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Riḍā, Rashīd

(5,705 words)

Author(s): Johanna Pink
Muḥammad Rashīd Riḍā (1865–1935) was the main author of an extensive, incomplete Qurʾānic commentary best known as Tafsīr al-manār, which took its name from the journal al-Manār, edited by Rashīd Riḍā, in which it was originally published. Originally, the tafsīr was based on the exegetical lectures of Muḥammad ʿAbduh, but it was continued and further developed by Rashīd Riḍā to include a wide range of additional material and address specific contemporaneous issues. Rashīd Riḍā’s interest in using the Qurʾān to solve social and political probl…
Date: 2017-08-31

ʿAbduh, Muḥammad

(6,552 words)

Author(s): Johanna Pink
Muḥammad ʿAbduh was born around 1849 into a farming family in the Nile Delta. He received a traditional religious education, first at home, then in Ṭanṭā, and finally at Cairo’s Azhar mosque. In 1872 he started studying with Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī (1838-97), an Iranian political activist who tried to acquire a following for his anti-British agenda. Al-Afghānī introduced ʿAbduh to scholars such as Avicenna (370-428/980-1037) and Ibn Khaldūn (732-808/1332-1406), and exposed him to translations of European works on history, sociology, and political thought. In 1877 ʿAbduh r…
Date: 2017-01-04