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Königsberg, University

(1,154 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] Founded by Duke Albert of Prussia (the elder) on Oct 24, 1541 and opened on Aug 17, 1544, with four faculties and eleven chairs, the University of Königsberg followed Marburg (1527) as the second newly founded university in the century of the Reformation. As the most easterly German Protestant university before the founding of Dorpat (1632; Tartu), Königsberg fulfilled a central cultural mediating function for Poland and the Baltics. Experts from the University of Königsberg were …

Hauck, Albert

(358 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] (Dec 9, 1845, Wassertrüdingen, – Apr 7, 1918, Leipzig), the most important Protestant church historian of Wilhelmine Germany besides A. v. Harnack, studied Protestant theology in Erlangen and Berlin. He experienced formative impulses of Erlangen Lutheranism from J.C. von Hofmann and Gustav Leopold Plitt, and, in the spirit of historicism, from L. v. Ranke. Having passed the qualifying exam for theology in Bavaria (1868), Hauck entered into church service. On the basis of a monogra…

Voetius, Gisbert

(386 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] (Mar 3, 1589, Heusden, Holland –Nov 1, 1676, Utrecht). Born to a noble family impoverished by war, Voetius began to study theology at Leiden in 1604; as a student of F. Gomarus, he was deeply involved in the debates between the Remonstrants (Arminians) and Contraremonstrants. In 1611 he was appointed pastor in Vlijmen, in 1617 in Heusden, his home town, and in 1629 in ’s-Hertogenbosch. In 1618/1619 he took part in the Synod of Dort, agreeing with the Contraremonstrants’ doctrine o…

Krakevitz, Albrecht Joachim von

(255 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] (May 28, 1674, Gevezin near New Brandenburg – May 2, 1732, Greifswald). After studying in Rostock, Copenhagen, and Leipzig, Krakevitz was appointed professor of Near Eastern languages and professor of catechetics in Rostock in 1699. From 1713 onward, as professor of theology, councilor of the consistory, and superintendent of ¶ the Mecklenburg district, Krakevitz became one of the most important representatives of late Rostock orthodoxy (II, 2) together with J. Fecht, J. Quistorp, and Zacharias Grapius (1671–1713). Appointed gene…

Thorn, Conference of

(429 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] The so-called Colloquium Charitativum, which convened at the invitation of the Polish king Wladyslav IV (1632–1648) and was opened on Aug 28, 1645 by the Polish chancellor Georg of Teschen in the town hall of the Royal Prussian city of Thorn, was officially meant to promote the interconfessional dialogue between the (also) politically opposed confessional parties in the Kingdom of Poland; in actual fact, however, the conference was part of a Counter-Reformation policy of recatholi…

Ritschl

(1,183 words)

Author(s): Herms, Eilert | Kaufmann, Thomas
[English Version] 1.Albrecht , (25.3.1822 Stettin – 20.3.1889 Göttingen). Nach Studium in Bonn (1839–1841 bei K.I. Nitzsch), Halle (1841–1843 bei F.A. G. Tholuck, Julius Müller, J.E. Erdmann, K. Schwarz), philos. Promotion daselbst (Expositio doctrinae Augustini de creatione mundi, peccato, gratia, 1843), erstem Examen 1844, weiterem Studium in Heidelberg (1845 bei R. Rothe) und Tübingen (1845/46 bei F. Ch. Baur, E. Zeller, A. Schwegler, F. Th. Vischer) Habil. in Bonn (1846 mit einer Arbeit über M…

Arminians

(2,586 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas | Bangs, Carl
[German Version] I. Origins and Spread – II. Great Britain – III. North America I. Origins and Dissemination The public criticism of the Calvinist doctrine of predestination by J. Arminius was increasingly associated after his death (1609) with church-political and general political motives and opened up a dynamic which created a deep split in the Reformed churches of the Dutch General States for ar…

Orthodoxy

(11,720 words)

Author(s): Slenczka, Notger | Hünermann, Peter | Wallmannb, Johannes | Kaufmann, Thomas | Morgenstern, Matthias | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Christianity – III. Judaism – IV. Islam I. Terminology The term orthodoxy derives from Greek ὀρϑός/ orthós, “right, true, straight,” and δόξα/ dóxa, “opinion, teaching.” The word and its derivatives appear in pre-Christian literature (Liddell & Scott, s.v.) but acquired their specifically religious sense only in the context of Christianity, where confession of Jesus as Lord or Christ plays a constitutive role in religious practice (Rom 10:10; Matt 10:32f.) and the need appeared early on to identify a…

Orthodoxie

(10,261 words)

Author(s): Slenczka, Notger | Hünermann, Peter | Wallmann, Johannes | Kaufmann, Thomas | Morgenstern, Matthias | Et al.
[English Version] I. Zum Begriff Der Begriff O. leitet sich aus dem griech. ο᾿ρϑο´ς/ortho´s, »gerade, recht, richtig«, und δο´ξα/do´xa, »Meinung, Absicht, Lehre«, her. Der Begriff und seine Derivate sind auch vorchristl. bezeugt (Liddell/Scott s.v.), gewannen aber ihre spezifisch rel. Bedeutung erst im Kontext des Christentums, in dem das Bekenntnis zu Jesus als dem Herrn bzw. als dem Christus eine für den rel. Vollzug konstitutive Rolle hat (Röm 10,10; Mt 10,32f.) und früh die Notwendigkeit entstand, in einer V…

Eucharist/Communion

(26,590 words)

Author(s): Hahn, Ferdinand | Markschies, Christoph | Angenendt, Arnold | Kaufmann, Thomas | Koch, Ernst | Et al.
[German Version] I. New Testament – II. Church History – III. Dogmatics – IV. Liturgical History – V. Practical Theology – VI. Missiology I. New Testament 1. Background Sacred meals are common to all religions. Before examining them in the context of the NT, it is necessary first to inquire into their background in the OT and in Judaism, whereupon it becomes evident that sacrificial meals play no role in them. Only the dai…

Office

(9,171 words)

Author(s): Kehrer, Günter | Rüterswörden, Udo | Burtchaell, James Tunstead | Lips, Hermann von | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. Early Judaism – IV. New Testament – V. Church History – VI. Systematic Theology – VII. Practical Theology – VIII. Law – IX. Missiology I. Religious Studies Over the course of history, the word office has been used for a wide variety of functions. In every case, however, what is peculiar to the term is that it refers to an activity independent of the unique personal characteristics of the officeholder. In the context of religious studies, what first comes to mind is the office…
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