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Leh kralına nâme-i hümâyun

(94 words)

Author(s): Konopacki, Artur
'Imperial letter to the Polish king' Date of Birth: Unknown; presumably mid-16th century Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown; after 1591 Place of Death: Unknown Biography Nothing is known about the author(s) of this letter, which contains the tuğra (official calligraphic signature) of Sultan Murad III (r. 1574-95).  Presumably drafted and written by unnamed court official(s), the letter was sent from the Ottoman court to Sigismund III, King of Poland, in 1591.   Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Leh…

 Alfurkan tatarski prawdziwy na czterdzieści części podzielony

(1,458 words)

Author(s): Konopacki, Artur
Alfurkan tatarski'True Tatar Alfurkan divided into 40 parts' ‘Piotr Czyżewski’ Date: 1617 Original Language: Polish Description Alfurkan  Tatarski was written during a period of intensive production of intra- and interreligious polemical literature. Although it is only about 80 quarto pages long, and despite the fact that it is a pamphlet insulting the Muslim Tatars, it provides a great deal of information about the Muslims who lived in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the early 17th century. It was printed in the printing house of Józef Karcan’s (alias Kartzan, Karczan…

 Tractatus de duabus Sarmatiis Asiana et Europiana et de contentis in eis

(1,712 words)

Author(s): Konopacki, Artur
Tractatus de duabus SarmatiisPolskie wypisanie dwojej krainy świata‘Treatise on the two Sarmatias, Asian and European, and what is found in them’ Maciej Miechowita, Maciej Carpiga (Karpiga) Date: 31 November 1517 Original Language: Latin Description Miechowa states his purpose in composing this work it as follows: ‘As the Portuguese king revealed the southern part of the world as far as India and the lands inhabited by people on the shores of the Ocean, so let the northern part of the world with people living on the shores of th…

Azulewicz

(74 words)

Author(s): Konopacki, Artur
Biography It is not known for certain whether ‘Azulewicz’ is a real name or a pen-name, and no information is available about this individual, although the Azulewicz family was well-known in the Tatar community of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (see Kryczyński, art. ‘Azulewicz Jakób’). Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information S. Kryczyński, art. ‘Azulewicz Jakób’, in Polski Słownik Biograficzny, Kraków, 1935, vol. 1, p. 191 Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Apologia Tatarów Artur Konopacki

Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł

(525 words)

Author(s): Konopacki, Artur
Biography Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł ‘Sierotka’ (‘the Orphan’), son of Mikołaj ‘the Black’, belonged to a powerful family in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. He was first court and later grand marshal of Lithuania, and voivode first of Trakai (1590) then of Vilnius (1604). He studied in Strasbourg (1563) and Tübingen (from 1564). Following his father’s wish, he took an interest in the contemporary religious movements in Europe. He travelled extensively, including visits to France and Italy, and was…

Piotr Starkowiecki

(358 words)

Author(s): Konopacki, Artur
Biography Piotr Starkowiecki, bearer of the ‘Łodzia’ coat-of-arms, originated from Wielkopolska (Greater Poland). Not much is known about his life. In 1640, he studied languages in Istanbul and went on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, although his name appears in slightly different variations in information about these events. His presence in Istanbul can be confirmed by a diary entry from Wojciech Miaskowski’s mission, where for 22 April it notes that the grand envoy hosted for dinner, among others, S…

 Zdanie sprawy o Tatarach litewskich przez jednego z tych Tatarów złożone sułtanowi Sulejmanowi

(827 words)

Author(s): Konopacki, Artur
Risalei Tatari Leh'Report on the Lithuanian Tatars submitted to Sultan Süleyman by a Tatar' Zdanie sprawy o Tatarach litewskich Date: 1558 Original Language: Polish Description This short text of 22 pages gives an abundance of information about Muslims living in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the mid-16th century. It was written in 1558 by an anonymous Tatar from the Grand Duchy, or someone who knew the circumstances of the Tatars so well that he was able to describe the Tatar settlements, and specifically to name villages and hamlets. It w…

 Peregrynacja do Ziemi Świętej

(3,087 words)

Author(s): Konopacki, Artur
Peregrynacja do Ziemi Świętej‘Peregrination to the Holy Land’Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł ‘Sierotka’, Podróż do Ziemi Świętej Syrii i Egiptu 1582-1584 Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł Date: Probably 1590-1 Original Language: Polish Description Radziwiłł ‘Sierotka’ went on his pilgrimage to the Holy Land in order to fulfil a vow he had made in the hope of recovering his health. Undertaking this journey during the 16th century was nothing extraordinary, as peace with the Ottoman Empire had made pilgrimages to the Holy Land possible. Not every pilgrim, however, l…

 Apologia Tatarów

(640 words)

Author(s): Konopacki, Artur
‘An apology for the Tatars’ Azulewicz Date: 1630 Original Language: Polish Description This work, ascribed to Azulewicz, was an apology written to defend the views of the Tatars, and as a response to accusations directed against the Muslim Tatars living in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in Piotr Czyżewski’s Alfurkan tatarski (1617). It was written in Polish but its structure and actual contents remain unknown, as the work is nowadays considered lost. The historian and educationist Tadeusz Czacki (1765-1813) is known to have consulted it in the early 19th century, and he appear…

‘Piotr Czyżewski’

(238 words)

Author(s): Konopacki, Artur
Biography Nothing certain is known about this author and he cannot presently be identified. We can only make assumptions from an analysis of the general situation in which  Alfurkan  Tatarski was written and of the text itself. Despite the fact that it is signed, it is generally agreed that Piotr Czyżewski is a pen-name. It is certain that the author knew theological works and had access to religious texts circulating in western Europe in the early 17th century. He was also quite familiar with the realities of Tatar life in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Since the Jesuits were the  spiritus mo…

 Translation of the Qur’an

(179 words)

Author(s): Konopacki, Artur
- Piotr Starkowiecki Date: Probably 1640s Original Language: Polish Description There is no known copy of Starkowiecki’s translation of the Qur’an into Polish.  The only information available about it can be found in Kasper Niesiecki’s Herbarz polski (‘Polish armorial’), where he writes: ‘Starkowiecki h. Łodzia: Piotr, knew Persian, Turkish, Arabic well; for this reason he translated the Turkish Alkoran [sic] into Polish, but his death prevented it being printed; he died young and unmarried’ (Bobrowicz (ed.), Herbarz polski Kaspra Niesieckiego, Leipzig, 1841, vol. 8, pp…

Zdanie sprawy o Tatarach litewskich

(34 words)

Author(s): Konopacki, Artur
Biography Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Zdanie sprawy o Tatarach litewskich przez jednego z tych Tatarów złożone sułtanowi Sulejmanowi Artur Konopacki

 Leh kralına nâme-i hümâyun

(810 words)

Author(s): Konopacki, Artur
Leh kralına nâme-i hümâyunList sułtana Murada III do króla Zygmunta'Imperial letter to the Polish king'Letter of Sultan Murad III to King Sigismund III about the Lithuanian Tatars 'Imperial letter to the Polish king' Date: 19-28 October, 1591 Original Language: Ottoman Turkish Description This letter was written in response to a request made by the Lithuanian Muslim Tatars, who went to Sultan Murad III to ask for his protection. It is addressed to Sigismund III Vasa, King of Poland, and begins with a short invocation to God, after which the sultan’s tuğra is traced. The letter is w…

Maciej z Miechowa

(320 words)

Author(s): Konopacki, Artur
Maciej Miechowita, Maciej Carpiga (Karpiga) Date of Birth: 1457 Place of Birth: Miechów Date of Death: 8 September 1523 Place of Death: Kraków Biography Maciej z Miechowa was the son of Stanisław Carpiga (Karpiga). He completed his studies at the University of Kraków between 1474 and 1478, obtaining his Master’s degree in philosophy in 1479. In 1482-3 he was head of the cathedral school at Wawel (a hill in Kraków where the cathedral stands next to the royal castle), then he completed medical studies in Italy and obtaining a doctorate. He was ordained on his return to Poland in 1488. He travel…