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(81 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p. “twisted”), a kind of silk, taffeta. Clavijo, ambassador of Henry III of Castile, found in the markets of Tabrīz, of Sulṭānīya and of Samarḳand, tafetanes woven in the country itself. This material spread more and more in the West towards the end of the Middle Ages. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography M. Devic, Dict, des mots français aborigine orientale, p. 214 Clavijo, Narrative, p. 109, 114, 190 W. Heyd, Hist. du commerce du Levant, French ed. by Raynaud, Leipzig 1886, Index.


(218 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, formerly a small fortified town in the N. E. Ḵh̲orāsān, south of the Atrek, in the province of Naisābūr, five relays distant from this town. Its name, which is still given to the plain in which it was situated, is derived by popular etymology from ispar-āyīn “shield-like” on account of the custom of the ¶ inhabitants of carrying shields, but it used to be called Mihrad̲j̲ān, a name which since the time of Yāḳūt has been given to a village in the vicinity. The citadel which defended it was called Ḳalʿa-i Zar “fortress of gold”; in the great mosque, there was a vessel of brass 12 cubits ( gaz) in circu…


(324 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Turkish word signifying, „usher” „doorkeeper”. It was formerly the name of a body of 630 court ushers employed in the various tribunals, who marched at the head of the procession at state ceremonials ( alāi-čaws̲h̲i, dīwān-čaws̲h̲i): ¶ their chief ( čaws̲h̲-bās̲h̲ī) was vice-president of the Grand Vizier’s court, minister of police, grand-master of ceremonies and introduced ambassadors. He also had command of a company of 200 gedikli zaʿīm, who carried orders to the provinces. He also supervised the farming out of taxes during for the lifetime of the purchase…


(82 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, (p.) “height”, “high”, also a preposition “over”, is frequently found in composition in place-names; examples will be found below. — The word comes to be the name of a Turkish government official, corresponding to the rank of general of a division of the first class, immediately below the Mus̲h̲īr and Wazīr; in correspondence, officials of this rank are addressed as follows: ʿOṭūfetlü efendim ḥazretleri (To his Gracious Excellency, my lord etc.). (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Sālnāma 1325, p. 38 et seq.


(107 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p), charm, incantation; secondary form of afsān, derived from afsāyīdan (comp. fasā, fasāi, fasāyīdan etc.), root (Salemann, in Grundr. d. iran. Philol., i. 1, 304). This word designates especially now, in Persia, a charm against the biting of poisonous animals; certain derwīs̲h̲es who pretend to have the power to charm serpents, scorpions etc., will, for some gratuity, communicate their invulnerability to other persons. Often it is one part of the body which is so protected, ¶ as for instance the right or the left hand, and it is with this that the animals of this …


(278 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, the ancient Σελεύκια, Seleucia Trachaea or Ciliciae, a small town, capital of the sand̲j̲aḳ of Ič-Il in the province of Adana. It was built by Seleucus Nicator towards 300 b. c. The river Gök-Ṣū (Calycadnus) runs past it, about 10 miles from its mouth. In it is a reservoir called Tekfūr Anbāri, “the Emperors storehouse”, hewn out of the rock and covered by a vaulted roof; it is a great cistern carved out of the rock, 30 cubits broad and deep and 60 long; the aqueduct which brought the water to it has been destroyed. There are numerous ancient r…

Abū Bekr

(281 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
b. Saʿd b. Zengī, atābeg of Fārs of the Salg̲h̲uride dynasty. He did not wish to accept the conditions of the peace concluded by his father with Sultan Muḥammed Ḵh̲wārizm S̲h̲āh in 623 (1226), laid an ambuscade for the former on his return to S̲h̲īrāz and even struck him with his sword without wounding him; his father countered with a mace which stretched him at his feet and threw him into prison in the citadel of Iṣṭak̲h̲r. He regained his freedom the same year on the death of the atābeg Saʿd (21st Ḏj̲umādā I 623 = 20th May 1226), restored prosperity to the province of Fārs and added to i…


(318 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(in Yāḳūt: Ḳās̲h̲ānī, Ḳās̲h̲ī; in Ibn Baṭṭūṭa: Ḳas̲h̲ānī), the name derived from that of the town of Kās̲h̲ān [q. v.] in Persia, given to square, sometimes hexagonal, plaques of faience used in the exterior decoration of buildings or of interior walls. It is one of the most ancient arts of nearer Asia (already known to the Assyrians and then to the Achaemenids) which survived in Persia in the middle ages, and more especially, it appears, in the town of Kās̲h̲ān. The monuments of modern Persia from the time of the Ṣafawids to our day (t…


(89 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a religious order founded by Muḥammad Ḏj̲ilwatī, called Pīr Uftāda, a pupil of Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Bairam, who died at Brusa, his native town, in 988 (1580). Their cloth turban has eighteen folds and they wear their hair long. The mother-house is at Brusa, near the mosque of the citadel in which the founder is buried. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography M. d’Ohsson, Tableau, iv. 624, 630: Hammer, Travels of Evliya-Efendi ii. 27 Ewliyā-Efendī, Siyāḥat-nāmah (ed. 1314), ii. 53 (chronogram giving the above date, wrong in Sāmī-bey, Ḳāmūs al-Aʿlām, ii. 299).


(334 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a town in Persia, in the province of Kirmān, near the Fārs frontier; it used to be called al-Ḳaṣrāni, “the two castles”, ¶ and was the capital of Kirmān. The streets are broad, the gardens well irrigated, the climate healthy and temperate. The palace and mosque were built by the Būyid ʿAḍud al-Dawla. The canals which water it were dug by the Ṣaffārids ʿAmr and Ṭāhir b. Lait̲h̲. Wood being scarce, all the houses are covered with brick vaulting. It had eight gates, two markets, the old and the new, with the mosque bet…


(145 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a town in Persia, in Ḵh̲orāsān near Naisābūr. In the time of Muḳaddasī, it was a rural district which did not contain a town; but later (xivth century) there was a fine town there with a citadel built of brick. It contains the tomb of the s̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ḳuṭb al-Dīn Ḥaidar, who was still alive in 617 (1220) whence the name of Turbat-i Ḥaidarī now given to the town. Muḳaddasī mentions a town of the same name near G̲h̲azna ( B. G. A., iii. 50, 297). (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, ii. 770, 910 = Barbier de Meynard, Dict. de la Perse, p. 282 B. G. A., iii. 319c Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, Voyages, iii. 79 Ḳazwīnī, Āt̲…


(396 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Turk, “river of Lamas”; Ar. Lāmis), a river in Cilicia, coming from the Taurus, a day’s journey from Ṭarsūs between Ayās̲h̲ and Mersina; in ancient times it marked the boundary between the two Cilicias (of the mountains and the plains). On the banks of this river exchanges of prisoners with the Greeks and the payment of ransoms were several times made. The first of these took place in the reigns of Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd and the emperor Nicephorus I in 189 (805); the second under the same caliph and empe…


(245 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(in vulgar Arabic fidāwī), he who offers up his life, a name given to the Ismāʿīlis, particularly to the assassins appointed to murder their victims (Ibn Baṭūṭa, i. 167; v. Hammer, Funagruben des Orients, iii. 204; do., Assassinen, p. 88); but the word has frequently also a good sense, “paladin, knightly, courageous, brave, undaunted” (Quatremère, Mongols, 124a; cf. v. Oppenheim, Vom Mittelmeer zum Persischen Golf, ii. 100). In Algeria fidāwī means a narrater of heroic deeds and fidāwīya, a tale or song of heroic deeds. During the Persian revolution fidāwī was applied in the first p…

Iʿtimād al-Dawla

(292 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Arabic: support of the kingdom), title of the Persian Prime Minister under the Ṣafawids; also called wazīr-i aʿẓam, “great minister”, nuwwāb (“Nabob”, deputy) or Īrān madārī, “the hinge of Persia”. As the chief administrator of the kingdom he possessed far-reaching powers and no document of the king was valid without his seal; his position however was exceedingly precarious as his fate depended entirely on his master’s humour. A controller ( nāẓir, supervisor) appointed by the king assisted him as secretary. The residence of the Prime Minister was near the royal …

ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a

(335 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Dāmād, Turkish statesman and general born at the village of Seloz, on the banks of Lake Nicæa, succeeded the Abaze Sulaimān as Siliḥdār; became the favourite of Sultan Aḥmed III, who gave him his daughter Fāṭima, then aged four years, in marriage (6 Rabīʿ I 1121 = May 16, 1709); succeeded in bringing about the dismissal from office of his enemy, ʿAlī Pās̲h̲a of Čorlū, and the appointment ¶ in his stead of the incapable Noʿmān Köprülü, afterwards of Balṭad̲j̲i Muḥammed Pas̲h̲a; the Ḳapūdān-pas̲h̲a, Ibrāhīm Ḵh̲od̲j̲a, who had been appointed Grand Wezīr, plotted to…


(168 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Turkish word of Mongol origin ( bak̲h̲atur, Eastern Turkish bātūr, bātōr) signified originally “brave”, “courageous” and became a title of honour at the court of the Great Mug̲h̲als (cf. bātūr-bāshi, a title in Turkestan: Sulaimān-Efendi, Lug̲h̲āti d̲j̲ag̲h̲atāi, p. 66). The word is met with as early as 927 of our era in the name of the Bulgarian chief Alobogotur, which is explained as Alp bagatūr, “the brave hero” (J. Marquart, Osteur. u. ostasiat. Streifzüge, p. 156). — In the middle of the nineteenth century there was in Persia a regiment, composed of Christians called bahādurān “th…


(164 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(t.) = “procession”, “pageant”, “ceremony”; also “regiment” in the military organisation of the Turks. — Gelīn ālāyi = bridal procession to the husband’s home. — Ṣürrè ālāyi = ceremony at the departure of the ṣürrè-emīni (d’Ohsson, Tableau de l’empire ottoman iii. 202). — Bairām-ālāyi = the Sultan’s solemn procession to the mosque for the mid-day prayer on the two Bairāms. — Ālāi čaws̲h̲lari — “sergeants of the procession”, the title of twelve subaltern officers charged with the organisation of the public processions; they were dressed in red velvet and ca…

Ibn al-Muḳaffaʿ

(327 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Abu ’l-Bas̲h̲ar, the Arab name of Severus, Monophysite bishop of Us̲h̲mūnain, a contemporary of the Copt patriarch Philotheos (979—1003). Nothing is known of his life except that he was authorised by the Fāṭimid Caliph al-Muʿizz to dispute with the ḳāḍīs on religious questions (Huart, Hist. des Arabes, i. 344). He wrote a history of the dignitaries who had occupied the patriarchal see of Alexandria, which forms the basis of Abbé Renaudot’s Historia Patriarcharum Alexandrinorum Jacobitarum (Paris 1713). The municipal library of Hamburg possesses the most ancient Mss. …


(1,589 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, an Arabic word signifying ”gate”, early ¶ received among the Ṣūfis the meaning of “gate by which one enters, means of communication with that which is within”. Among the Ismaélis, this word is used symbolically for the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ or spiritual leader, who initiates into the mysteries of religion, the Asās (Guyard, Fragments, p. 106); among the Noṣairis, Salmān al-Fārisī, entrusted with the propaganda is the Bāb (R. Dussaud, Noṣairīs, p. 62. n. 4). The Druses call by this name the first spiritual minister, who embodies universal reason ( Mawlāya ʿaḳl “Monseigneur l’esprit”; cf. Sacy, Druz…


(103 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a district ofthe province of Nīsābūr in Ḵh̲orāsān, had at first as its capital, Ḵh̲usiawd̲j̲ird, a farsak̲h̲ (4 miles) from Sabzewār, then Sabzewār itself.. One of the villages attached to it is Bās̲h̲tīn, the native place of the Emīr ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ, founder of the Sarbadār dynasty. Its inhabitants have always been fanatical S̲h̲īʿites. Formerly marble quarries were worked there. Bās̲h̲tīn was the birthplace of the S̲h̲āfiʿite traditionist Abū Bakr Aḥmad b. al-Ḥusain b. ʿAlī. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Barbier de Meynard, Dictionnaire de la Perse, p. 130 Muḥammad Ḥasan-Ḵh̲ān, Mirʾāt…
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