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Marv (Marw)

(86 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
This is based on the plans in G. Herrmann, Monuments of Merv (London, 1999) with additional information. It shows how the city moves from the pre-Islamic walled Shahristan to the quarters around the Mājān canal which were the centre from early ʿAbbasid times and were walled by the Saljuqs. After the Mongol destruction, a new, rectangular city was fouded by the Timurids at Abd Allah Khan Kala until this too was abandoned for the modern settlement at Bayram Ali. Hugh Kennedy

Al-Quds (Jerusalem)

(29 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
This map is based on the map in M. H. Burgoyne, Mamluk Jerusalem (London, 1987), 34 with additional material on Christian monuments. Hugh Kennedy

O

(1,060 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
Oaditae Saraceni Arabia according to Ptolemy (circa 150 A.D.) – 15a B2;  15b C2 Ob R. The Muslim World circa 1317/1900 – 14 D1 Obraca Arabia according to Ptolemy (circa 150 A.D.) – 15a C2 Obruk Anadolu and Rumeli in the later 11th / 17th Century – 49 F3;  Anadolu and Rumeli in the later 13th / 19th Century – 50/51 F3 Ocelis emp. Arabia according to Ptolemy (circa 150 A.D.) – 15a C5;  15b D5;  Pre-Islamic Yaman and the Ḥaḍramawt – 16a A3 Odessa The Muslim World circa 1317/1900 – 14 C2;  Anadolu and Rumeli in the later 13th / 19th Century – 50/51 E1 Oghuz Iran in the 4th-5th / 10th-11th Centuries – 34/35 C1;  3…

Ottoman Expansion 1362-1402 A.D. The First Conquest of Rumelia and Anatolia

(56 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
The trade-routes of Anatolia converged at this time on Bursa. The Ottoman advance into the Balkans outflanked Constantinople by way of Gallipoli, and thereafter followed the main valleys and mountain passes. Hugh Kennedy

Fās (Fes) and Marrākush (Marrakesh)

(31 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
The maps are redrawn from those in the Green Guide, Maroc (Paris, 1974) with extensive additions from historical sources. Hugh Kennedy

L

(2,281 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
Laba Arabia according to Ptolemy (circa 150 A.D.) – 15a B2 Labāḍa Two Arabic world maps: The World According to Al-Idrīsī 549/1154 - The World According to al-Sharfī 986/1579 – 1a E2 Labīṭ al-Andalus – 55 F4 Labiūna Two Arabic world maps: The World According to Al-Idrīsī 549/1154 - The World According to al-Sharfī 986/1579 – 1a C4 Labla al-Andalus – 53b B3;  54 C4;  55 C4 Labris/Jabrīn Arabia according to Ptolemy (circa 150 A.D.) – 15a E3;  15b E3 Labuan The Muslim World circa 1317/1900 – 14 E4;  Indonesia and Java – 67 D1 Laccadive Isl. The Muslim World circa 287/900 – 9 D4;  The Muslim World cir…

R

(2,712 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
R. Abbay The Indian Ocean circa 390 / 1000 and the Turks and Portuguese in the Indian Ocean 10th / 16th Centuries – 61 A3 R. da Cruz North Africa and the Sudan circa 1008 / 1600 – 58 C4 R. Duero al-Andalus – 54 E2;  55 E2 R. Ganga The Indian Ocean circa 390 / 1000 and the Turks and Portuguese in the Indian Ocean 10th / 16th Centuries – 61 F2 R. Godawari The Indian Ocean circa 390 / 1000 and the Turks and Portuguese in the Indian Ocean 10th / 16th Centuries – 61 E3 R. Jamna The Indian Ocean circa 390 / 1000 and the Turks and Portuguese in the Indian Ocean 10th / 16th Centuries – 61 E2 R. Juba The Indian Ocean circa 3…

North Africa and the Sudan circa 1008 / 1600

(183 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
is based on map 41 in the First Edition with additional material on Ottoman administrative geography from Pitcher, Ottoman Empire. Recent work on African history is summarized in F. D. Fage and R. A. Oliver (eds.), Cambridge History ofAfrica (1975-8). From the latest excavations it is evident that Old Jenne was smelting iron already in the thirdcentury B.C., and by the ninth century A.D. had grown into a great city at the head of the inland delta of the Niger. Gold, slaves and kola nuts (a permitted stimulant) were brought together h…

Mediaeval Islamic Egypt

(68 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
This map is based on Cornu maps 10 and 11 and H. Halm’s extremely detailed and scholarly maps in TAVO B VII. 13 Egypt under the Fatimids and B VIII 13 Egypt under the Mamluks. For the early period I have also used the map in R. Guest’s edition of al- Kindī’s, Governors and Judges of Egypt (London, 1912). Hugh Kennedy

The Muslim World circa 287/900The Umayyad Caliphate circa 132/750

(265 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
Islam arose near the centre of the Old World, and this series is intended to illustrate its spread and the connections, linguistic, economic and cultural, between the regions where it prevailed and the further parts of Europe, Asia and Africa. Map 4 on the linguistic divisions is based on map 4 in the First Edition. Map 5 is an attempt to show the main environmental regains and mineral resources of the classical Islamic world. I have only included such features as crude oil, iron etc. in places …

Transoxania under the Timurids and Özbeks circa 905 / 1500

(43 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
This is based on the maps in Golombek and Wilber and W. M. Thackston’s translation of the Baburnama (Oxford, 1996). Hugh Kennedy

Three maps and one table from the Mediterranean Sea-Atlas of al-Sharfī, dated to 919/1571-2

(230 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
All four are traced and translated from the Oxford copy (Bodleian—MS Marsh 294) of the Mediterranean Sea-Atlas of ʿAlī b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-Sharfī of Sfax, dated to 919/ 1571-2. The al-Sharfīs of Sfax were, like Bartholomews of Edinburgh, a family firm of cartographers. They enjoyed a long reputation as map-makers and scientists in Tunisia and Egypt, and Nallino has traced their publications from the sixteenth century to the eighteenth. Each of their two surviving sixteenth- century atlases contained, in addition to sea-c…

M

(8,308 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
Maʾāb The Fertile Crescent Under the Umayyad and ʿAbbāsid Caliphs – 20/21 C4 al-Maʾāfir Yaman and the Ḥaḍramawt in Islamic Times – 18 B3 Maʿān Arabia in the Time of the Ḥijra (622 A.D.) – 16b C1;  The Fertile Crescent Under the Umayyad and ʿAbbāsid Caliphs – 20/21 C4;  The Fertile Crescent in the 11th/17th and 12th/18th Centuries – 24/25 C4 Maʿarrat al-Nuʿmān The Fertile Crescent Under the Umayyad and ʿAbbāsid Caliphs – 20/21 C2;  The Fertile Crescent in the Age of the Crusades circa 534/1140 – 22/23 C2;  The Fertile Crescent in the 11th/17th and 12th/18th Centuries – 24/25 C2 Maʿarrat Qinnasrī…

The Arabian Peninsula in Islamic Times

(29 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
is similarly based on Cornu with additions from TAVO B VII 1 noted above. Hugh Kennedy

B

(9,832 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
Baʿalbakk The Fertile Crescent Under the Umayyad and ʿAbbāsid Caliphs – 20/21 C3;  The Fertile Crescent in the Age of the Crusades circa 534/1140 – 22/23 C3;  The Fertile Crescent in the 11th/17th and 12th/18th Centuries – 24/25 C3 Bāb al-Abwāb Early Muslim Conquests – 7 C1;  The Umayyad Caliphate circa 132/750 – 8 C2 Bāb al-Abwāb/Derbent Caucasus (al-Qabq) in the Early Middle Ages – 44 E1 Bāb al-Lān (Darial Pass) Caucasus (al-Qabq) in the Early Middle Ages – 44 C1;  Caucasus in the 12th-13th / 18th-19th Centuries – 45 C1 Bāb al-Mandab Two Arabic world maps: The World According to Al-…

Dimashq (Damascus) in the Ayyubid and Mamluk Period

(52 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
This is based on the maps in D. Sack, Damaskus (Mainz, 1989) and is intended to show the city and its main monuments as it existed on the eve of the Ottoman conquest. Hugh Kennedy

Ottoman Naval Power in the 10th / 16th Century

(33 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
is based on a study by Colin Imber of Ottoman naval archives. Hugh Kennedy

Iṣfahān

(103 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
The map is taken from the map published by Sayyid Riza Khan in 1923-4 reproduced in M. Haneda, “The Character of Urbanisation of Isfahan in the later Safavid Period” in ed. C. Melville, Safavid Persia (Cambridge, 1996). See also H. Gaube and E. Wirth, Der Bazar von Isfahan (Wiesbaden, 1978) and H. Gaube’s map in TAVO B VII 14.5. The maps have been redrawn to delete twentieth-century roads but to show the old city (al-Yahūdiyya) and the Safavid extensions to the south- west. The walls had already disappeared by the Safavid period and their course is only approximate. Hugh Kennedy

S

(10,894 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
S. Jorge da Mina Elmina (Sp.) North Africa and the Sudan circa 1008 / 1600 – 58 B4 S. Vincenti al-Andalus – 53b F2 Ṣā Mediaeval Islamic Egypt – 29 B2;  Al-Maghrib in the Age of the Almoravids and Almohads, 5th-7th / 11th-13th Centuries – 57a C2 Saʾala Two Arabic world maps: The World According to Al-Idrīsī 549/1154 - The World According to al-Sharfī 986/1579 – 1a J7 Sabac Anadolu and Rumeli in the later 13th / 19th Century – 50/51 B1 Sabaei Arabia according to Ptolemy (circa 150 A.D.) – 15a D4;  15b E4 Sabbatha/Shabwa Arabia according to Ptolemy (circa 150 A.D.) – 15a E4;  15b E4 Sabība Al-Maghrib in …

al-Mawṣil (Mosul)

(43 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
This map is based on the one drawn by E. Herzfeld for Archaeologische Reise im Euphrat-und Tigrisgebiet II (Berlin, 1920) 203-304 with additional material on the Christian monuments from J. M. Fiey, Moussoul Chrétienne (Beirut, 1959) Hugh Kennedy
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