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(1,163 words)

Author(s): Karic, Enes
Substances, generally containing alcohol, the consumption of which causes a state of inebriation. Although Islamic law includes opiates, narcotics and other drugs under the category of “intoxicants,” the qurʾānic ¶ terminology is limited to terms for strong drink: sakar ( q 16:67; cf. sukārā, “drunken,” in q 22:2; 4:43); raḥīq (the wine of the righteous in paradise, q 83:25; but the Qurʾān emphasizes that the contents of the cups of paradise will not result in headaches or madness [ lā yunzifūna, q 56:19; cf. 37:47]); and the most often attestated term, al- khamr (lit. “wine”), mention…


(1,661 words)

Author(s): Karic, Enes
Playing or gaming for money or other stake with the participants in such activity having no control over the outcome. Although related qurʾānic concepts (discussed below) include such terms as “playing, gaming” ( l-ʿ-b), “betting” (associated with q 30:1-4), and “the casting of lots” ( qurʿa, in relation to q 3:44; 37:141), the most precise qurʾānic example of gambling is al- maysir. al-Maysir and games of chance The term al-maysir is mentioned three times in the Qurʾān, always with the general connotation of gambling (games of chance). A first occurrence is in q 2:219: “They question …