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ʾIbdāl

(1,158 words)

Author(s): Jaakko Hämeen-Anttila
ʾIbdāl or badal ‘permutation’ is a term used for two distinct phenomena in Arabic linguistics. ʾIbdāl naḥwī ‘grammatical ʾibdāl’ refers to certain, mainly morphophonological, changes in verbs, nouns, and particles, whereas ʾibdāl luġawī ‘lexical ʾibdāl’ refers to phonologically and semantically related doublets, triplets, or longer series in the lexicon. In both cases, only consonants (as defined by Arab grammarians, i.e. including the ‘weak consonants’ w, y, ʾalif) are concerned; variation of short vowels is not called ʾibdāl, the starting point for the medieval author…
Date: 2018-04-01

Rajaz

(3,838 words)

Author(s): Jaakko Hämeen-Anttila
The language of rajaz poetry is often complicated. This is due in part to the brevity of rajaz verses (usually eight to twelve syllables) and in part to the exigencies of rhyme, which force the poet to repeat the same set of syllables every few words; in the most extreme case, as much as 25 percent of each verse may consist of rhyme. Not surprisingly, many of the anomalies of rajaz are found specifically in rhyme. Grammatical and lexical irregularities and oddities are also found outside of rhyme. This made rajaz verses a favorite mine of šawāhid ‘evidentiary verses’ for lexicographers and…
Date: 2018-04-01