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Relief

(944 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland
1. Definition und BegriffsgeschichteDas R. ist neben der Freiskulptur bzw. Rundplastik eine der beiden Hauptgattungen der Skulptur. Als R. sind Körper oder Formstrukturen einer Darstellung (Figuren, Landschaften, Ornamente) in allen der Skulptur und Plastik zu Verfügung stehenden Materialien zu verstehen, die aus einer planen, gewölbten oder runden Grundfläche hervortreten. Bei materialabnehmender Technik (etwa bei Stein oder Holz) bestimmt das Werkstück, bei aufbauender Technik (modellier- und gießbare Materialien wie Wachs, G…
Date: 2019-11-19

Iconography

(972 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland
1. Concept The term iconography derives from the Greek ei kṓn (“image”) and  gráphein (“to write”, “to describe”) and denotes the study of the content of images. However, this sense was acquired in the discipline of art history only in the 19th century. In general, iconography is concerned with all objects, forms, and designs in representations insofar as they comprise a system of signs that can express social, historical, religious, or aesthetic conditions or ideas. Insofar as iconography helps to explain w…
Date: 2019-10-14

Idea

(819 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland
The Latin term idea has perevaded the history of philosophical thought since Plato [2]; [4] (see Idealism). In early modern aesthetics (Art theory), the concept of the idea in the sense of self-reflection on artistic creativity was discussed to secure the intellectual status of the fine arts – and thus of the artist as well. In this context,  idea (German  Idee, French  idée) referred to all genres of art; in the creative process that led to a work of art, it denoted the idea of the beautiful formed in the mind, which manifests itself as an inspira…
Date: 2019-10-14

Non finito

(1,015 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland
1. ConceptThe aesthetic criteria of the unfinished derive from Italian Renaissance art theory. The key conceptual pair is the Italian perfezione/imperfezione, which was only revised into  finito/ non-finito (“finished”/“unfinished”) in modern usage [4]. The concept of the unfinished always corresponds with that of completion or perfection, aesthetically reflected in the relationship between art and nature. The degree of unfinishedness is measured according to the definition of the complete. During the 16th century, the semant…
Date: 2020-04-06

Art theory

(8,821 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland
1. Introduction The history of early modern art theory from the 15th to the mid-19th century offers no semblance of a linear tradition in the discipline. Primary and secondary currents are encountered. It has long been recognized that the general history of early modern art, with its heterogeneity of genre and divergent development across Europe, is no longer reducible to a teleological history of style, but there are clearer international traditions of thought in the field of art theory. Art theo…
Date: 2019-10-14

Caricature

(961 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland
The caricature is an art form of amusement and pictorial wit. The word caricatura (from Italian caricare, ‘to exaggerate,’ ‘to overload’) originally referred to an exaggerated imitation of nature in the portrait. In caricature, the artist demonstrates quickness of design, graphic skill, and pictorial wit. As a situational work of art, a caricature is primarily a domain of drawing. Until the 18th century, caricatures circulated in private or semi-public circles, and were not used in graphic reproduction. Early …
Date: 2019-10-14

Nazarene movement

(943 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland
1. ConceptThe artists known as Nazarenes acquired their name in early 19th-century Rome in reference to their appearance  alla nazarena, which was associated with Jesus of Nazareth, especially because of their long hair parted in the middle. Johann Friedrich Overbeck – in this respect the model for the Nazarene circle – adopted this hairstyle from the winter of 1812/13 at the latest. The nickname was not derisive, but derived from a usage dating back to the 17th century denoting a superficial resemblance to depic…
Date: 2020-04-06

Naturalism

(894 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland
1. Terminological historyA general understanding of naturalism as the representation of nature in art was closely associated in the early modern period with theories of the imitation of nature (Latin  imitatio naturae; cf. Mimesis). Yet the fact that nature was studied is not evidence in itself of naturalism (cf. Nature study [art]). Study in nature (as opposed to working in the studio) was a possible positive connotation of naturalism, but the term could equally be negative in tone, indicating a breach of the norms of imitatio, which aimed at a representation of nature that wa…
Date: 2020-04-06

Exhibition, art

(1,429 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland
1. Introduction An art exhibition is a presentation of art objects in a context, the location and duration of which may vary. It is subject to organizational conditions, a particular purpose or occasion. Unlike an art collection or museum, presentation is temporary, and the works in an art exhibition are not associated with the location [6]. Boundaries between the art exhibition and the museum of art were fluid in the early modern period [4], but limited duration was the characteristic of the exhibition. Older and contemporary works of art might be exhibited toge…
Date: 2019-10-14

Figura serpentinata

(813 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland
Figura serpentinata describes an ideal artistic figure: a stylized rotated body compared to a coiled snake, either at rest or in motion, ideally conceived as viewable from multiple perspectives [4]. Throughout the early modern era, theory of art (Art theory) treated this ideal figure, with its crucially close ties with mannerism, as one of the central ways to conceive of poise and motion. It was originally formulated by the art theorist Giovanni Paolo Lomazzo (1584) [2. 22–24], who compared the figura serpentinata to a flame and ascribed its invention to Michelange…
Date: 2019-10-14

Illusionism

(1,120 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland
1. Concept Illusionism relies on an intentional effect of deceiving the senses in a work of art. The illusion is usually based on tricking the sense of vision by means of precise naturalistic imitation and perspective techniques. The aim is to elicit momentary confusion between art and reality in the viewer. The illusion is not intended to be lasting, but to elicit an ensuing revelation that the seen effect is a work of art [5]; [6]. Artists also use illusionism to demonstrate that they are capable of surpassing nature by conjuring an appearance of reality.An ancient artist anecdote on …
Date: 2019-10-14

Disegno

(1,403 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland
1. ConceptIn Italian art, disegno (“design”; French  dessin) from the early Renaissance already meant more than just “drawing”. Artistic expertise in practice and theory combined in the concept of disegno to found a concept of artistic creativity. Disegno refers on the one hand to the drawing, from the first strokes of the pen in the draft stage to the pictorial final drawing - in other words, the process of demonstrating one's ability and invention by preparing a piece of work. On the other hand the term also denotes the imagi…
Date: 2019-10-14

Contrapposto

(861 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland
1. Ancient conceptIn sculpture and painting, contrapposto denotes an attitude motif of the human figure consisting of a particular ponderation. Ponderation is the distribution and attitude of the limbs and the body weight either stationary or in motion. It may be static and balanced about a vertical core of the attitude depicted (e.g. standing straight), or it may be displaced radically away from the center of gravity (e.g. in dynamic motion that displaces the upper body). Contrapposto is thus a motif of attitude in the standing figure, connoting as it were motion in stillness.In …
Date: 2019-10-14

Multiple views

(1,053 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland
1. ConceptMultiple views (French  multiplicité des points de vue, Italian  molte vedute, German  Vielansichtigkeit) is a category of evaluation in the field of sculpture. As a criterion of aspect (Latin aspectus, “view”), the analysis of multiple views serves to establish principles of composition in freestanding statues and sculptures against walls (e.g. niche statues, reliefs, tombs) by distinguishing between frontal view and multiple views in the main and side aspects. In art theory, multiple views were considered under …
Date: 2020-04-06

Grotesque

(872 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland
1. The word Even an approximate definition of the term grotesque is already distinguished by its etymology: the root word is Italian grotta/ grotte, from which the word grottesche was derived toward the end of the 15th century (first appearance 1495; on the word’s semantic development, see 2. below). In the 16th century, it entered all the major European languages as a loanword (French crotesque and grotesque, Eng. grotesque, Span. grutesco, Dutch Gottisen, Ger. Groteske and Krotteschisch) [4]; [5]. In all languages, generally speaking, the word’s definition is to this da…
Date: 2019-10-14

Decorum

(790 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland
1. Rhetorical terminological traditionThe term decorum (Greek  prépon; Latin  aptum, decorum, convenientia; Italian  decoro, convenienza, convenevolezza; French  bienséance, convenance) originates in rhetoric, and denotes that which is seemly and appropriate for speech and conduct. Its range of application encompasses language and its stylistic theory, ethical and moral considerations of conduct in public and private life according to gender, age, and class, and aesthetic aspects of architecture and the fine art…
Date: 2019-10-14

Naturalismus

(810 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland
1. BegriffsgeschichteEin allgemeines Verständnis von N. als naturabbildender Darstellung in der Kunst war in der Nz. eng mit den Theorien der Naturnachahmung (lat. imitatio naturae) verbunden (vgl. Mimesis). Doch die Tatsache, dass nach der Natur studiert wurde, begründet noch keinen N.; vgl. Naturstudium (künstlerisches). Das Studium vor der Natur (nicht im Atelier) kann ebenso gut positiv mit N. gemeint sein wie negativ der Verstoß gegen Normen der imitatio, die auf eine idealisierte Naturwiedergabe ausgerichtet waren [8]. Allgemein kann N. auf die Eigenart einer nat…
Date: 2019-11-19

Stuck

(1,004 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland
1. Material und TechnikS. (ital. stucco, franz. stuc, engl. stucco) ist ein plastisch formbares Gestaltungsmaterial mit fast unbegrenzten Möglichkeiten der Anwendung, häufig architekturgebunden im Außen- und Innenbereich von Gebäuden (Bauplastik), oft aber auch für freiplastische Objekte oder Figuren in aufbauender Technik ( Bildhauertechnik 3.3.; Plastik) oder in Ornamenten zur Raumdekoration (S.-Decken, vgl. Deckenmalerei). Bereits in der Antike war S. (lat. tectorium, albarium opus) nach Angaben bei Vitruv ( De architectura 7,2–4) und Plinius d. Ä. ( Naturalis histo…
Date: 2019-11-19

Illusionismus

(975 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland
1. BegriffUnter I. versteht man den beabsichtigten Effekt der Sinnestäuschung durch ein Kunstwerk. Die Illusion beruht meist auf einer Täuschung des Sehsinns, die mittels naturalistischer und genauer Nachahmung sowie perspektivischer Darstellungsverfahren erreicht wird. Ziel ist, dass der Betrachter nicht sofort zwischen Kunst und Wirklichkeit unterscheiden kann. Doch geht es nicht um eine bleibende Verwechslung von Illusion und Realität, sondern um die sich einstellende Erkenntnis, dass es sich um Kunst handelt [5]; [6]. Mit Hilfe des I. demonstrieren Künstler, da…
Date: 2019-11-19

Disegno

(1,413 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland
1. BegriffIn der ital. Kunst bedeutet D. (franz. dessin, engl. design) seit Beginn der Renaissance mehr als nur »Zeichnung«. Das Kunstwissen in Praxis und Theorie verbindet sich im D.-Begriff zu einem Konzept künstlerischer Kreativität. D. bezeichnet auf der einen Seite die Zeichnung von den ersten Strichen im Entwurfsstadium bis hin zur bildmäßig ausgeführten Reinzeichnung, also in einem werkvorbereitenden Medium die Demonstration des eigenen Könnens und des Einfallsreichtums. Auf der anderen Seite meint der Begriff auch die geistige Idee …
Date: 2019-11-19
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