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al-Sayyid al-Ḥimyarī

(521 words)

Author(s): Kadi, Wadad
, Abū Hās̲h̲im Ismāʿīl b. Muḥammad b. Yazīd b. Rabīʿa b. Mufarrig̲h̲, a S̲h̲īʿī poet and a grandson of the poet Ibn Mufarrig̲h̲ al-Ḥimyarī [ q.v.]. He was born to Ibāḍī parents about 105/723, grew up in Baṣra, and died in Bag̲h̲dād or Wāsiṭ between 173/789 and 179/795. At a young age, he adopted with great fervour the doctrine of the Kaysāniyya [ q.v.] S̲h̲īʿa, believing in the imāmate and occultation of Muḥammad b. al-Ḥanafiyya [ q.v.] and his return as the Mahdī [ q.v.]. Twelver S̲h̲īʿī authorities, both mediaeval and modern, claim that he later converted to Imāmism ( tad̲j̲aʿfara

Caliph

(974 words)

Author(s): Kadi, Wadad
In Arabic, khalīfa is the title adopted by the head of the Muslim polity (see community ¶ and society in the qurʾān ) ever since the death of the prophet Muḥammad in 11/632. The term occurs in the Qurʾān twice in the singular and seven times in the plural, as khalāʾif or khulafāʾ, and some of its verbal occurrences (particularly khalafa and istakhlafa) are semantically very closely connected with it. There is little in the qurʾānic occurrences of the term that prepares for its politically and theologically charged meaning. By far its most prevalent meaning in the …