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Mudīr

(262 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
(a.), the title of governors of the provinces of Egypt, called mudīriyya . The use of the word mudīr in this meaning is no doubt of Turkish origin. The office was created by Muḥammad ʿAlī, when, shortly after 1813, he reorganised the administrative structure of Egypt, instituting seven mudīriyyas; this number has been changed several times. The chief task of the mudīr is the controlling of the industrial and agricultural administration and of the irrigation, as executed by his subordinates, viz. the maʾmūr , who administers a markaz , and the nāẓir who controls the ḳism

Siwri Ḥiṣār

(566 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Bosworth, C.E.
, also written Sifri Ḥiṣār , i.e. strong fortress (see Aḥmed Wefīḳ, Lehd̲j̲e-yi ʿOt̲h̲mānī , 459), the early Turkish and Ottoman name of two small towns in northwestern and western Anatolia respectively. 1. The more important one is the modern Turkish Sivrihisar, in the modern il or province of Eskişehir. It lies on the Eskişehir-Ankara road roughly equidistant from each, south of the course of the Porsuk river and north of the upper course of the Saḳarya [ q.v.] (lat. 39° 29′ N., long. 31° 32′ E., altitude 1,050 m/3,440 feet). …

Mūs̲h̲

(1,010 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Bosworth, C.E.
, modern Turkish Muş, a town and a province of eastern Anatolia lying to the west of Lake Van and Ak̲h̲lāṭ [ q.v.] or K̲h̲ilāṭ (modern Ahlat). The town lies in lat. 38° 44′ N. and long. 41° 30′ E. at an altitude of 1290 m/4,200 feet in the foothills of the valley which carries the Murad Su river—a fertile plain on which wheat, tobacco and vines have long been grown—and which in recent years has borne the railway branch from Elâziğ [see maʿmūrat al-ʿazīz ] eastwards to Tatvan on the shores of Lake Van. In the pre-Islamic period, it was the principal town of the Armenian district of Taraun (Hübschmann, ¶ Id…

Luṭf ʿAlī Beg

(1,060 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de
b. Āḳā K̲h̲ān , Persian anthologist and poet, who is also known by his penname Ād̲h̲ar which he adopted after having used the names Wālih and Nak̲h̲at previously. He was descended from a prominent Turcoman family belonging to the Begdīlī tribe of Syria (Begdīlī-i S̲h̲āmlū) which had joined the Ḳi̊zi̊lbās̲h̲ movement [ q.v.] in the 9th/15th century. Afterwards, the family settled down in Iṣfahān. Many of his relatives served the later Ṣafawids and Nādir S̲h̲āh as administrators and diplomats. Luṭf ʿAlī Beg was born on Saturday 20 Rabīʿ II 1134/7 F…

ʿOt̲h̲mānli̊

(47,838 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Kramers, J.H. | Zachariadou, E.A. | Faroqhi, Suraiya | Alpay Tekin, Gönül | Et al.
, the name of a Turkish dynasty, ultimately of Og̲h̲uz origin [see g̲h̲uzz ], whose name appears in European sources as ottomans (Eng.), ottomanes (Fr.), osmanen (Ger.), etc. I. political and dynastic history 1. General survey and chronology of the dynasty The Ottoman empire was the territorially most extensive and most enduring Islamic state since the break-up of the ʿAbbāsid caliphate and the greatest one to be founded by Turkish-speaking peoples. It arose in the Islamic world after the devastations over much of the eastern and central lands of the Dār al-Islām

Kisāʾī

(944 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, Mad̲j̲d al-Dīn Abu ’l-Ḥasan , a Persian poet of the second half of the 4th/10th century. In some later sources his kunya is given as Abū Isḥāḳ, but the form given above can be found already in an early source like the Čahār makāla . The Dumyat al-ḳaṣr by al-Bāk̲h̲arzī contains a reference to the “solitary ascetic” ( al-mud̲j̲tahid al-muḳīm bi-nafsihi ) Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥammad al-Kisāʾī of Marw who might very well be identical with this poet (cf. A. Ates, giriş to his edition of Kitāb Tarcumān al-balāġa , 97 f.). The pen name Kisāʾī would, according to ʿAw…

Marzpān

(1,409 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Morony, M.
, Arabised form Marzubān , “warden of the march”, “markgrave”, from Av. marəza and M. Parth. mrz “frontier”, plus pat “protector”. The MP form marzpān suggests a north Iranian origin. It began to be used as the title of a military governor of a frontier province in the Sāsānid empire in the 4th or 5th centuries A.D. when marz , marzpan , and marzpanutʿin (marzpānate) appear as loan words in Armenian, and marzbanā as a loan word in Syriac. The NP form marzbān , marzvān or marzabān was Arabised as marzubān (pl. marāziba , marāzib ), possibly as early as the 6th century A.D. Arabic also formed a verb marz…

al-Nīl

(6,769 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the river Nile. The Nile is one of the large rivers (length ca. 6,648 km./4,132 miles) which from the beginning have belonged to the territory of Islam, and the valleys and deltas of which have favoured the development of an autonomous cultural centre in Islamic civilisation. In the case of the Nile, this centre has influenced at different times the cultural and political events in the Islamic world. Thus the Nile has, during the Islamic period, continued to play the same part as it did during the centuries that preceded the coming of Islam. The name al-Nīl or, very often, Nīl Miṣr, goe…

Murād II

(1,480 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
(824-48, 850-5/1421-44, 1446-51), sixth ruler of the Ottoman Empire, was born in 806 (1403-4) and ascended the throne in D̲j̲umādā I 824/May 1421, when he arrived in Edirne some days after his father Meḥemmed I’s death; his decease had been kept secret on the advice of the vizier ʿIwaḍ Pas̲h̲a until the new sultan’s arrival. As crown prince he had resided at Mag̲h̲nisa, and he had taken part in the suppression of the revolt of Simawna-Og̲h̲lu Bedr al-Dīn [ q.v.]. Immediately after his accession he had to face the pretender known in Turkish history as Düzme Muṣṭafā [ q.v.] and his ally D̲j̲un…

Kūt al-ʿAmāra

(1,247 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Kelly, J.B.
, a place in al-ʿIrāḳ (lat. 32° 30′ N., long 45° 50′ E.), on the left bank of the Tigris, between Bag̲h̲dād and ʿAmāra, 100 miles south-east of Bag̲h̲dād as the crow flies. Kūt is the Hindustānī word kōt meaning “fortress” [see kōt́wāl ] found in other place-names in al-ʿIrāḳ, like Kūt al-Muʿammir; Kūt al-ʿAmāra is often simply called Kūt. Kūt lies opposite the mouth of the S̲h̲aṭṭ al-Ḥayy, also called al-G̲h̲arrāf, the old canal connecting the Tigris with the Euphrates, which has several junctions with the Euphrate…

al-Ubulla

(758 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, a town of mediaeval ʿIrāḳ situated in the Euphrates-Tigris delta region at the head of the Persian Gulf and famed as the terminal for commerce from India and further east. It lay to the east of al-Baṣra [ q.v.] on the right bank of the Tigris and on the north side of the large canal called Nahr al-Ubulla, which was the main waterway from al-Baṣra in a southeastern direction to ¶ the Tigris and further to ʿAbbādān and the sea. The length of this canal is generally given as four farsak̲h̲ s or two barīd s (al-Muḳaddasī). Al-Ubulla can be identified with ’Απολόγου ’Εμπόριον, mentioned in the Periplus m…

Marzbān-Nāma

(1,081 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de
(also known in the Arabicised form Marzubān-nāma ), a work in Persian prose containing a variety of short stories used as moral examples and bound together by one major and several minor framework stories. It is essentially extant in two versions written in elegant Persian with many verses and phrases in Arabic. They were made from a lost original in the Ṭabarī dialect independently of each other in the early 13th century. The oldest version, entitled Rawḍat al-ʿuḳūl , was completed in 598/1202 by Muḥammad b. G̲h̲āzī al-Malaṭyawī (or Malaṭī) and was …

Muṣṭafā I

(523 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the fifteenth Ottoman sultan (1026-7/1617-18 and 1031-2/1622-3), was born in the year 1000/1591 as son of Meḥemmed III [ q.v.]. He owed his life to the relaxation of the ḳānūn authorising the killing of all the brothers of a new sultan, and was called to succeed his brother Aḥmed I [ q.v.] at the latter’s death on 23 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 1026/22 November 1617. But his weakmindedness —which is said to have him made escape death on account of superstitious fear of Aḥmed— made him absolutely incapable of ruling. Aḥmed’s son ʿOt̲h̲mān, who felt himself e…

S̲h̲us̲h̲tar

(1,602 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Bosworth, C.E.
, S̲h̲ūs̲h̲tar , Arabie form Tustar , a town of southwestern Persia in the mediaeval Islamic province of Ahwāz [ q.v.] and the modern one ( ustān ) of K̲h̲ūzistān (lat. 32° 03’ N., long. 48° 51’ E.). It stands on a cliff to the west of which runs the river Kārūn [ q.v.], the middle course of which begins a few miles north of the town. This position gives the town considerable commercial and strategic importance and has made possible the construction of various waterworks for which the town has long been famous. The main features of these construct…

S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Islām

(3,228 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Bulliet, R. | Repp, R.C.
(a.), an honorific title in use in the Islamic world up to the early 20th century, applied essentially to religious dignitaries. 1. Early history of the term. The tide first appears in K̲h̲urāsān towards the end of the 4th/10th century. While honorific tides compounded with Islām (like ʿIzz-, D̲j̲alāl-, and Sayf al-Islām) were borne by persons exercising secular power (notably the viziers of the Fatimids, cf. M. van Berchem, in ZDPV, xvi [1893], 101), the tide of Shaykh al-Islām has always been reserved for ʿulamaʾ and mystics, like other titles of honour whose first part is S̲h̲ayk̲h̲

Salamiyya

(2,862 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Daftary, F.
, a town in central Syria in the district of Orontes (Nahr al-ʿĀṣī), about 25 miles south-east of Ḥamāt and 35 miles north-east of Ḥimṣ (for the town’s exact situation, see Kiepert’s map in M. von Oppenheim, Vom Mittelmeer zum Persischen Golf , Berlin 1899, i. 124 ff., and ii, 401; National Geographic Atlas of the World , 5th ed., Washington D.C. 1981, 178-9). Salamiyya lies in a fertile plain 1,500 feet above sea level, south of the D̲j̲abal al-Aʿlā and on the margin of the Syrian steppe. The older and more correct pronunciation…

al-Ṭaff

(265 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the desert region that lies west of Kūfa along the alluvial plain of the Euphrates. It is higher than the low-lying ground by the river and forms the transition to the central Arabian plateau. According to the authorities quoted by Yāḳūt, Buldān , iii, 359, al-ṭaff means an area raised above the surrounding country or fringe, edge, bank; the name is not found after the 13th century. The district contains a number of springs, the waters of which run ¶ southwest (cf. Ibn al-Faḳīh, 187). The best known of these wells was al-ʿUd̲h̲ayr. From its geographical position al-Ṭaff w…

S̲h̲arīf Pas̲h̲a

(773 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Bosworth, C.E.
, Muḥammad (1823-87), Egyptian statesman in the reigns of the Khedives Ismāʿīl and Tawfīk. He was of Turkish origin and was born in Cairo, where his father was then acting as ḳāḍī ’l-ḳuḍāt sent by the sultan. When some ten years later the family was again temporarily in Cairo, Muḥammad ʿAlī [ q.v.] had the boy sent to the military school recently founded by him. Henceforth, his whole career was to be spent in the Egyptian service. S̲h̲arīf was a member of the “Egyptian mission” sent to Paris for higher education which included the future Khedives…

Telk̲h̲īṣd̲j̲i

(134 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, or in the official style, Telk̲h̲īṣī , was the individual of the Ottoman Turkish administration appointed to prepare the précis called telk̲h̲īṣ [ q.v.] and to take it to the palace, where it was handed over to the chief of the eunuchs. The telk̲h̲īṣd̲j̲i was therefore an official of the Grand Vizier’s department; in addition to preparing the telk̲h̲īṣ, he took part in several official ceremonies. The telk̲h̲īṣd̲j̲i of the S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Islām was not—at least in the later period—in direct communication with the palace; documents presented by him had to pass first …

Muṣṭafā II

(906 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the twenty-second Ottoman sultan (1106-15/1695-1703), was a son of Meḥemmed IV [ q.v.]. Born in 1664, he succeeded to his uncle Aḥmed II on D̲j̲umādā II 1106/6 February 1695, at a time when the empire was at war with Austria, Poland, Russia and Venice. The new sultan in a remarkable k̲h̲aṭṭ-i s̲h̲erīf proclaimed a Holy War and carried out, against ¶ the decision of the Dīwān , his desire to take part in the campaign against Austria. Before his departure a mutiny of the Janissaries had cost the grand vizier Defterdār ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a his life…
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