muwas̲h̲s̲h̲aḥ, called muḍamman. The collection entitled Durar al-Nuḥūr, in which the fame of …


(141 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Sanskr. bhaṇgā, Avest. baṇha, Pahl. mang, bang, hemp), strictly the name of various ¶ kinds of hemp ( Hyoscyamus niger), is in Persia however the popular name for the Ḥas̲h̲īs̲h̲ (Cannabis Jndicd). It is sold in the form of leaves or pills ( čers). Such pills are also pounded up and placed in fresh milk from which “Beng-butter” ( rawg̲h̲an-i beng) is prepared. A tea-like infusion ( beng-āb) is also prepared from the Beng (1—3 grammes a dose), which is regarded as an excellent remedy for acute urethritis. — The Arabs have borrowed the word in the form bend̲j̲. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography J. E. Pola…


(210 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p.) “head, extremity of anything”, figuratively “idea”. From the meaning “head” comes that of “chief (Lat. caput), especially in derivatives. Sar-i ʿasker (vulg. ser-ʿasker) is among the Ottomans “commander-in-chief, “minister of war”, transformed by the Arabs of Tunis into Sārī-ʿasker. Sar-dār (q.v.; English transcr. Sirdar), “general”; sardārī is the plaited frock coat worn by Persians of the upper classes and by most of the officials ( R. M. M., 1914, xxviii. 225, note 2; Brieteux, Au pays du Lion et du Soleil, p. 360). Sar-bāz, “he who risks his head”, a name given to the …

ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd

(401 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
II, the present sovereign ruler in the Ottoman empire, son of Sultan ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd, born the 4th S̲h̲aʿbān 1258 (21th Sept. 1842), was thirty-three when the ministers, having deposed his brother, Murad V, called him to the throne of ʿOt̲h̲mān (10th S̲h̲aʿbān 1293 = 31th Aug. 1876). For particulars about the principal events in his reign, the insurrection in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the war with Servia and Montenegro, then with Russia, etc. see special articles. ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd II has continued the work of reform ( tanẓīmāt): during his reign legislation has been perfected by the…

Ibn Daiṣān

(450 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Syrian philosopher of Parthian origin, known by his graecised Syriac name Bardesanes. His father was called Nuhama, his mother Nahsiram; both migrated from Persia to Edessa after 139 a. d. Their son was born in 154 and received his name from the river Daisān which waters Edessa. Brought up at the court of king Maʿnū along with the latter’s son Abgar he learned astronomy and astrology; in 179 he was converted to Christianity by Bishop Hystaspes. Although an opponent of Valentine, Marcion and the other gnostics, he created …


(157 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Turkish: „tree, wood“, a secondary form in East-Turkish yig̲h̲āč), a land measure designating the triple distance at which a man placed between two others can make himself heard by them, thus something like a parasang or a mile. A verse of Mīr ʿAlī S̲h̲ēr Nawāy rates it at 12000 ḳāri (double cubit, the length of the arm from the shoulder to the end of the middle finger); another verse of Mak̲h̲dūm Ḳuli estimates the dimension of the earth at 146000 ag̲h̲āč. Pietro della Valle ( Voyages, iii. 141) thinks the ag̲h̲āč to be equivalent to a Spanish league, or four Italian miles, and acc…


(519 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(t.) properly elči, from the Uigur el, peace, alliance, and the suffix of nouns indication profession,- či, = peace-maker, ambassador, plenipotentiary. The word et “peace”, which is found in Mongol and Manchu, also occurs in Rubg̲h̲ūzī, 5, 10 and Ḳutadg̲h̲u Bilig, 154, 10 (Radloff, Wörterbuch, i. 826). In Turkey a distinction was formerly made between büyük ilči, ambassador, ilči murak̲h̲k̲h̲aṣ, minister plenipotentiary and orta ilči, resident minister. At the present day the diplomatic titles, the employment of which was fixed at the treaty of Vienna, are o…

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Efendi

(310 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Ḳara Čelebī Zāde, ḳaḍī-ʿaskar and historian of the Ottoman empire, the son of Ḥusām. He was nominated Istambol ḳaḍī-si by the sultan Murād IV (1043 = 1633), and then deprived of his office in the same year on account of a famine which he had not remedied; he was put on board a boat to be drowned at Prince’s Island; he was saved through the intercession of the vizier, Bairām Pas̲h̲a, and was banished to Cyprus (Hād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, ed. Flügel, v. 233). It was on this occasion that he wrote his poem Guls̲h̲an-i niyāz. By his intrigues be succeeded in obtaining the title of honorary muftī (7th Ramaḍān…


(414 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(arabiciscd from the Old Persian Pārça [Achaemenid inscriptions]), the ancient Persis or Persia in the narrowest sense, the ancestral home of the Persians, a province of Persia in the S. E. of the modern Īrān with its capital S̲h̲īrāz, bounded in the N. by ʿIrāḳ ʿAd̲j̲amī, in the S. by the Persian Gulf, in the E. by Kirmān and in the W. by Ḵh̲ūzistān. It was divided into five districts in the middle ages; Iṣṭak̲h̲r, Ardas̲h̲īr-k̲h̲urra, Dārābd̲j̲ird, Sābūr and Fennā-Ḵh̲usraw besides five ramm or camps of Kurds. — In the caliphate of ʿOmar, al-ʿAlā b. al-Ḥaḍramī, governor of B…


(122 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(t.), “one whose head is turned”, is applied in Turkey to the irregular volunteers, chiefly recruited from the Albanians, Kurds and Circassians, and raised when there is a great war; a militia of undoubted bravery but quite undisciplined whose savagery and love of pillage have earned them an unenviable notoriety. The name appears to have been first used in 1853 during the war with Russia. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Barbier de Meynard, Supplément aux dictionnaires turcs, Vol. i. p. 263 A. Gallenga, Two Years of the Eastern Question, London, 1877, Vol. i. p. 391 (warsong), Vol. ii. p. 139 A. Ubi…


(594 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(the ancient Iconium), a town in Asia Minor on the railway from Bag̲h̲dād, the capital of the province of the same name, in a barren plain. It is 5,000 feet above sea level; of its 44,000 inhabitants, 39,3000 are Muslims, 1,500 Greeks, 3,000 Armenians, 50 Protestants, 150 Catholics. The streets are broad and unpaved. The houses are built of terre pisée, except public and special buildings, 44 mosques, 147 masd̲j̲ids, 5 libraries, 42 medreses, the Greek church, the Armenian church, 68 schools, 7…
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