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Department store architecture

(1,328 words)

Author(s): Kalusok, Michaela
1. Precursors Market and goods depots are regarded as precursors to the department store, and such architecture dates back to Antiquity [9. 9–21]. Existing architecture was also used for purposes of selling. For example, stalls and shops were set up in the stoa, a large columned hall usually built in the Greek market pace. The Roman basilica, originally an assembly for magistrates and place of trial, was also a multifunctional structure and it served vendors and bankers as a market hall. In the Middle Ages, arcades and loggias on town halls and othe…
Date: 2019-10-14


(5,741 words)

Author(s): Bischoff, Harald | Kalusok, Michaela | Wiener, Jürgen
1. Kitchen gardens and ornamental gardens 1.1. General developmentThe English term “garden” is is a medieval borrowing from French, which in turn takes the word from Old Frankish. Like the native English equivalent, “yard”, it ultimately derives from Proto-Germanic *gardaz, which denotes an enclosed courtyard.. Gardens provide space for crop plants and ornamental plants (Plants, ornamental) that are in need of special protection, for example non-native plants or cultivated forms that are competitively weak. Gardens can be designed in a more or less artistic way.In the Middle A…
Date: 2019-10-14


(3,917 words)

Author(s): Walther, Gerrit | Müller-Wille, Staffan | Kalusok, Michaela
1. ConceptThe prototype and model for all early modern museums was the Museíon, which the Egyptian king Ptolemy I had established around 320 BCE in the same part of the palace at Alexandria that also housed his world-famous library. It was an academy where scholars, who were paid a salary by the government, met for research, discussion, and banqueting. Only in the early modern period did “museum” acquire a more topographical and material meaning. In the 18th century, it was defined as “a place where things are kept that have direct reference to the arts and Muses” [1. 893]. By the 19th cen…
Date: 2020-04-06