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Almogávares

(157 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, or Almugávares, a name, apparently derived from the Arabic al-mug̲h̲āwir "one who makes hostile incursions", which was given at the end of the Middle Ages to certain contingents of mercenaries levied from among the mountaineers of Aragon, a tough, sober but undisciplined race. Zurita ( Anales , iv, 24) gives a picturesque description of them. These were the troops, fighting on foot, in the service of the Kings of Aragon and Castille, who cut to pieces the French army of Philip III the Bold during his campaign of 1285,…

al-Nāṣir al-Salāwī

(1,220 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. K̲h̲ālid b. Ḥammād al-Nāṣirī , a Moroccan historian born at Salé on 22 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1250/20 April 1835, died in the same town on 16 D̲j̲umādā I 1315/13 October 1897. The genealogy of this writer can be traced in a direct line to the founder of the Moroccan brotherhood of the Nāṣiriyya [ q.v.], Aḥmad b. Nāṣir, who was buried in his zāwiya at Tāmgrūt in the valley of the Wādī Darʿa (Drā). He studied in his native town, which had in those days some reputation as a centre of learning, and was a mi…

Abu ’l-Maḥāsin Yūsuf b. Muḥammad b. Yūsuf al-Fāsī

(322 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Moroccan scholar, and Ṣūfī s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ of repute, born in 938/1530-31, the ancestor of the Fāsiyyūn (vernacular Fāsiyyīn) family, which, since the 16th century, has provided the town of Fās with a long succession of scholars and jurists. ¶ Abū’l-Maḥāsin al-Fāsī himself belonged to the Fihrite branch of the Banu ’l-Ḏj̲add, which, about 880/1473, had emigrated from Malaga, in Spain, to Morocco. He was born at al-Ḳaṣr al-Kabīr (or, in the Spanish form, Alcázarquivir), where his grandfather Yūsuf had settled after …

S̲h̲aḳunda

(263 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, arabicised form of Secunda, name of a little town opposite Cordova on the left bank of the Guadalquivir. According to al-Maḳḳarī and Ibn G̲h̲ālib, it was originally surrounded by a rampart. It was here that a decisive battle was fought in 129/747 between the Maʿaddī clan under Yūsuf al-Fihrī [ q.v.] and al-Sumayl b. Ḥātim [ q.v.] and the Yamanī clan commanded by Abu ’l-K̲h̲aṭṭār, who was defeated. Later, at the zenith of the Umayyad caliphate, Secunda became one of the richest suburbs of Cordova and was also called the “southern suburb” ( al-rabaḍ al-d̲j̲anūbī ). Th…

Abū Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ

(191 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
b. Yanṣāran b. G̲h̲afiyyān al-Dukkālī al-Mād̲j̲irī , famous Moroccan saint of the 6th-7th century A. H., patron of the town of Āsfī [ q.v.], the present-day Safi. Born about 550/1155, his principal master was the famous Abū Madyan [ q.v.] al-G̲h̲awt̲h̲, patron of Tilimsān (Tlemcen). He went on pilgrimage to Mecca and is believed to have stayed in Alexandria twenty years to follow the teaching of the ṣūfī ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ al-Ḏj̲azūlī, who was of Moroccan origin. After his return to Morocco he became the propagandist among his fellow-countrymen of the ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ and ṭalab al-ʿilm

al-Muʿtaṣim

(286 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abū Yaḥyā Muḥammad b. Maʿn b. Muḥammad Ibn Ṣumādiḥ al-Tud̲j̲ībi , second ruler of the dynasty of Tud̲j̲ībids [ q.v.] of the kingdom of Almería [see al-mariyya ], reigned 443-484/1051-1091. Gifted like his contemporary al-Muʿtamid [ q.v.] of Seville with a certain amount of poetic talent, he made his capital during his long reign one of the great centres of culture in the Peninsula. But like the other mulūk al-ṭawāʿif [ q.v.] of Spain, he was for the most of his time at war with one or another of his neighbours. He was probably implicated in the conspiracy fomented…

Medina

(99 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, from Arabic madīna "town", is used in French ( médina ) to designate, above all in the Mag̲h̲rib, the ancient part of the great Islamic cities, beyond which have been constructed the modern quarters of the city. Moreover, Medina has survived in Spain in a certain number of toponyms. The main ones of these are: Medina de las Torres, in the province of Badajoz; Medina del Campo and Medina de Rioseco, in that of Valladolid; Medina de Pomar, in that of Burgos; and also, Medinaceli [see madināt salīm ] and Medina-Sidonia [see s̲h̲ad̲h̲ūna ]. (E. Lévi-Provençal)

Aḥmad al-Manṣūr

(950 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, sixth sovereign of the Moroccan dynasty of the Saʿdids [ q.v.], son of the second sultan of the dynasty, Muḥammad al-S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Mahdī (d. 964/1557), was born at Fez in 956/1549. He held various military commands, but was driven into exile at Algiers with his elder brother, ʿAbd al-Malik. The latter, on acceding to the throne in 983/1576, designated Aḥmad as his heir presumptive. Two years later Aḥmad took part in the famous battle of Wādi ’l-Mak̲h̲āzin, in the vicinity of al-Ḳaṣr al-Kabīr [ q.v.] in the N.W. of Morocco. This battle, which took place on the last day of Ḏj̲u…

Madīnat Sālim

(434 words)

Author(s): Lévi Provençal, E.
, the Arabic name, which has become Medinaceli , of a small town in north-eastern Spain, on the railway from Madrid to Saragossa, and almost equidistant from these two cities; it lies at an altitude of more than 3,280 feet/1,000 m., on the left bank of the Jalón. It owes its name to a Berber from the Maṣmūda, Sālim, who repaired a Roman fortress which Ṭāriḳ [ q.v.], according to Yāḳūt, iii, 13, had found in a ruinous state. The Arab geographers give brief descriptions of Medinaceli. According to al-Idrīsī, it was a large town built in a hollow with many large buildings, ga…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad b. Abī ʿĀmir

(278 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, nicknamed Sanchuelo (S̲h̲and̲j̲wilo), the "little Sancho" (as he was by his mother a grandson of Sancho Garcés II Abarca, Basque king of Pamplona), son of the famous "majordomo" al-Manṣūr [ q.v.] b. Abī ʿĀmir. He suceeded his elder brother ʿAbd al-Malik [ q.v.] al-Muẓaffar on his death, 16 Ṣafar 399/20 Oct. 1008, with the consent of the titular ¶ caliph, the Umayyad His̲h̲ām II al-Muʾayyad bi’llāh. Indifferently gifted, vain, debauched, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Sanchuelo, from the moment that he assumed power in Cordova, made one mistake after the other and alienated p…

S̲h̲aḳūra

(317 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, a Spanish Arabic place-name corresponding to the Spanish Segura. This last name is now only applied to the river which waters Murcia and Orihuela and flows into the Mediterranean near Guardamar. In the Muslim geographers, this river is usually called the “white river” ( al-nahr al-abyaḍ ). It rises, like the Guadalquivir, in the range called D̲j̲abal S̲h̲aḳūra, but on the eastern slope. The mountains to which this name was given are of considerable extent. They were, according to the Arab geographers, covered with for…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(2,967 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the name of the Marwānid prince who restored the Umayyad dynasty in al-Andalus, and of four of his successors. 1. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān I, called al-Dāk̲h̲il , ‘the Immigrant’, was the son of Muʿāwiya b. His̲h̲ām [ q.v.]. When his relatives were being hunted down by the ʿAbbāsids, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, still a youth—he was born in 113/731—contrived to escape secretly to Palestine, whence, accompanied by his freedman Badr, he made his way first to Egypt, and then to Ifrīḳiya. At Ḳayrawān, the hostile attitude of the governor, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b.…

Tarragona

(247 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(Arabie Tarrākūna), a little town in the north-east of Spain on the Mediterranean and capital of the province of the same name. This town, which now has a population of 23,300, occupies the site of the ancient acropolis of Tarraco, which became one of the centres of Roman domination in Spain and from the time of Augustus, the capital of the province of Hispania Tarraconensis. The Muslims when they occupied Tarragona retained its old name. They sacked it in 724, then occupied it for the whole of the Umaiyad Caliphate of Cordova, not without having twice to re…

al-Sīd

(102 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
The study of the Latin and Catalan documents by R. Menéndez Pidal ( La España del Cid, Madrid 1929) as well as the discovery of new Arabic documents by E. Lévi-Provençal, have thrown new light on the story of the adventurous career of the Cid Campeador. Apart from the work cited above — which is fundamental, but too apologetical — the reader may be referred, for a survey of the question, to E. Lévi-Provençal, Le Cid de l’histoire (in Revue Historique, Paris 1937) and Nouveaux documents arabes sur le Cid, in Etudes d’histoire hispano-musulmane, first series [under the press]. (E. Lévi-Provença…

Tud̲j̲īb (Banū)

(414 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the name of an Arab family several members of which attained distinction during Muslim rule in Spain in the period of the Mulūk al-Ṭawāʾif as well as under the Omaiyad caliphs. The family became divided into two branches, the Banū Hās̲h̲im of Saragossa and the Banū Ṣumādiḥ of Almeria. The family of the Banū Tud̲j̲īb had settled in Aragon at the conquest In the reign of the emīr Muḥammad I (239—273 = 852—886), its head was ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Tud̲j̲ībī and his authority over his fellow-tribesmen was rec…

al-Zayyānī

(1,034 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim b. Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. Ibrāhīm, Moroccan statesman and historian of the 18th century. Al-Zayyānī, a member of the great Berber tribe of ¶ the Zayyān in central Morocco, was born in Fās in 1147/1734-5. He received his education in this city. At the age of 23, he accompanied his parents on the Pilgrimage to Mecca and after an exciting journey, coming as well as going, which lasted over two years, he returned to Fās, where he obtained a position as secretary to the mak̲h̲zan [ q.v.] of sultan Muḥammad III b. ʿAbd Allāh. His ability, his knowledge of Berber dialects and the …

ʿAbd al-Malik b. Muḥammad b. Abī ʿĀmir

(537 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
al-Maʿāfirī Abū Marwān al-Muẓaffar , son and successor of the famous "major domo" ( ḥād̲j̲ib ) al-Mansūr [ q.v.] under the reign of the Umayyad caliph of al-Andalus His̲h̲ām II al-Muʾayyad biʾllāh. He was the real sovereign of Muslim Spain after the death of his father in Medinaceli (Madīnat Sālim) in 392/1002. ʿAbd al-Malik, second son of al-Manṣūr, was born in 364/975; his mother, an umm walad called al-Ḏh̲alfāʾ, survived him several years. Even before succeeding his father he gained experience as general in several campaigns, both in t…

Abū Ḥāmid al-G̲h̲arnāṭī

(465 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Muḥammad b. ʿabd al-Raḥmān (variant al-Raḥīm ) b. Sulaymān al-Māzinī al-Ḳaysī , Andalusian traveller and collector of ʿad̲j̲āʾib [ q.v.] at the beginning of the 6th/12th century, the perfect type of the Occidental raḥḥāla , drawn by the desire of ṭalab al-ʿilm and the spirit of adventure to the farthest limits of the lands of Islam. There is little biographical information about him and the main dates of his adventurous life are given by himself in his works. He was born in Granada in 473/1080, no doubt studied i…

Lūrḳa

(142 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Lorca, a town of Eastern Spain lying between Granada and Murcia and having a population at present of 58,600. It is the ancient Iluro or Heliocroca of the Romans. In the Islamic period, it formed part of the kūra of Tudmīr [ q.v.], and was famous both for the richness of its soil and subsoil and for its strategic position. Its ḥiṣn was one of the most substantial in Andalusia. It is situated at 1,200 feet above sea-level on the southern slope of the Sierra del Cáno, and dominates the course of the river Guadalentín. Under Arab rule …

Abū ʿUbayd al-Bakrī

(2,309 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Muḥ. b. Ayyūb , was, with al-S̲h̲arīf al-Idrīsī [ q.v.], the greatest geographer of the Muslim West, and one of the most characteristic representatives of Arab Andalusian erudition in the 5th/11th century. Although little is known about the details of the life of Abū ʿUbayd al-Bakrī, it is possible to describe the various aspects of his scientific activity, all of which seems to have taken place in his own country; in fact, he appears never to have travelled in the East, or even North Africa, which he …
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