Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Klaassen, Frank" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Klaassen, Frank" )' returned 2 results. Modify search

Did you mean: dc_creator:( "klaassen, frank" ) OR dc_contributor:( "klaassen, frank" )

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Robert of Chester

(384 words)

Author(s): Klaassen, Frank
Robert of Chester, fl. between 1140 and 1150 Robert, sometimes also known as Robert of Ketton or Robertus Rettinensis, was active between 1140 and 1150. We know of him first because, together with Hermann of Carinthia, he was engaged by Peter the Venerable, abbot of Cluny, to translate the Qurʾān completed in 1143. He was archdeacon of Pamplona from sometime around 1143. He is also known to have spent time in Barcelona and Tuleda and was evidently in London between 1147 and 1150. His translation of al-Khwārizmī's Algebra completed at Segovia in 1145 introduced not only…


(22,787 words)

Author(s): Hanegraaff, Wouter J. | Graf, Fritz | Fanger, Claire | Klaassen, Frank | Brach, Jean-Pierre
Magic I: Introduction When contemporary academics discuss “magic”, in most cases the assumptions which guide their understanding of it are variations on a few influential theories. First, there is the “intellectualist” understanding of magic linked to the names of E.B. Tylor and J.G. Frazer. Tylor, in his foundational Primitive Culture of 1871, defined magic as based upon ‘the error of mistaking ideal analogy for real connexion’ (Tylor 1771, I, 116). Tylor's assumption was that primitive man, ‘having come to associate in thought those things which he found by experience to be connected in fact, proceeded erroneously to invert this action, and to conclude that association in thought must involve similar connexion in reality. He thus attempted to discover, to foretell, and to cause events by means of processes which we can now see to have only an ideal significance’ (o.c., 104-105). It is clear from this definition that, for Tylor, not religion (based on animism, ‘the belief in spiritual beings’) but science should be the primary reference point for understanding the nature of magic; and this is confirmed by the fact that, throughout his discussions, he used it as synonymous with “occult science”. Tylor's description of magic as something unrelated to animism/religion proved impossible to maintain, however. Although at first he strenuously insisted that magic and religion were ‘separate in their nature and origin’ (1876, 1),…