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Tadwīn

(375 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G. H. A.
(a.) nom verbal de dawwana «enregistrer», probablement un verbe dénominal tiré du nom persan dīwān [ q.v.]. Concernant le tadwīn ayant la connotation de «dresser des listes dans un but militaire ou administratif», voir Dīwān. Concernant son utilisation dans le sens de «réunir les poèmes de certains poètes ou de certaines tribus», voir S̲h̲iʿr. Dans la science du ḥadit̲h̲, le terme indique le recueil de traditions écrites dans le but d’en tirer des préceptes juridiques et non pas le simple aide-mémoire pour lequel on utilisait plutôt les termes de kitābat al-ʿilm ou k. al-ḥadīt̲h̲. On es…

al-Suddī

(255 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G. H. A.
, Ismāʿīl b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, mawlā de Zaynab bt. Ḳays b. Mak̲h̲rama, était prédicateur populaire à Kūfa, où il serait mort en 127/745. Sa réputation de transmetteur de traditions prophétiques est sujette à caution. Les opinions des experts en rid̲j̲āl [ q.v.] vont de la neutralité ( ṣāliḥ [ q.v.] lā baʾs bi-hi) à l’accusation de mensonge ( kad̲h̲d̲h̲āb). Son rôle dans les isnāds qui étayent les traditions canoniques est de toute façon minime, et totalement artificiel, dans la mesure où il ne peut en être tenu pour responsable. Ses positions politiques ( tas̲h̲ayyuʿ) semblent avoir été é…

Siḥāḳ

(2,205 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G. H. A.
, comme musāḥaḳa nom d’action de forme III d’un verbe signifiant «frotter» (cf. le grec xpipeiv, fr. «tribadisme») employé couramment pour désigner le saphisme, ou lesbianisme. D’autres dérivés de cette racine dans le même sens sont les noms d’action de la forme I saḥḳ et siḥāḳa. On trouve parfois la forme VI tasāḥaḳa. Les femmes adonnées au saphisme sont appelée sāḥiḳāt, saḥḥāḳāt ou musāḥiḳāt. Le Lisān al-ʿArab qualifie l’expression musāḥaḳat al-nisāʾ de lafz muwallad, ou expression d’apparition postclassique. L’exemple de relation saphique, sans doute légendaire, l…

al-Rāmahurmuzī

(553 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G. H. A.
, Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Ḵh̲allād, souvent appelé dans la littérature arabe médiévale Ibn al-Ḵh̲allād, ḳāḍī et auteur de divers ouvrages d’ adab [ q.v.] mort en 360/971. Sa date de naissance ¶ est inconnue, mais à en juger par celle de ses maîtres en tradition supposés, il doit avoir vécu près d’un siècle, pour autant que l’on puisse faire crédit à la longévité habituellement prêtée aux transmetteurs de cette époque. Sur les notices biographiques le concernant, voir GAS, I, 193. Quelques uns de ses vers ont été conservés dans la Yatīmat al-dahr d’al-T̲h̲aʿālibī [ q.v.], é…

Abū Hurayra

(1,277 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G. H. A.
Abū Hurayra (d. 57/678, 58/679, or 59/680 at about seventy-eight years of age) was a famous Companion of the prophet Muḥammad, generally known by his agnomen “father of the kitten,” alluding to his love for a pet he had. He hailed from the South Arabian tribe of Daws. He is celebrated among Muslims for reputedly passing on more sayings and actions of Muḥammad, laid down in ḥadīth, than any other Companion. Prophetic traditions traced back via him run into the thousands: in Tuḥfat al-ashrāf bi-maʿrifat al-aṭrāf, by al-Mizzī, his output that has found a place in any of the canonic…
Date: 2020-02-11

Abū l-ʿĀliya al-Riyāḥī

(943 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G. H. A.
Abū l-ʿĀliya Rufayʿ b. Mihrān al-Riyāḥī (d. c. 93/712), a Basran Successor, faqīh and Qurʾān expert, was a mawlā of the Banū Riyāḥ, a branch of Tamīm (cf., al-Dhahabī, Tadhkirat al-ḥuffāẓ, Hyderabad 1955, 1:61). He was manumitted sāʾibatan (for this term, generally applied to camels that are “retired,” cf. Lane, s.v., and al-Ṭabarī, Tafsīr, ed. Aḥmad Muḥammad Shākir, 3:386). He is said to have been born in the Jāhiliyya, but that is probably apocryphal; it is in any case difficult to reconcile this claim with his own statement that he was a youth (shābb) at the time of the conflict betw…
Date: 2020-02-11

al-Aʿmash

(3,227 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G. H. A.
Sulaymān b. Mihrān al-Aʿmash (d. 147 or 148/764–5) was an important transmitter of Prophetic traditions in Kufa. He was the most outstanding among the common links of ḥadīth (Ar. madār, lit., “pivot”; for this term and a few other technical ḥadīth terms, such as bundle, dive, (partial) com-mon link, etc., used in the following, see G. H. A. Juynboll, (Re)appraisal of some technical terms in ḥadīth science, ILS 8 (2001) 310ff.). Born in 59/679 or 61/681, he was brought as a captive from Ṭabaristān to Kufa, where he was purchased and subsequently set free. He was a mawlā of the Banū Kāhil, a …
Date: 2020-02-11

Anas b. Mālik

(3,151 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G. H. A.
Anas b. Mālik (d. 93/712) was allegedly the last of the Companions of the Prophet to die in Basra. His lifespan is recorded as having bridged almost the entire first/seventh century. Ten years old at the time of the Hijra, he is said to have died in 93/712 at the age of 103 (lunar) years. He had a mansion ( qaṣr) in Basra (cf. Ibn al-Faqīh, Mukhtaṣar kitāb al-buldān, ed. de Goeje, 189). His tomb was located outside the Mirbad (the market outside Basra which formed its oldest commercial centre), adjacent to those of Ḥasan al-Baṣrī and Muḥammad b. Sīrīn (both d. 110/728) (Iṣṭakhrī, Masālik al-mamāli…
Date: 2020-02-11

al-Ṭayālisī

(649 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G. H. A.
, Abū Dāwud Sulaymān b. Dāwūd al-Ḏj̲ārūd, de Baṣra, célèbre collectionneur de ḥadīt̲h̲s [ q.v.], surnommé la montagne de savoir, qui mourut en 203 ou 204/819-20 à l’âge d’environ soixante-dix ans. Il était mawlā du clan d’al-Zubayr b. al-ʿAwwām [ q.v.] et originaire de Perse. Il devait, disait-on, sa nisba à son habitude (?) de porter une sorte de capuchon de type persan ( ṭaylasān, pi. ṭayālisa), un vêtement enveloppant comme un châle porté autour de la tête et du cou. Pourtant, la nisba renvoie manifestement à un fabricant ou à un marchand de ṭaylasān, la capuche que portaient les sava…

Tawātur

(1,042 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G. H. A.
, nom verbal de forme VI d’un verbe signifiant «venir l’un après l’autre». Cet article doit être considéré comme une extension de l’article Mutawātir [ q.v.], participe du même verbe. Tawātur est un terme technique dans la science du ḥadīt̲h̲ [ q.v.] qui signifie globalement «authentification large». Il est souvent utilisé sous une forme adverbiale. Il indique qu’un récit historique ou une tradition prophétique ont été confirmés par un si grand nombre de chaînes d’ isnād, chacune ayant pour origine un compagnon différent ou toute autre autorité ancienne, que son authen…

Ibn Miḳsam

(295 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G. H. A.
, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan b. YaʿḲūb b. al-Ḥasan b. al-Ḥusayn b. Muḥammad b. Sulaymān ¶ b. Dāwūd b. ʿUbayd Allāh b. Miḳsam , Abū Bakr al-ʿAṭṭār al-Muḳriʾ al-Naḥwī , who lived from 265/878-9 until 354/965, was one of the most learned experts in ḳirāʾa [ q.v.] and also noted for his knowledge of Arabic grammar as practised in the school of Kūfa. According to his contemporaries, his only fault was that he, when teaching the Ḳurʾān, instructed in various readings ( ḳirāʾāt ) which were not agreed upon by the majority of scholars of his days ( id̲j̲māʿ ). Thus, instead of nad̲j̲iyyan in XII, 80, he read nud̲j̲…

Muṣannaf

(691 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G.H.A.
(a., pl. muṣannafāt ), an early technical term in Arabic literature applied to a collection of religious learning organised upon an abstract, structured subdivision in chapters, hence the opposite of musnad [ q.v.], i.e. a collection arranged according to the first/oldest transmitter. Muṣannaf is the past participle of a denominative verb meaning originally “to assort”, “to distinguish”, sc. the one ṣinf (=“sort” or “species”) from another. Allegedly the first in the Islamic world to compose a structured collection of ancient traditi…

Ḳuʿūd

(245 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G.H.A.
(a.), the verbal noun Ḳaʿada “to sit”, which developed into a technical term. (1) In the ṣalāt [ q.v.] it indicates the sitting posture which is the penultimate component of a rakʿa [ q.v.]. For descriptions and illustrations, see Lane, Manners and customs of the modern Egyptians , 3rd edn., London 1842, i, 107, postures 7 and 13, and T. P. Hughes, A dictionary of Islam, London 1885, 467. (2) In early Islamic history it is the designation of the political attitude of a faction of the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲īs, the ḳaʿada (also called ḳuʿʿād , ḳāʿidūn and simply ḳaʿad after the analogy of ḥāris , pl. ḥaras

T̲h̲iḳa

(335 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G.H.A.
(a.), pl. t̲h̲iḳāt , qualification used in the science of ḥadīt̲h̲ [ q.v.] to describe a transmitter as trustworthy, reliable. Through over-use it gradually lost this positive meaning and, more often than not, it is a virtually meaningless epithet. When not used alone, the term appears often in strings of qualifications which, taken at first sight, seem to be contradictory. The biographical dictionaries of ḥadīt̲h̲ transmitters abound in examples of people mentioned as t̲h̲iḳa as well as ḍaʿīf “weak”, or matrūk “to be ignored”. Mo…

Nāfīʿ

(1,779 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G.H.A.
, the mawlā of ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿUmar b. al-K̲h̲aṭṭāb [ q.v.], according to early tradition sources a major transmitter of Prophetic ḥadīt̲h̲ [ q.v.], who is described as having been a resident of Medina. His year of birth does not seem to be recorded and his year of death is variously given as 117/735, 118/736, 119/737 or 120/738 (cf. Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Tahd̲h̲īb , x, 414, K̲h̲alīfa b. K̲h̲ayyāṭ, Ṭabaḳāt , ed. A.Ḍ al-ʿUmarī, 256). The sources contain hardly any information on his person and the little they say is often contradictory. Ibn ʿUmar is alleged to have acquired Nāfi…

S̲h̲uʿba b. al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲

(1,310 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G.H.A.
b. al-Ward, Abū Bisṭām al-ʿAtakī, a mawlā from Baṣra with the honorific s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-islām , was an eminent scholar and collector of ḥadīt̲h̲ [ q.v.]. Born during the years 82-6/702-7, his death from the plague is generally taken to have occurred in 160/776. Originally from Wāsiṭ, he came to live in Baṣra, where he sought out al-Ḥasan al-Baṣrī [ q.v.]. S̲h̲uʿba is recorded to have studied masāʾil (= juridical problems) with him, so if that is historical he may be assumed to have arrived there in or before 110/728, the year in which Ḥasan…

K̲h̲abar al-Wāḥid

(478 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G.H.A.
Literally, tradition or report going back to one single authority. Synonyms are k̲h̲abar al-āḥād , k̲h̲abar al-infirād and k̲h̲abar al-k̲h̲āṣṣa . According to the generally-accepted definition, a k̲h̲abar al-wāḥid is a report which falls short of the predicate mutawātir [ q.v.] (or, as certain scholars assert, mas̲h̲hūr [ q.v.]) in that it has only one or a few (from two to five) transmitters in every ṭabaḳa of its isnād . The first classical scholar who writes about the k̲h̲abar al-wāḥid is, according to Nawawī (cf. S̲h̲arḥ ṣaḥīḥ Muslim , Cairo 1349, i, 131),…

al-Tirmid̲h̲ī

(351 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G.H.A.
, Abū ʿĪsā Muḥammad b. ʿĪsā b. Sawra, great collector of ḥadīt̲h̲ [ q.v.], the author of one of the Six Books, al-kutub al-sitta. He is said to have been born in 210/825 near the town of Tirmid̲h̲ [ q.v.]. He travelled widely in search of traditions through K̲h̲urāsān, ʿIrāḳ and the Ḥid̲j̲āz. He was among others a pupil of al-Buk̲h̲ārī [ q.v.]. Later in life he became blind, allegedly as a result of excessive weeping, and he died in Tirmid̲h̲ in 279/892. He is famous in the first place for his al-D̲j̲āmiʿ al-ṣaḥīḥ , a collection generally considered to hold the four…

al-Mizzī

(1,384 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G.H.A.
, D̲j̲amāl al-Dīn abu ’l-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ Yūsuf b. al-Zakī ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Yūsuf al-Kalbī al-Ḳuḍāʿī, famous Syrian traditionist. Born near Aleppo in 654/1256 of Arab stock, he moved early in life with his parents to al-Mizza [ q.v.], a rich village just outside Damascus where he received a traditional education in Ḳurʾān and some fiḳh . When he was in his early twenties he embarked upon a career as a traditionist hearing ḥadīt̲h̲s with the masters of his time. One of his fellow pupils was Taḳi ’l-Dīn Ibn Taymiyya (661-728/1263-1328 [ q.v.]), who remained a life-long friend. Al-Mizzī…

al-Ṭayālisī

(625 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G.H.A.
, Abū Dāwūd Sulaymān b. Dāwūd b. al-D̲j̲ārūd, famous Baṣran collector of ḥadīt̲h̲ [ q.v.], nicknamed “the mountain of knowledge”, who died in 203 or 204/819-820 at the age of ca. seventy years. He was a mawlā of the clan of al-Zubayr b. al-ʿAwwām [ q.v.] and originally hailed from Persia. He is said to have owed his nisba to his custom (?) of wearing a certain Persian upper garment or hood ( ṭaylasān , pl. ṭayālisa ), a scarf-like wrapper worn around the head and neck, but the nisba more obviously relates to a maker or seller of ṭaylasāns , the cowl worn by scholars. He w…
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