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(170 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Abū Manṣūr Muḥammad b. Aḥmad, a Persian poet belonging to Ṭūs. He began an epic in the mutaḳārib metre for the Sāmānid ruler Nūḥ II b. Mānṣūr and had completed 1000 couplets (covering the reign of Gus̲h̲tasp and the preaching of Zoroaster), when he was murdered by a Turkish slave, his favourite, in 341 (952). These 1000 couplets were incorporated by Firdawsī in his S̲h̲āhnāmah (ed. Turner Macan, iii. 1065—1103; ed. Vullers, iii. 1495—1553). He also wrote lyrical poems of which a few fragments have been preserved by ʿAwfī (ed. Browne, ii. p. II—13). It has b…


(210 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, ʿAbd Allāh, a Persian poet, son of Ḏj̲āmī’s [q. v.] sister, born at Ḵh̲ard̲j̲ird in the district of Ḏj̲ām, which belonged to Herāt, and died in 927 (1521). He celebrated the conquests of Tīmūr in an epic entitled Tīmūr-nāmah (also Ẓafar-nāmah), lithogr., Lucknow 1869. He also intended to compose a “fiver” ( k̲h̲amsa), i. e. a collection of five long poems, but never carried his plan into operation. We possess however a ¶ Laila u Mad̲j̲nūn (ed. Sir William Jones, Calcutta 1788, and lithogr. Lucknow 1279), which was to form a part of it, as well as a Haft Manẓar. He was visited by S̲h̲āh Ismāʿ…


(110 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(a. “flag”, from lawā to “enrol”) means in Turkish official terminology an administrative area, several of which form a wilāyet “province” and one is in turn divided into ḳazā “districts”. It corresponds pretty much to the département in France. It is synonymous with sand̲j̲aḳ (t. “flag”) and is used alongside of it. The liwāʾ is governed by a mutaṣarrif, whence a third synonym mutaṣarrif-lik. The institution of the liwāʾ goes back to the early days of the Ottoman empire but it was under Maḥmūd II in 1834 that the present administrative organisation came into being. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography…


(229 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a province in Persia, the Κωμισηνή of the ancients (Polybius, Excerpta, x. 25) between ʿIrāḳ-ʿAd̲j̲amī, Ḵh̲orāsān and Ṭabaristān; capital Dāmag̲h̲ān; other towns Bisṭām and Biyār; the canton of Semnān is sometimes included in it. Through it passes the trade-route between Raiy (and now Ṭeherān) and Ḵh̲orāsān. Muḳaddasī (p. 353) places it in the Dailam country. Industry flourished there; kisāʾ were made there, woollen blankets used both as cloaks and. for beds (Dozy, Dict. des noms des vêtements, p. 383) which were exported abroad, cotton handkerchiefs with embroidered d…


(695 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(κάλαμοΣ, reed) the reed-pen used for writing in the Arabic character. It is a tube of reed cut between two knots, cut obliquely (or concave) at the thicker end, having the point slit, as with us for the quill and later for the steel pen. It has to be very firm so that it does not wear away too quickly; the best kind comes from Wāsiṭ and grows in the marshes ( baṭāʾiḥ) of the ʿIrāḳ. It is allowed to steep like hemp and is kept in the water until its skin has taken on a beautiful dark brown colour. Its fibres should be quite straight so that the slit may also be even. To make the slit the slanted end of the ḳalam is …

Ẓahīr al-Dīn

(133 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Saiyid) al-Marʿas̲h̲ī, son of the Saiyid Nāṣir al-Dīn, descendant of a family of ¶ Saiyids, Persian statesman and historian, born in 815 (1412), was at the court of Muḥammad, Sulṭān of Gīlān, for whose son Kārgiā Mīrzā ʿAlī he composed the Chronicle of Ṭabaristān from the earliest times to 881 (1476). The sovereign employed him on various missions, sent him to the help of Malik Iskandar, son of Malik Kayomart̲h̲ of Rustamdār, who was fighting his brother Malik Kāʾūs and entrusted him with other military expeditions; among these …


(138 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Abū Naṣr Fatḥ-Allāh Ḵh̲ān of Kās̲h̲ān, a Persian poet of the xixth century. His father Muḥammad Kāẓim was the son of the Muḥammad Sanī Ḵh̲ān who had been governor of Kās̲h̲ān, had fought successfully against the nomad Turkomans and was fond of the society of men of distinction. The poet lived at thé court of Muḥammad S̲h̲āh and then retired from the world. He wrote a work in prose and verse entitled Maḳālāt „discourses” containing dithyrambics in honour of his patron Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh, the prime Minister Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Mīrzā Āḳās, Ferīdūn Mīrzā, governor of Ḵh̲orāsā…


(105 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Maḥmūd, one of the most important of modern Turkish lyric poets, wrote ballads and romances after French models and, by introducing these new forms, improved the poetry of his native land. His collections of poems Nag̲h̲ame-i Seḥer (“Morning Lays”), Zemzeme (“Whisperings”) and Gend̲j̲lik (“Youth”) enjoy a great popularity. He also wrote several plays; of these the most original is the Waṣlat (1874), the history of a slave who falls in love with the youthful son of the house and is thereupon sold by her mistress. The poet was still alive in 1902. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography P. Horn, Geschichte…


(200 words)

Author(s): Huart., Cl.
(t.), the gardeners of the Imperial palaces of Constantinople, who form a regular body of troops. This organisation dates from Sulṭān Muṣṭafā II, who, on taking command of the army in 1107 (1695), formed three regiments each of 1000 men with a particular uniform, out of 3000 bostānd̲j̲i, half of whom were drawn from ¶ the palaces of Adrianople and Constantinople: their dress consisted of a long red head dress ( berāta) peculiar to the corps, red jacket and blue trousers for the first regiment, blue jacket and red trousers for the second, green doiman and blue trous…


(484 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(older former kar-bān, “He who protects trade”) the original of the word caravan, means in Persian a number of merchants who organise themselves into a body to defend themselves against robbers and brigands (Ar. ḳāfila). The beasts of burden are camels, horses and mules: the camels are usually arranged in files of seven animals ( ḳatār): the camel-driver rides on an ass at the head of the procession. The caravan drivers are slow and do not hurry, but their work is hard and trying; a man has often ten or twelve camels to watch and guide: sometimes th…


(145 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Persian poet at the court of S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās I, born at Ḵh̲wānsār to the north of Iṣfahān, died in 1024 (1615), wrote seven mat̲h̲nawīs which were collected after his death under the title Sabʿi Saiyāra,The seven Planets”; they include Maḥmūd u-Āyāz, begun in 1001 (1592—1593), finished shortly before his death in 1024 (1615), lithographed at Lucknow in 1290, Mai-k̲h̲āne “The Tavern” and Ḏh̲arra u-Ḵh̲urs̲h̲īd “The Atom and the Sun”. — Luṭf Alī Beg ( Ātes̲h̲-kede, p. 139) mentions a poet of the same name, born at Herāt. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Luṭf ʿAlī Beg, Ātes̲h̲-kede (no pagination, …


(641 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl
, Mālik b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ al-Nak̲h̲ʿī loyal companion and lieutenant of the Caliph ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭâlib; accompanied him on a campaign against the Byzantines on the northern frontier ot Syria (Belād̲h̲orī, ed. de Goeje, p. 164); conveyed to Medīna the complaints of the habitants of Kūfa about the forestalling of estates which Saʿīd b. al-ʿĀṣ, governor of ʿIrāḳ, was executing for ʿOt̲h̲mān on behalf of the Ḳorais̲h̲; but since his mission met with no success, he incited the inhabitants to revolt, blocked t…


(634 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, the Turkish name for Moldavia, ¶ borrowed from that of its founder Bog̲h̲dān I Dragos̲h̲ (1352). Stephen the Great had gained a victory over the Turks at Racova (1475) but in the following year he was in turn defeated in the White Valley ( Valea Alba). In alliance with the Turks he laid waste a part of Poland in 1498; but a year later he threw off the suzerainty of the Ottomans. In alliance with the Poles and Hungarians, he repelled another invasion in 1499. On his death-bed (2nd July 1504) he advised his son Bog̲h̲dān to submit to Turkey (Treaty of 1511 ). During the siege of Vie…


(329 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(earlier Pīrūz-ābād, “city of victory”, Muḳaddasī, p. 432), a name given to the town of GUr (arabicised Ḏj̲ūr) in Fārs, by the Būyid ʿAḍud al-Dawla to avoid the evil omen suggested by the Persian name of the town ( gōr; gūr, “tomb”). It was founded by Ardas̲h̲īr I. on the site of a marsh that had been drained (Yāḳūt, iii. p. 146) and remained the capital of the province of Ardas̲h̲īr-Ḵh̲nrra, although not so large as S̲h̲īrāz or Sīrāf (Iṣṭak̲h̲rī, p. 97); it was fortified by a wall with a ditch but not surrounded by suburbs (ibid. p. …


(439 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a town in Asia Minor, the ¶ capital of a Ḳaẓā of the province and sand̲j̲aḳ of Sīwās, near the Čalta-Irmaḳ, a tributary of the Ḳara-Ṣū (Western Euphrates), lies at the bottom of a valley surrounded by high mountains; the population is 5,600 of whom 3,000 are Sunnīs and 1,500 S̲h̲īʿīs. In it are the ruins of a fortress the surrounding wall of which alone survives, the mosque of the Amīr S̲h̲āhāns̲h̲āh ( Ḳalʿa-Ḏj̲āmiʿ) built in 576 (1180) or 596 (1200), and the mosque of Aḥmad S̲h̲āh b. Sulaimān S̲h̲āh ( Ūlū-Ḏj̲āmiʿ) built in 626 (1228) of yellow freestone and well preserved; it has be…


(571 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a mythical king of Persia, of the Kayānid dynasty. Son of Siyāwak̲h̲s̲h̲, who had left his father Kai-Kāʾūs and taken refuge in Tūrān where he had married the daughter of king Afrāsiyāb [q. v.], he was born after his father’s death and brought up in this country among the shepherds of the mountains of Ḳalū (a valley near Bāmiyān), in ignorance of his illustrious origin; but this was soon revealed. At seven years old he was making bows and at ten he feared neither lions nor tigers. Then Pīrān, …


(203 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p.), an oval bowl of metal, wood or cocoanut (calabash), worn suspended by a chain from the shoulder, in which the dervishes put the alms they receive and the food which is given them. The etymology of this word is obscure; a popular one is given by the Persians: kas̲h̲ “draw” (imperative) and kūl “shoulder”, “what one draws over the shoulder”; but as we find a form k̲h̲ačkūl attested in the older poets (Anwārī, Saif Isfarangī), this explanation can hardly be accepted. The dictionaries give as the first sense “beggar” and then “beggar’s bowl”. We are not able to say whether they are right. In lit…


(84 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, in Eastern Turkī means a dromedary (cf. būg̲h̲ūr), generally a male one; it was also the name of several rulers in Central Asia (cf. bug̲h̲rā k̲h̲ān), after whom a certain dish is named, a kind of pastry called in Ottoman Turkish ʿad̲j̲em yak̲h̲nisi “Persian ragout” and tawa böreki “pasty”. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Suleimām-Efendi, Lug̲h̲āt-i d̲j̲ag̲h̲atāi, p. 82 Vámbéry, Čagataische Sprachstudien, p. 248 Pavet de Courteille, Dictionnaire turc-oriental, p. 172 [Mīrzā Ḥabīb], Glossary to the Dīwān-i aṭʿime of Abū Isḥāḳ Ḥollād̲j̲, p. 175.

Kilāt-i Nādirī

(192 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(strictly Kalāt-), a town in Persia (Ḵh̲orāsān) on the Russo-Persian frontier to the north of Mes̲h̲hed and to the north-east of Sarak̲h̲s. ¶ It is a natural fortress perched on a spur of the Ḳara-Dāg̲h̲ mountains. When Arg̲h̲ūn rebelled against the election of Takūdar Aḥmad as Mongol Īl-k̲h̲ān, he took refuge after his defeat, in this fortress (680/1281), the entrance on the west side of which is still known as Darbend-i Arg̲h̲ūn (it is also pronounced Arg̲h̲awān, probably by a popular etymology). It was besieged by…

Burhān al-Dīn

(413 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Ḳāḍī), aḥmad, ruler of Sīwās and one of the earliest Ottoman lyric poets. He was born at Ḳaiṣarīya in 745 (1344) of a family of judges; on the completion of his studies in Aleppo, he settled in the town of Erzingān, became very friendly with the Emir who was then governing it and married his daughter; he afterwards quarrelled with him, put him to death and installed himself in his place. He took possession of Sīwās and Ḳaiṣarīya, and fought without success against an army sent against him by the ¶ Mamlūks of Egypt in 389 (1387); ten years later he had resource to Egyptian troops (79…
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