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Christian communities under the Ottomans in the 17th century

(3,039 words)

Author(s): Kermeli, Eugenia
And you should also do this, my brother,  you should firstly fear the basileus and pay your royal dues  and you should honour the patriarch, the metropolitan, the  monk and the priest. Kiss their hands and pay them due  respect. Papa Synadinos[1] None could have summed up the world of an Ottoman Christian in the early modern period in fewer words than the humble priest Papa Synadinos of Serres in his work known as the  Chronicle of Serres. It was written in demotic Greek in the 1640s by a parish priest who sought to supplement his income by working as a clerk in the me…

Ebussuud Efendi

(695 words)

Author(s): Kermeli, Eugenia
Ebussuud ibn Muhammad ibn Mustafa el-İmâd, Hoca Çelebi Date of Birth: 30 December 1490 Place of Birth: Istanbul, Meteris (Mudarris) village Date of Death: 23 August 1574 Place of Death: Istanbul, Eyüp District Biography Ebussuud Efendi, also known as Hoca Çelebi, was one of the most distinguished and celebrated Ottoman Ḥanafī scholars. He served as a  müderris (teacher) a  kadı (judge), a  kazasker (military judge) and  şeyhülislâm (head of the Ottoman religious establishment) during the reigns of Süleyman I (r. 1520–66) and his son Selim II (r. 1566-74). I…

 Fetâvâ-yı Ebussuud

(2,318 words)

Author(s): Kermeli, Eugenia
Fetâvâ-yı Ebussuud‘The legal opinions of Ebussuud' Ebussuud ibn Muhammad ibn Mustafa el-İmâd, Hoca Çelebi Date: Before 1574 Original Language: Ottoman Turkish Description Ebussuud Efendi’s fatwas cover a variety of issues pertaining to the co-existence of Muslims and Christians. Although most are extant in manuscript form, a number are given in German translation in Horster,  Zur Anwendung des islamischen Rechts, and in English translation in Imber,  Ebuʾs-suʿud. In addition, M. Ertuğrul Düzdağ has transcribed 1001 fatwas in  Şeyhülislâm Ebussuûd Efendi fetvaları. Wit…