Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Judd, Steven C." ) OR dc_contributor:( "Judd, Steven C." )' returned 14 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

al-Awzāʿī

(1,229 words)

Author(s): Judd, Steven C.
Abū ʿAmr ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAmr al-Awzāʿī (88–157/707–74), an influential Syrian legal scholar and theologian, was born in or near Baalbek, in present-day eastern Lebanon. His nisba is derived either from the name of the Damascus suburb of al-Awzāʿ where he lived much of his life, or from his purported descent from the Yemeni tribe of al-Awzāʿ. Al-Awzāʿī's father died when he was quite young, after which he moved to Beirut with his mother. From Beirut he eventually travelled, possibly with an uncle, to al-Yamāma, where he was enrolled in the dīwān, indicating that he was compensated f…
Date: 2020-02-11

ʿUmar b. Hubayra

(710 words)

Author(s): Judd, Steven C.
ʿUmar b. Hubayra (d. between 105/724 and 107/726) was an Umayyad military leader who served as governor of Iraq during the reign of the Umayyad caliph Yazīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik (r. 101–5/720–24). He is generally described as a fierce partisan of the Qays tribal bloc, though his initial success as a military leader came during the reign of ʿUmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz (r. 99–101/717–20), whom modern historians consider to be pro-Yemeni. Feuds between these two vaguely-defined tribal blocs often serve as explanations for conflicts in early Islamic history. He first appears in the sources as l…
Date: 2020-02-11

Maʿbad b. ʿAbdallāh al-Juhanī

(746 words)

Author(s): Judd, Steven C.
Maʿbad b. ʿAbdallāh b. ʿUkaym al-Juhanī (executed c.80/699) was a Basran religious thinker who was associated with the Qadarī doctrine of human free will (qadar). While he was ultimately condemned as a heretic, for a time he enjoyed a good reputation in Basra and was trusted by the Umayyad authorities. Al-Ḥajjāj b. Yūsuf (d. 95/714), governor of the East, recommended him to the caliph ʿAbd al-Malik (r. 65–86/685–705) as an emissary to the Byzantine emperor. Maʿbad also tutored one of the caliph’s sons. He may also have…
Date: 2020-02-11

Ibrāhīm b. al-Walīd

(767 words)

Author(s): Judd, Steven C.
Ibrāhīm b. al-Walīd was one of nineteen sons of the Umayyad caliph al-Walīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik (al-Walīd I, r. 86–96/705–15). Neither his birth year nor the identity of his mother, an umm walad (slave who gave birth to her master’s child) who may have been a Berber, is known. The sources are silent about him until his participation in the revolt led by his half-brother Yazīd b. al-Walīd (d. 126/744) that overthrew the caliph al-Walīd b. Yazīd (al-Walīd II, r. 125–6/743–4), whose murder precipitated the disintegration of the Umay…
Date: 2020-02-11

Ibn Aʿtham al-Kūfī

(805 words)

Author(s): Judd, Steven C.
Abū Muḥammad Aḥmad Ibn Aʿtham al-Kūfī is known largely for his Kitāb al-futūḥ (“Book of conquests”), an early narrative of the Islamic conquests. Biographical sources offer little information about him. Yāqūt (d. 626/1229) labels him a Shīʿī and a weak muḥaddith (transmitter), a description copied by al-Ṣafadī (d. 764/1363) and Ibn Ḥajar (d. 852/1448) (al-Safadī, 6:256, Ibn Ḥajar, 1:138). He is credited with three written works. In addition to the Kitāb al-futūḥ, he also wrote a Kitāb al-taʾrīkh (“Book of history”), which is described as a continuation (dhayl) of his Futūḥ that exten…
Date: 2020-02-11

Abū Zurʿa al-Dimashqī

(672 words)

Author(s): Judd, Steven C.
Abū Zurʿa ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAmr al-Dimashqī (d. 282/895) was born into a family of Damascene muḥaddiths, sometime before 200/815. Few details of his life are preserved. He apparently travelled with his father to Ḥimṣ and Rāmallāh in 211/826 and later travelled to other Syrian cities in order to pursue ḥadīth transmitters. He reportedly visited Egypt in 219/834 and probably visited Baghdad, Kufa, and Basra as well. He died in Damascus in 281/895. He was a noted muḥaddith, whose teachers included Ibn Ḥanbal (164–241/780–855), Yaḥyā b. Maʿīn (158–233/775–848), and a number…
Date: 2020-02-11

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. al-Ḥajjāj b. ʿAbd al-Malik

(601 words)

Author(s): Judd, Steven C.
ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. al-Ḥajjāj b. ʿAbd al-Malik (d. 126/744) was an Umayyad prince who was married to a daughter of the caliph Hishām b. ʿAbd al-Malik (d. 125/743). Al-Ṣafadī and Ibn ʿAsākir report that his mother was Rayṭa bt. ʿUbaydallāh b. ʿAbdallāh, making him a half-brother to the first ʿAbbāsid caliph Abū l-ʿAbbās al-Saffāḥ (d. 136/754). Other sources note only that his mother was an umm walad. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. al-Ḥajjāj is seldom mentioned in historical sources before he became involved in the third fitna, in which he supported the efforts of Yazīd b. al-Walīd (Yazīd III, re…
Date: 2020-02-11

Abū Thawr

(692 words)

Author(s): Judd, Steven C.
Abū Thawr Ibrāhīm b. Khālid b. Abī l-Yamān al-Kalbī (d. 240/854) was a Baghdadi legal scholar (faqīh) and traditionist (muḥaddith) who may have founded his own school of law (madhhab) and was later associated with the spread of the Shāfiʿī madhhab. He died in 240/854, at approximately seventy years of age. Details of Abū Thawr’s life are vague. The sources indicate that he lived in Baghdad, where he met al-Shāfiʿī (d. 204/820) and other prominent scholars. Any travels he may have undertaken are not described, and we do not know how he sustained himself financially. The sources do indicate…
Date: 2020-02-11

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. al-Walīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik

(401 words)

Author(s): Judd, Steven C.
ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. al-Walīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik (d. 110/728–9) served his father caliph al-Walīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik b. Marwān (al-Walīd I, r. 86–96/705–15) in a variety of capacities. He campaigned against the Byzantines on at least two occasions, in 91/709 and 94/713. He led the pilgrimage in 93/712 and possibly in 94/713. He also served as his father’s governor of Damascus and of Qinnasrīn. These appointments are consistent with al-Walīd’s attempt to name ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz as his successor. Al-Walīd’s hopes in…
Date: 2020-02-11

Yazīd b. ʿUmar b. Hubayra

(725 words)

Author(s): Judd, Steven C.
Yazīd b. ʿUmar b. Hubayra (d. 132/750) was an Umayyad general often associated with the Qays tribal bloc. Like his father, ʿUmar b. Hubayra (d. between 105/724 and 107/726), he served as governor of Iraq. Both he and his father are often referred to as Ibn Hubayra in the sources. Yazīd had a complicated relationship with the Umayyad caliphs. He rejected overtures from Hishām b. ʿAbd al-Malik (r. 105–25/724–43), who wanted Yazīd to marry the daughter of his son Muʿāwiya b. Hishām (d. c.120/728), who …
Date: 2020-02-11

ʿAbdallāh b. ʿUmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(597 words)

Author(s): Judd, Steven C.
ʿAbdallāh b. ʿUmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz (d. 132/749–50), the son of the Umayyad caliph ʿUmar II (r. 99–101/717–20), does not appear in the historical sources until the third fitna (civil war), when he became a key supporter of Yazīd III b. al-Walīd (d. 126/744). Al-Ṭabarī reports that Yazīd named him governor of Iraq in 126/744, after having removed Manṣūr b. Jumhūr, who had alienated his subjects. Ibn ʿAsākir mentions that ʿAbdallāh b. ʿUmar was first appointed as governor of Basra, replacing Jarīr b. Yazīd, and was later giv…
Date: 2020-02-11

Bishr b. al-Walīd

(481 words)

Author(s): Judd, Steven C.
Bishr b. al-Walīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik was one of the thirteen brothers of Yazīd b. al-Walīd who joined the revolt in 126/743–44 against al-Walīd II b. Yazīd, who had acceded to the throne the previous year and was killed in the uprising. Information about Bishr is sparse; neither his birth date nor his death date is recorded in any available source. His mother was an umm walad (slave who bore her master's child), and he appears to have had at least one full brother, Masrūr, with whom he appears in the sources. He reportedly led raids westward from Egypt in 94/713…
Date: 2020-02-11

Ghaylān al-Dimashqī

(1,309 words)

Author(s): Judd, Steven C.
Ghaylān al-Dimashqī (fl. c.100/719) was a prominent leader of the Qadarī movement—whose adherents believed in human free will—in Umayyad Damascus, and he served in government positions, at least during the reign of the caliph ʿUmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz (r. 99–101/717–20). His background and parentage are unclear. Reports name him Ibn Muslim, Ibn Yūnis, or simply Ibn Abī Ghaylān. His father appears to have been a mawlā (client) of the caliph ʿUthmān b. ʿAffān (r. 23–35/644–56) and may have been of Coptic origin. The sources include no further information about Gha…
Date: 2020-02-11

Jaʿd b. Dirham

(619 words)

Author(s): Judd, Steven C.
Jaʿd b. Dirham was an Umayyad-era heretic who was executed by Khālid al-Qasrī sometime during the latter’s reign as governor of Iraq (105–120/724–738), either in Kufa or in the provincial capital Wāsiṭ. Details about his activities, origins, and beliefs are both limited and tainted by later exaggerations and revisions. None of his writings or doctrinal statements survive. Jaʿd reportedly lived for a time in Damascus, but originated in either Khurāsān or Ḥarrān, in the Jazīra. He eventually fled fr…
Date: 2020-02-11