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Ibn Miḳsam

(295 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G. H. A.
, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan b. YaʿḲūb b. al-Ḥasan b. al-Ḥusayn b. Muḥammad b. Sulaymān ¶ b. Dāwūd b. ʿUbayd Allāh b. Miḳsam , Abū Bakr al-ʿAṭṭār al-Muḳriʾ al-Naḥwī , who lived from 265/878-9 until 354/965, was one of the most learned experts in ḳirāʾa [ q.v.] and also noted for his knowledge of Arabic grammar as practised in the school of Kūfa. According to his contemporaries, his only fault was that he, when teaching the Ḳurʾān, instructed in various readings ( ḳirāʾāt ) which were not agreed upon by the majority of scholars of his days ( id̲j̲māʿ ). Thus, instead of nad̲j̲iyyan in XII, 80, he read nud̲j̲…

al-Ṭayālisī

(649 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G. H. A.
, Abū Dāwud Sulaymān b. Dāwūd al-Ḏj̲ārūd, de Baṣra, célèbre collectionneur de ḥadīt̲h̲s [ q.v.], surnommé la montagne de savoir, qui mourut en 203 ou 204/819-20 à l’âge d’environ soixante-dix ans. Il était mawlā du clan d’al-Zubayr b. al-ʿAwwām [ q.v.] et originaire de Perse. Il devait, disait-on, sa nisba à son habitude (?) de porter une sorte de capuchon de type persan ( ṭaylasān, pi. ṭayālisa), un vêtement enveloppant comme un châle porté autour de la tête et du cou. Pourtant, la nisba renvoie manifestement à un fabricant ou à un marchand de ṭaylasān, la capuche que portaient les sava…

al-Suddī

(255 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G. H. A.
, Ismāʿīl b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, mawlā de Zaynab bt. Ḳays b. Mak̲h̲rama, était prédicateur populaire à Kūfa, où il serait mort en 127/745. Sa réputation de transmetteur de traditions prophétiques est sujette à caution. Les opinions des experts en rid̲j̲āl [ q.v.] vont de la neutralité ( ṣāliḥ [ q.v.] lā baʾs bi-hi) à l’accusation de mensonge ( kad̲h̲d̲h̲āb). Son rôle dans les isnāds qui étayent les traditions canoniques est de toute façon minime, et totalement artificiel, dans la mesure où il ne peut en être tenu pour responsable. Ses positions politiques ( tas̲h̲ayyuʿ) semblent avoir été é…

Siḥāḳ

(2,205 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G. H. A.
, comme musāḥaḳa nom d’action de forme III d’un verbe signifiant «frotter» (cf. le grec xpipeiv, fr. «tribadisme») employé couramment pour désigner le saphisme, ou lesbianisme. D’autres dérivés de cette racine dans le même sens sont les noms d’action de la forme I saḥḳ et siḥāḳa. On trouve parfois la forme VI tasāḥaḳa. Les femmes adonnées au saphisme sont appelée sāḥiḳāt, saḥḥāḳāt ou musāḥiḳāt. Le Lisān al-ʿArab qualifie l’expression musāḥaḳat al-nisāʾ de lafz muwallad, ou expression d’apparition postclassique. L’exemple de relation saphique, sans doute légendaire, l…

al-Rāmahurmuzī

(553 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G. H. A.
, Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Ḵh̲allād, souvent appelé dans la littérature arabe médiévale Ibn al-Ḵh̲allād, ḳāḍī et auteur de divers ouvrages d’ adab [ q.v.] mort en 360/971. Sa date de naissance ¶ est inconnue, mais à en juger par celle de ses maîtres en tradition supposés, il doit avoir vécu près d’un siècle, pour autant que l’on puisse faire crédit à la longévité habituellement prêtée aux transmetteurs de cette époque. Sur les notices biographiques le concernant, voir GAS, I, 193. Quelques uns de ses vers ont été conservés dans la Yatīmat al-dahr d’al-T̲h̲aʿālibī [ q.v.], é…

Tawātur

(1,042 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G. H. A.
, nom verbal de forme VI d’un verbe signifiant «venir l’un après l’autre». Cet article doit être considéré comme une extension de l’article Mutawātir [ q.v.], participe du même verbe. Tawātur est un terme technique dans la science du ḥadīt̲h̲ [ q.v.] qui signifie globalement «authentification large». Il est souvent utilisé sous une forme adverbiale. Il indique qu’un récit historique ou une tradition prophétique ont été confirmés par un si grand nombre de chaînes d’ isnād, chacune ayant pour origine un compagnon différent ou toute autre autorité ancienne, que son authen…

Tadwīn

(375 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G. H. A.
(a.) nom verbal de dawwana «enregistrer», probablement un verbe dénominal tiré du nom persan dīwān [ q.v.]. Concernant le tadwīn ayant la connotation de «dresser des listes dans un but militaire ou administratif», voir Dīwān. Concernant son utilisation dans le sens de «réunir les poèmes de certains poètes ou de certaines tribus», voir S̲h̲iʿr. Dans la science du ḥadit̲h̲, le terme indique le recueil de traditions écrites dans le but d’en tirer des préceptes juridiques et non pas le simple aide-mémoire pour lequel on utilisait plutôt les termes de kitābat al-ʿilm ou k. al-ḥadīt̲h̲. On es…

Abū Hurayra

(1,277 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G. H. A.
Abū Hurayra (d. 57/678, 58/679, or 59/680 at about seventy-eight years of age) was a famous Companion of the prophet Muḥammad, generally known by his agnomen “father of the kitten,” alluding to his love for a pet he had. He hailed from the South Arabian tribe of Daws. He is celebrated among Muslims for reputedly passing on more sayings and actions of Muḥammad, laid down in ḥadīth, than any other Companion. Prophetic traditions traced back via him run into the thousands: in Tuḥfat al-ashrāf bi-maʿrifat al-aṭrāf, by al-Mizzī, his output that has found a place in any of the canonic…
Date: 2019-08-29

Abū l-ʿĀliya al-Riyāḥī

(943 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G. H. A.
Abū l-ʿĀliya Rufayʿ b. Mihrān al-Riyāḥī (d. c. 93/712), a Basran Successor, faqīh and Qurʾān expert, was a mawlā of the Banū Riyāḥ, a branch of Tamīm (cf., al-Dhahabī, Tadhkirat al-ḥuffāẓ, Hyderabad 1955, 1:61). He was manumitted sāʾibatan (for this term, generally applied to camels that are “retired,” cf. Lane, s.v., and al-Ṭabarī, Tafsīr, ed. Aḥmad Muḥammad Shākir, 3:386). He is said to have been born in the Jāhiliyya, but that is probably apocryphal; it is in any case difficult to reconcile this claim with his own statement that he was a youth (shābb) at the time of the conflict betw…
Date: 2019-08-29

al-Aʿmash

(3,227 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G. H. A.
Sulaymān b. Mihrān al-Aʿmash (d. 147 or 148/764–5) was an important transmitter of Prophetic traditions in Kufa. He was the most outstanding among the common links of ḥadīth (Ar. madār, lit., “pivot”; for this term and a few other technical ḥadīth terms, such as bundle, dive, (partial) com-mon link, etc., used in the following, see G. H. A. Juynboll, (Re)appraisal of some technical terms in ḥadīth science, ILS 8 (2001) 310ff.). Born in 59/679 or 61/681, he was brought as a captive from Ṭabaristān to Kufa, where he was purchased and subsequently set free. He was a mawlā of the Banū Kāhil, a …
Date: 2019-08-29

Anas b. Mālik

(3,151 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G. H. A.
Anas b. Mālik (d. 93/712) was allegedly the last of the Companions of the Prophet to die in Basra. His lifespan is recorded as having bridged almost the entire first/seventh century. Ten years old at the time of the Hijra, he is said to have died in 93/712 at the age of 103 (lunar) years. He had a mansion ( qaṣr) in Basra (cf. Ibn al-Faqīh, Mukhtaṣar kitāb al-buldān, ed. de Goeje, 189). His tomb was located outside the Mirbad (the market outside Basra which formed its oldest commercial centre), adjacent to those of Ḥasan al-Baṣrī and Muḥammad b. Sīrīn (both d. 110/728) (Iṣṭakhrī, Masālik al-mamāli…
Date: 2019-08-29

al-Miḳdād b. ʿAmr

(1,105 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G.H.A.
b. t̲h̲aʿlaba al-bahrāʾī , a well-known Companion of the Prophet. He is attested in all the available historical sources, which more or less concur that his father ʿAmr fled to the Kinda [ q.v.] tribe after he had become involved in a blood feud in his own tribe of Bahrāʾ [ q.v.], a group of Ḳuḍāʿa. There, in Kinda, al-Miḳdād was born ca. 585 A. D. Then al-Miḳdād, in his turn, had to flee Kinda after he had wounded a fellow-tribesman in the foot. He made good his escape to Mecca. Having been adopted by al-Aswad b. ʿAbd Yag̲h̲ūt̲h̲ al-Zuhrī, he became a ḥalīf (confederate) of…

Munkar

(1,013 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G.H.A.
(a.), a technical term in the science ¶ of ḥadīt̲h̲ [ q.v.] used to describe a certain type of tradition or a transmitter of such traditions. The plural of munkar is either munkarāt or manākīr . The definition of the term hinges on two connotations of the verb ankara , which conveys among others the notions “to be ignorant of” as well as “to reject” or “disapprove”. Thus the term can be translated by “unknown” as well as “objectionable”, and in whatever context it occurs, it potentially constitutes a double entendre. Some Muslim scholars equate the term with s̲h̲ād̲h̲d̲h̲

Muṣannaf

(691 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G.H.A.
(a., pl. muṣannafāt ), an early technical term in Arabic literature applied to a collection of religious learning organised upon an abstract, structured subdivision in chapters, hence the opposite of musnad [ q.v.], i.e. a collection arranged according to the first/oldest transmitter. Muṣannaf is the past participle of a denominative verb meaning originally “to assort”, “to distinguish”, sc. the one ṣinf (=“sort” or “species”) from another. Allegedly the first in the Islamic world to compose a structured collection of ancient traditi…

Tadwīn

(372 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G.H.A.
(a.), the verbal noun from dawwana "to register”, most probably a denominal verb from the Persian noun dīwān [ q.v.]. For tadwīn in the connotation of “drawing up lists for military and administrative purposes”, see dīwān. For its use as “gathering poetry of a certain poet or tribe”, see s̲h̲iʿr . In the science of ḥadīt̲h̲ , the term indicates the collecting of traditions in writing in order to derive legal precepts from them and not as a mere memory aid, for which rather the terms kitābat al-ʿilm or k. al-ḥadīt̲h̲ were used. The period of tadwīn al-ḥadīt̲h̲ is genera…

Siḥāḳ

(2,329 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G.H.A.
, like musāḥaḳa , verbal noun of stem III of a verb meaning “to rub” (compare the Greek τρίβειν, Eng. “tribadism”), commonly used to indicate lesbianism. Other derivatives of this root indicating the same are the stem I verbal nouns saḥḳ and siḥāḳa . Occasionally, stem VI tasāḥaḳa is found. Women engaging in lesbian love-making are referred to as sāḥiḳāt , saḥḥāḳāt or musāḥiḳāt . The Lisān al-ʿarab calls the term musāḥaḳat al-nisāʾ a lafẓ muwallad , an expression of post-classical origin. The earliest recorded, probably legendary, instance of lesbian love among the Arabs is a report of the aw…

al-K̲h̲awlānī

(733 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G.H.A.
Abū Muslim ʿAbd Allāh b. T̲h̲uwab , one of the eight Successors allegedly famous for their asceticism ( zuhd [ q.v.]). He was born of the tribe K̲h̲awlān in the Yaman. One report (Abū Nuʿaym, Ḥilya , ii, 125) has it that he only became a Muslim in Syria during the caliphate of Muʿāwiya, but other reports say that he had already been converted to Islam during the prophet’s lifetime while still in the Yaman. When al-Aswad b. Ḳays (cf. Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Tahd̲h̲īb , xii, 236 and Abū Nuʿaym, Ḥilya, ii, 128; or: b. Kaʿb, cf. Ṭabarī, i, 1795) al-ʿAnsī D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥimār [ q.v.] summoned him to embrace his cause…

Rid̲j̲āl

(5,078 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G.H.A.
(a.), pl. of rad̲j̲ul , a common Arabic word for “man”, used specifically in Arabic literature for transmitters of ḥadīt̲h̲ [ q.v.], i.e. Muslim tradition. When in the course of the second half of the 1st century of the hid̲j̲ra (the 690s) the isnād [ q.v.], i.e. the chain of transmitters of a tradition, had been introduced as the semi-official authentification device for it to be accepted or rejected, rather than that authentification was achieved by weighing the matn , i.e. its actual contents, the need to identify ḥadīt̲h̲ transmitters and to obtain detailed information on them,…

Ḳuʿūd

(245 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G.H.A.
(a.), the verbal noun Ḳaʿada “to sit”, which developed into a technical term. (1) In the ṣalāt [ q.v.] it indicates the sitting posture which is the penultimate component of a rakʿa [ q.v.]. For descriptions and illustrations, see Lane, Manners and customs of the modern Egyptians , 3rd edn., London 1842, i, 107, postures 7 and 13, and T. P. Hughes, A dictionary of Islam, London 1885, 467. (2) In early Islamic history it is the designation of the political attitude of a faction of the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲īs, the ḳaʿada (also called ḳuʿʿād , ḳāʿidūn and simply ḳaʿad after the analogy of ḥāris , pl. ḥaras

T̲h̲iḳa

(335 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G.H.A.
(a.), pl. t̲h̲iḳāt , qualification used in the science of ḥadīt̲h̲ [ q.v.] to describe a transmitter as trustworthy, reliable. Through over-use it gradually lost this positive meaning and, more often than not, it is a virtually meaningless epithet. When not used alone, the term appears often in strings of qualifications which, taken at first sight, seem to be contradictory. The biographical dictionaries of ḥadīt̲h̲ transmitters abound in examples of people mentioned as t̲h̲iḳa as well as ḍaʿīf “weak”, or matrūk “to be ignored”. Mo…
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