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Muṣṭafā I

(455 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the fifteenth Ottoman Sulṭān, was born in the year 1000 (1591) as son of Muḥammad III. He owed his life to the relaxation of the ḳānūn authorising the killing of all the brothers of a new sulṭān, and was called to succeed his brother Aḥmad I at the latter’s death on November 22, 1617. But his weakmindedness — which is said to have him made escape death on account of superstitious fear of Aḥmad — made him absolutely incapable of ruling. Aḥmad’s son ʿOt̲h̲mān, who felt himself entitled to the succession, had little difficulty in procuring Muṣṭafā’s deposition in a meeting of the Imperial Dīwān, by …

Muẓaffar al-Dīn

(644 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, fifth S̲h̲āh of Persia of the Ḳād̲j̲ār [q. v.] dynasty, was born on March 25, 1853. He was S̲h̲āh Nāṣir al-Dīn’s second son, the eldest son Ẓill al-Sulṭān being of lower birth by his mother. As crown prince Muẓaffar al-Dīn had been some time governor of Ād̲h̲arbaid̲j̲ān (a description of him as crown prince in Curzon, Persia and the Persian Question, i. 413). After his father’s assassination Muẓaffar al-Dīn was enthroned on June 8, 1896. With this new reign the rivalry between England and Russia for commercial and political influence in Persia became ev…


(1,043 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
b. Rustam, a prince of the Bāwand dynasty of Ṭabarīstān [q. v.] regarded as the original author of the Marzubān-nāma, a work in Persian prose containing a series of short stories and fables of a moral and didactic character. This book is known in two versions in elegant Persian of the xiiith century, the author of one of which was Saʿd al-Dīn al-Warāwīnī; he dedicated it to Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Rabīb al-Dīn, vizier of Uzbek b. Muḥammad b. Ildegīz, Atābeg of Ad̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān from 1210 to 1225. These dates give us probable limits for the composition of th…


(259 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, name of two towns, in the region between the two main Nile arms called al-Ḏj̲azīra, generally distinguished as Manūf al-ʿUlyā and Manūf al-Suflā. The latter was situated on the right bank of the western Nile arm, while the former lay more to the east on a smaller canal. Both are described by the geographers as large towns, surrounded by fertile districts and inhabited by wealthy people, especially Manūf al-ʿUlyā, where, according to Ibn Ḥawḳal (p. 92), there resided a governor. The kūra of Manūf al-ʿUlyā is often called the kūra of Damsls and Manūf, while the kūra of Manūf al-Suflā is des…

Maḥmūd I

(1,908 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, twenty fourth Ottoman Sulṭān, reigned 1143—1168 (1730—1754). He was born on the 3rd Muḥarram 1108 (Aug. 2, 1696), the son of Muṣṭafā II — the Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī gives the date 7th Ramaḍān 1107 (April 10, 1696) — and had spent his life in seclusion up to his accession. He came to the throne through the mutiny of the Janissaries under Patrona Ḵh̲alīl, a mutiny which cost the grand vizier Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a, the Ḳapudan Pas̲h̲a and the Kiaya Beg their lives, and forced Sulṭān Aḥmad III to abdicate in favour of Maḥmūd; these events took place on the 17th Rabīʿ I, 1143 (Oct. 1, 1730). The muti…


(1,442 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
or S̲h̲ūs̲h̲ter, among the Arabs Tustar, a town in the Persian province of ʿArabistān, the ancient Ḵh̲ūzistān, situated in ¶ about 49° East Long, and 32° N. Lat. It stands on a clif to the west of which runs the river Kārūn [q. v.], the middle course of which begins a few miles north of the town. This position gives the town considerable commercial and strategic importance and has made possible the construction of various waterworks for which the town has long been famous. The main features of these constructions …

Ṣu Bas̲h̲i̊

(621 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, ancient military title in countries of Turkish civilization. Although later popular etymology has always regarded the first element as the word ṣu, “water”, this interpretation ¶ is probably erroneous. In old Eastern Turkish zu (very possibly taken from Chinese) signified army and ṣu-bas̲h̲i̊ therefore meant commander of the army (cf. Maḥmūd Kas̲h̲g̲h̲arī, Dīwān Lug̲h̲at al-Turk, iii. 156; Houtsma, Ein türkisch-arabisches Glossar, Leyden 1884, p. 14, 30). It is not surprising, however, that this title has been connected with the word designating water, …

Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, Yegen

(395 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, grand vizier under Maḥmūd II. He was called Yegen “the Nephew” because he stood in that relationship to Kel Yūsuf Efendi, a high official in the financial administration ( Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī, iv. 659); he also began his career by holding different financial offices, and was also ḳapi̊ k i ayasi̊ of the grand vizier Topal ʿOt̲h̲mān Pas̲h̲a (1732). In 1737 he became ḳāʾim-maḳām in Constantinople during the absence of the grand vizier ʿAbd Allāh Pas̲h̲a. The latter was successful that year against the Austrians on the Danube frontier (taking of Fetḥ Islā…


(496 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a little village, which was built on the great group of artificial mounds, that cover the ruins of the royal palaces of Nineveh, opposite the town of al-Mawṣil, to the east of the Tigris. The name of this village is not found in the middle ages nor in the Turkish authors of the xviith century; it has been thought, however, that the name is connected with the dynasty of the Ḳara Ḳoyunli, which reigned in this region ¶ in the xvth century (von Oppenheim). After being for the most part destroyed by Kurds in 1836, the village was moved to the alluvial plain between the mounds …

Muḥammad Gurd̲j̲ī Pas̲h̲a

(659 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
Two Turkish grand-viziers are known under this name. 1. The one who is also called k̲h̲ādim muḥammad pas̲h̲a began his political career after having been a eunuch in the imperial palace; in 1604 he became wālī in Egypt, where he was able to establish some order; after that he was twice ḳāʾim-maḳām of the grand-vizierate in the capital, in 1611 and in 1615; in the meantime he had held governorships in Erzerūm, Bosnia and Belgrad. He was called to the grand-vizierate in the days of Sulṭān Muṣṭafā I’s second reign, when the Janissaries and the Sipā…


(354 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the name of a place noted for its Assyrian excavations, situated on the plain to the northeast of Mosul, at a distance of 12 miles (5 hours by caravan) from the town and eight miles from the Tigris at the south west of the foot of the Ḏj̲abal Maḳlūb, and on the left bank of the Ḵh̲awser. At this place the village of Ḵh̲orsābād was situated in the year 1843; inhabited by the S̲h̲abak [q. v.] it was the village that Botta, the first explorer bought, and transplanted the inhabitants to another place in the plain, so that ¶ he might be able to begin excavating. Ḵh̲orsābād is mentioned by Yāḳūt …

Muḥammad VI

(550 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
Waḥīd al-Dīn, last Sulṭān of the Ottoman Empire, was born on January 14, 1861, as son of Sulṭān ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd. He was called to the throne on July 3, 1918, after the death of his brother Muḥammad V Res̲h̲ād, the former heir to the throne Yūsuf ʿIzz al-Dīn, son of ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, having died in 1916. When on October 30, 1918, nearly four months after his accession, the armistice of Mudros was signed, he was the ruler of an empire that seemed to be at the mercy of its former enemies, whose milita…

S̲h̲arīf Pas̲h̲a

(804 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, an Egyptian statesman in the reigns of the Ḵh̲edives Ismāʿīl and Tawfīḳ. He was of Turkish origin and was born in 1823 in Cairo where his father was then acting as ḳāḍī ’l-ḳuḍāt sent by the Sulṭān. When some ten years later the family was again temporarily in Cairo, Muḥammad ʿAlī had the boy sent to the military school recently founded by him. Henceforth his whole career was to be spent in the Egyptian service. S̲h̲arīf was a member of the “Egyptian mission” sent to Paris for higher education (cf. the article k̲h̲edīve) which included the future Ḵh̲edives Saʿīd Pas̲h̲a, Ismāʿīl Pas̲h̲…


(1,459 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a town in Upper Galilee, 30 miles East of ʿAkkā and N. E. of the Lake of Tiberias, about 1600 feet above sea level on a bill which al-Dimas̲h̲ḳī calls Kanʿān (so also Cuinet) and which is called Ḏj̲ibāl ʿĀmila in Yāḳūt, iii. 399 (whose statements are otherwise wrong; on this see Gaudefroy-Demombynes, p. 23). It was only through the Crusades that it first attained importance, for before the xiiith century it is not mentioned by any Arab geographer. But it must have already existed in the second century as Ṣephath is found in the Jerusalem Talmud (Tract. Ros̲h̲ Ha…

Murād I

(2,007 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, According to the common tradition the third ruler of the Ottoman state, was a son of Ork̲h̲ān and the Byzantine lady Nīlūfer. Although some Ottoman sources profess to know the year of his birth ( Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī, i. 74 gives the year 726 = 1326), this date, like all dates given by Turkish sources relating to this period, is far from certain. The name Murād (Greek sources such as Phrantzes have ’ΑμουράτηΣ, from which later Latin sources make Amurath, while contemporary Latin sources from Italy have Moratibei) must have orig…


(176 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, large town in Lower Egypt, on the right bank of the Damietta branch of the Nile, capital of the province al-Daḳahlīya. Another canal or branch of the Nile went from here to As̲h̲mūm in a north-eastern direction. It was originally a camping place for the army, founded in 616 (1219) by al-Malik al-Kāmil, when he tried to recapture Dimyāṭ, then occupied by the Crusaders. In 1249 the Crusaders were defeated in the neighbourhood of al-Manṣūra by al-Sulṭān al-Muʿaẓẓam Tūrāns̲h̲āh, on which occasion …


(321 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, or, according to Abu ’l-Fidāʾ (p. 116), Minf, the ancient Egyptian capital Memphis, on the left bank of the Nile, not far from Cairo, is well known in Arabic literature as a very old town. The geographers cite, among the kūra’s of Egypt, that of Manf and Wasīm (cf. e.g. Ibn Ḵh̲ordād̲h̲bih, p. 81), but the town was already ruined in Muḥammadan times (al-Yaʿḳūbī, Kit. al-Buldān, p. 331) —by ʿAmr b. al-ʿĀṣ, according to Abu ’l-Fidāʾ ( loc. cit.) — and was no more than a village in the time of Ibn Ḥawḳal (p. 106). Most Arab writers speak of the ancient traditions connected with Manf, often t…

Selīm II

(1,601 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, eleventh Sulṭān of Turkey, reigned from 974—982 (1566—1574). He was born probably in 930 (1524). He was the son of Suleimān I and the celebrated Ḵh̲nrrem Sulṭān (Roxelana) ( Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī, i. 39, gives three different dates) and was the eldest of the latter’s four children: Selīm, Bāyazīd, Ḏj̲ahāngīr (d. 1553) and Mihrmāh (became wife of the Grand Vizier Rustem Pas̲h̲a). Ḵh̲urrem Sulṭān favoured Bāyazīd and to secure his succession to the throne she brought about by her intrigues and influence over Suleimān the exe…

Muḥammad Damad Pas̲h̲a

(489 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, grandvizier, also called Öküz Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, was the son of a farrier of Constantinople and was educated (rather unusual at that time for a boy from Constantinople) in the imperial palace for a military career. He left the palace as siliḥdār, but we do no not know his career until he was appointed, in 1016 (1607—1608), governor of Egypt. Here he was successful in the energetic suppression of a Mamlūk revolt and when he returned in 1610 to the capital with two years’ tribute, he was appointed Ḳapudan Pas̲h̲a, being at the same time…


(1,031 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Turkish form of the name of the island of Lemnos in the Aegean Sea between Mount Athos and the mainland of Asia Minor about 50 miles S. E. of the entrance to the Dardanelles. In ancient times a possession of Athens, in the middle ages it belonged to the Byzantine empire;. in this period, in 901, the island was sacked by the Muslim inhabitants of Crete. Towards the end of the middle ages Lemnos had passed into the hands of the Italians who called the island Stalimene (formed with the addition o…
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