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Fall of Man

(872 words)

Author(s): Johns, Anthony Hearle
The primordial turning away from God by human beings, usually depicted in scripture in the persons of Adam and Eve (q.v.). The Qurʾān tells of the fall of humankind from a garden (q.v.) in which they enjoyed happiness — free from hunger, thirst and pain from the sun's heat ( q 20:118-9; Ṭabarī, Tafsīr, viii, 267-8) — to this present world (q.v.) in which they are subject to pain and, with it, moral and physical weakness (see failure ). This fall is an event in the drama that ensued when God announced to the angels (see angel ) that he was going to place on earth (q.v.) a vicegerent ( q 2:30; see caliph ) fa…

Hot and Cold

(688 words)

Author(s): Johns, Anthony Hearle
Having, or characterized by, a high or low temperature. Hot and cold are two primary qualities that have a contrastive distribution in the Qurʾān, hot being associated with pain and discomfort, cold (generally) with comfort and relief. In most of its attestations, hot is expressed by ḥarr and ḥarūr. It indicates pain in both this world and the one to come. A verse illustrating both aspects is q 9:81. God warns those reluctant to join the expedition (see expeditions and battles ) to attack Tabūk, “They said, ‘Do not set out in the [mid-summer] heat.’ Reply, ‘The fire (q.v.) of h…


(650 words)

Author(s): Johns, Anthony Hearle
The chief minister of Pharaoh (q.v.) who with him rejected Moses' (q.v.) call to worship the true God and to set free the children of Israel (q.v.). In the Qurʾān, there are six attestations of his name. In q 28:6 he is mentioned alongside Pharaoh. They both have armies, and share guilt in the slaughter of the sons of the Israelites. God declares that they will be overthrown by the people they so oppress, who will then be heirs to their power and wealth (q.v.; q 28:4-5). There is thus an irony in the fact that when Pharaoh's household took the infant Moses from the river — an in…