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Muṣṭafā Iv

(621 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, vingt-neuvième sultan ottoman, fils de ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd Ier, né le 26 s̲h̲aʿbān 1193/19 septembre 1778 (Meḥmed T̲h̲üreyyā, Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī, I, 81). Le parti anti-réformiste, dirigé par le ḳāʾim-maḳām Mūsā Pas̲h̲a et le muftī et soutenu par les Janissaires et les troupes auxiliaires des Yamaḳs, ayant détrôné Selīm III [ q.v.] le 21 rabīʿ I 1222/29 mai 1807, Muṣṭafā fut proclamé sultan. Immédiatement après, le corps dit niẓām-i d̲j̲edīd [ q.v.] fut dissous, et Ḳabaḳd̲j̲i Og̲h̲lu, le chef des Yamaḳs, fut fait commandant des forteresses du Bosphore. La Turquie é…

Ṣārliyya

(564 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, nom d’une communauté de Kākāʾīn ou Ahl-i Ḥaḳḳ [ q.v.] vivant au Nord du ʿIrāḳ dans un ensemble de six villages, quatre sur la rive droite du Grand Zab, et deux sur la rive gauche, non loin de son confluent avec le Tigre et à 45 km au Sud-sud-est de Mawṣil. Le principal village, où résidait le chef, s’appelait Wardak et se trouvait sur la rive droite; sur la rive gauche le plus grand village est Sufayya. Les Ṣārlīs, comme les autres sectes qu’on trouve en Mésopotamie (Yazīdis, S̲h̲abaks, Bād̲j̲ūrān), étaient très peu communicatifs quant à leurs croyances et à leurs prati…

Köy

(186 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, mot employé en turc occidental (par. ex. en ottoman et en tatar de Crimée; cf. Radloff, Versuch eines Wörterbuches der Türk-Dialecte, II, 1216) pour désigner un village. C’est la forme sous laquelle le turc a emprunté le mot persan guy (voir Bittner, Der Einfluss des Arabischen und Persischen auf das Türkische, dans 5 B. Ak. Wien, CXLII/3, 103) ou peut-être plus correctement kūy (Vullers, Lexicon; Burhān-i ḳāṭiʿ, 759), signifiant à l’origine «allée, rue». Dans la toponymie de l’empire ottoman, on trouve beaucoup de noms de localités composés avec köy, comme Bog̲h̲āz Köy, Ermeni Kö…

Müteferriḳa

(316 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
(t.), nom d’un corps de gardes, qui fut spécialement affecté à la personne du sultan ottoman. Ce nom est également appliqué à un membre de cette garde. Leurs services étaient pareils à ceux des čawus̲h̲ [ q.v.]; dépourvus de caractère militaire, ils n’étaient pas seulement employés au service de la cour, mais pouvaient être chargés de plus ou moins importantes missions publiques ou politiques. Comme les čawus̲h̲, les müteferriḳa étaient une garde à cheval. Leur nom apparaît de bonne heure; dans une waḳfiyya de 847/1443, un nommé Ibrāhīm b. Isḥāḳ est cité comme en faisant part…

Muṣṭafā Ier

(511 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, quinzième sultan ottoman. Né en 1000/1591, il était le fils de Meḥemmed III. Il dut sa vie à l’inobservance du ḳānūn autorisant le meurtre de tous les frères d’un nouveau sultan. C’est ainsi qu’il fut appelé à succéder à son frère Aḥmed Ier, à la mort de ce dernier, le 23 d̲h̲ū l-ḳaʿda 1026/22 novembre 1617. Mais sa faiblesse d’esprit — qui, dit-on, le fit échapper à la mort à cause d’une crainte superstitieuse d’Aḥmed — le rendit absolument incapable d’exercer le pouvoir. Le fils d’Aḥmed, ʿOt̲h̲mān, qui se sentait des titres à la succ…

Lewend

(1,282 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Griswold, W.J.
, nom donné à deux sortes de milices ¶ d’irréguliers ottomans payés à la journée, l’une naviguant en mer ( deñiz), l’autre basée sur le continent ( ḳarā) mais remontant toutes deux à des temps anciens. Lewend peut provenir, dans son acception mari- time, de l’italien levantino (Sāmī, Ḳāmūs-i türkī) appliqué à l’origine par les Vénitiens aux soldats levés dans leurs possessions levantines et emprunté par le turc ottoman pour désigner des mercenaires recrutés dans les régions méditerranéennes, surtout dans la partie orientale de la Grèce et dans…

Mudīr

(256 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
(a.), titre porté par les gouverneurs des provinces d’Égypte dites mudīriyya. L’emploi du mot mudīr dans ce sens est sans aucun doute d’origine turque. La fonction a été créée par Muḥammad ʿAlī quand, peu après 1813, il a réorganisé la structure administrative de l’Égypte et institué sept mudīriyyas, nombre qui a été modifié à plusieurs reprises. La principale attribution du mudīr consiste à contrōler l’administration industrielle et agricole et l’irrigation, tâche qui est exécutée par ses subordonnés, le maʾmūr, à la tête d’un markaz, et le nāẓir, chef du ḳism qui est aussi une sub…

Kirkūk

(3,533 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H. | Bois, Th.
est la plus grande ville de la région de Mésopotamie (44° 25′ Est, 35° 25′ Nord) limitée par le Petit Zāb au Nord-ouest, le Ḏj̲abal Ḥamrīn au Sud-ouest, le Diyālā au Sud-est et les chaînes du Zagros au Nord-est. Identifiée par certains (par ex. C. J. Gadd, dans Rev. d’Assyr. et d’Archéol. Orient., 1926 et par Sidney Smith) comme le site de l’ancienne cité d’Arrapha, Kirkūk participa à une révolte d’un fils de Salmanasar II (858-824 av. J.-C.) contre son père vieillissant; elle se souleva de nouveau sous le règne d’As̲h̲ur-dan III (771-754 av. J.-…

Mudīr

(262 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
(a.), the title of governors of the provinces of Egypt, called mudīriyya . The use of the word mudīr in this meaning is no doubt of Turkish origin. The office was created by Muḥammad ʿAlī, when, shortly after 1813, he reorganised the administrative structure of Egypt, instituting seven mudīriyyas; this number has been changed several times. The chief task of the mudīr is the controlling of the industrial and agricultural administration and of the irrigation, as executed by his subordinates, viz. the maʾmūr , who administers a markaz , and the nāẓir who controls the ḳism

Siwri Ḥiṣār

(566 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Bosworth, C.E.
, also written Sifri Ḥiṣār , i.e. strong fortress (see Aḥmed Wefīḳ, Lehd̲j̲e-yi ʿOt̲h̲mānī , 459), the early Turkish and Ottoman name of two small towns in northwestern and western Anatolia respectively. 1. The more important one is the modern Turkish Sivrihisar, in the modern il or province of Eskişehir. It lies on the Eskişehir-Ankara road roughly equidistant from each, south of the course of the Porsuk river and north of the upper course of the Saḳarya [ q.v.] (lat. 39° 29′ N., long. 31° 32′ E., altitude 1,050 m/3,440 feet). …

Mūs̲h̲

(1,010 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Bosworth, C.E.
, modern Turkish Muş, a town and a province of eastern Anatolia lying to the west of Lake Van and Ak̲h̲lāṭ [ q.v.] or K̲h̲ilāṭ (modern Ahlat). The town lies in lat. 38° 44′ N. and long. 41° 30′ E. at an altitude of 1290 m/4,200 feet in the foothills of the valley which carries the Murad Su river—a fertile plain on which wheat, tobacco and vines have long been grown—and which in recent years has borne the railway branch from Elâziğ [see maʿmūrat al-ʿazīz ] eastwards to Tatvan on the shores of Lake Van. In the pre-Islamic period, it was the principal town of the Armenian district of Taraun (Hübschmann, ¶ Id…

Luṭf ʿAlī Beg

(1,060 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de
b. Āḳā K̲h̲ān , Persian anthologist and poet, who is also known by his penname Ād̲h̲ar which he adopted after having used the names Wālih and Nak̲h̲at previously. He was descended from a prominent Turcoman family belonging to the Begdīlī tribe of Syria (Begdīlī-i S̲h̲āmlū) which had joined the Ḳi̊zi̊lbās̲h̲ movement [ q.v.] in the 9th/15th century. Afterwards, the family settled down in Iṣfahān. Many of his relatives served the later Ṣafawids and Nādir S̲h̲āh as administrators and diplomats. Luṭf ʿAlī Beg was born on Saturday 20 Rabīʿ II 1134/7 F…

ʿOt̲h̲mānli̊

(47,838 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Kramers, J.H. | Zachariadou, E.A. | Faroqhi, Suraiya | Alpay Tekin, Gönül | Et al.
, the name of a Turkish dynasty, ultimately of Og̲h̲uz origin [see g̲h̲uzz ], whose name appears in European sources as ottomans (Eng.), ottomanes (Fr.), osmanen (Ger.), etc. I. political and dynastic history 1. General survey and chronology of the dynasty The Ottoman empire was the territorially most extensive and most enduring Islamic state since the break-up of the ʿAbbāsid caliphate and the greatest one to be founded by Turkish-speaking peoples. It arose in the Islamic world after the devastations over much of the eastern and central lands of the Dār al-Islām

Kisāʾī

(944 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, Mad̲j̲d al-Dīn Abu ’l-Ḥasan , a Persian poet of the second half of the 4th/10th century. In some later sources his kunya is given as Abū Isḥāḳ, but the form given above can be found already in an early source like the Čahār makāla . The Dumyat al-ḳaṣr by al-Bāk̲h̲arzī contains a reference to the “solitary ascetic” ( al-mud̲j̲tahid al-muḳīm bi-nafsihi ) Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥammad al-Kisāʾī of Marw who might very well be identical with this poet (cf. A. Ates, giriş to his edition of Kitāb Tarcumān al-balāġa , 97 f.). The pen name Kisāʾī would, according to ʿAw…

Marzpān

(1,409 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Morony, M.
, Arabised form Marzubān , “warden of the march”, “markgrave”, from Av. marəza and M. Parth. mrz “frontier”, plus pat “protector”. The MP form marzpān suggests a north Iranian origin. It began to be used as the title of a military governor of a frontier province in the Sāsānid empire in the 4th or 5th centuries A.D. when marz , marzpan , and marzpanutʿin (marzpānate) appear as loan words in Armenian, and marzbanā as a loan word in Syriac. The NP form marzbān , marzvān or marzabān was Arabised as marzubān (pl. marāziba , marāzib ), possibly as early as the 6th century A.D. Arabic also formed a verb marz…

al-Nīl

(6,769 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the river Nile. The Nile is one of the large rivers (length ca. 6,648 km./4,132 miles) which from the beginning have belonged to the territory of Islam, and the valleys and deltas of which have favoured the development of an autonomous cultural centre in Islamic civilisation. In the case of the Nile, this centre has influenced at different times the cultural and political events in the Islamic world. Thus the Nile has, during the Islamic period, continued to play the same part as it did during the centuries that preceded the coming of Islam. The name al-Nīl or, very often, Nīl Miṣr, goe…

Kirkūk

(3,649 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Bois, Th.
, the biggest town of the region of Mesopotamia (44° 25′ E., 35° 25′ N.,) bounded by the Little Zab in the north-west, the D̲j̲abal Ḥamrīn in the south-west, the Diyālā in the south-east and the mountain chains of the Zagros in the north-east. It is identified by some (e.g. C. J. Gadd in Rev. d’Assyr. et d’Arch . Or., xxiii (1926), 64, and by Sidney Smith) as the site of the ancient city of Arrapḫa, and so Kirkūk participated in the revolt of the son of Shalmaneser II (850-824 B.C.) against his ageing father; again it rose up in the reign of Ashur Dan I…

Sūḳ al-S̲h̲uyūk̲h̲

(530 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, a small town in southern ʿIrāḳ, on the right bank of the Euphrates (lat. 30° 53′ N., long. 46° 28′ E.). It lies some 40 km/25 miles to the south-east of al-Nāṣiriyya [ q.v.] and at the western end of the K̲h̲awr al-Ḥammār lake and marshlands region, about 160 km/100 miles as the crow flies from Baṣra. The town is surrounded by date-groves extending along the river bank, but the marshy country, that extends into Baṣra, makes the air very unhealthy. Sūḳ al-S̲h̲uyūk̲h̲ was founded in the first half of the 18th century as a market-place ( sūḳ) of the confederation of the Muntafiḳ [ q.v.] Arabs; 4 hour…

Lala Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a

(377 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, grand vizier under Aḥmad I. He was a Bosnian by origin and a relation of Meḥmed Soḳollu Pas̲h̲a. The year of this birth is not given. After having had higher education ¶ in the palace, he was mīr-āk̲h̲ūr , and became in 1003/1595 ag̲h̲a of the Janissaries. In the next year he took part in the Austrian wars as beglerbegi of Rūmili and was commander of Esztergom (Gran, Turkish: Usturg̲h̲on) when this town capitulated to the Austrian army in Muḥarram 1004/September 1595. During the following years, Lala Meḥmed was several times ser-ʿasker in Hungary and when, in Ṣa…

Sakarya

(816 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
(Ottoman orthography Saḳārya or Ṣaḳārya, modern Turkish Sakarya), a river in Turkey. It rises near Bayāt in the northeast of Āfyūn Ḳara Hiṣār. In its eastward course it enters the wilāyet or il of Ankara, through which it runs to a point above Čaḳmaḳ after receiving on its left bank the Sayyid G̲h̲āzī Ṣū and several other tributaries on the same side. It then turns northwards describing a curve round Siwri Ḥiṣār. Here it receives on the right bank the Engürü Sūyu from Ankara and near this confluence the Porsuk on the opposite …
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