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ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAbd al-Ḳādir al-Fāsī

(149 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Moroccan scholar, b. at Fez 1040/1631, d. in the same town 1096/1685. He was the pupil of his father, ʿAbd al-Ḳādir b. ʿAlī [ q.v.] and of numerous other masters. He became a famous polygraph, celebrated by all his biographers for the breadth and the variety of his knowledge. He is said to have compiled more than 170 works on Malikite fiḳh , medicine, astronomy and history. But it is especially as a lawyer that he is an authority, and his main works are his great collection on the "customs" of Fez, al-ʿAmal al-Fāsī , and a commentary on al-S̲h̲ifāʾ by the famous ḳāḍī ʿIyāḍ, entitled Miftāḥ al-S̲h̲i…

al-Mahdī

(865 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Muḥammad b. his̲h̲ām b. ʿabd al-D̲j̲abbār b. ʿabd al-Raḥmān al-Nāṣir , abu ’l-Walīd , eleventh Umayyad caliph of Spain. He held power on two occasions, first as successor to His̲h̲ām II al-Muʾayyad [ q.v.], and again in Sulaymān b. Ḥakam al-Mustaʿīn’s [ q.v.] place in the period of general rebellion which at the end of the 4th-beginning of the 5th/11th century immediately preceded the establishment throughout Muslim Spain of petty independent rulers, the Mulūk al- Ṭawāʾif [ q.v.]. The third of the ʿĀmirid ḥād̲j̲ibs , ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. al-Manṣūr, surnamed …

Almogávares

(157 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, or Almugávares, a name, apparently derived from the Arabic al-mug̲h̲āwir "one who makes hostile incursions", which was given at the end of the Middle Ages to certain contingents of mercenaries levied from among the mountaineers of Aragon, a tough, sober but undisciplined race. Zurita ( Anales , iv, 24) gives a picturesque description of them. These were the troops, fighting on foot, in the service of the Kings of Aragon and Castille, who cut to pieces the French army of Philip III the Bold during his campaign of 1285,…

al-Nāṣir al-Salāwī

(1,220 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. K̲h̲ālid b. Ḥammād al-Nāṣirī , a Moroccan historian born at Salé on 22 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1250/20 April 1835, died in the same town on 16 D̲j̲umādā I 1315/13 October 1897. The genealogy of this writer can be traced in a direct line to the founder of the Moroccan brotherhood of the Nāṣiriyya [ q.v.], Aḥmad b. Nāṣir, who was buried in his zāwiya at Tāmgrūt in the valley of the Wādī Darʿa (Drā). He studied in his native town, which had in those days some reputation as a centre of learning, and was a mi…

Abu ’l-Maḥāsin Yūsuf b. Muḥammad b. Yūsuf al-Fāsī

(322 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Moroccan scholar, and Ṣūfī s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ of repute, born in 938/1530-31, the ancestor of the Fāsiyyūn (vernacular Fāsiyyīn) family, which, since the 16th century, has provided the town of Fās with a long succession of scholars and jurists. ¶ Abū’l-Maḥāsin al-Fāsī himself belonged to the Fihrite branch of the Banu ’l-Ḏj̲add, which, about 880/1473, had emigrated from Malaga, in Spain, to Morocco. He was born at al-Ḳaṣr al-Kabīr (or, in the Spanish form, Alcázarquivir), where his grandfather Yūsuf had settled after …

S̲h̲aḳunda

(263 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, arabicised form of Secunda, name of a little town opposite Cordova on the left bank of the Guadalquivir. According to al-Maḳḳarī and Ibn G̲h̲ālib, it was originally surrounded by a rampart. It was here that a decisive battle was fought in 129/747 between the Maʿaddī clan under Yūsuf al-Fihrī [ q.v.] and al-Sumayl b. Ḥātim [ q.v.] and the Yamanī clan commanded by Abu ’l-K̲h̲aṭṭār, who was defeated. Later, at the zenith of the Umayyad caliphate, Secunda became one of the richest suburbs of Cordova and was also called the “southern suburb” ( al-rabaḍ al-d̲j̲anūbī ). Th…

Abū Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ

(191 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
b. Yanṣāran b. G̲h̲afiyyān al-Dukkālī al-Mād̲j̲irī , famous Moroccan saint of the 6th-7th century A. H., patron of the town of Āsfī [ q.v.], the present-day Safi. Born about 550/1155, his principal master was the famous Abū Madyan [ q.v.] al-G̲h̲awt̲h̲, patron of Tilimsān (Tlemcen). He went on pilgrimage to Mecca and is believed to have stayed in Alexandria twenty years to follow the teaching of the ṣūfī ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ al-Ḏj̲azūlī, who was of Moroccan origin. After his return to Morocco he became the propagandist among his fellow-countrymen of the ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ and ṭalab al-ʿilm

al-Muʿtaṣim

(286 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abū Yaḥyā Muḥammad b. Maʿn b. Muḥammad Ibn Ṣumādiḥ al-Tud̲j̲ībi , second ruler of the dynasty of Tud̲j̲ībids [ q.v.] of the kingdom of Almería [see al-mariyya ], reigned 443-484/1051-1091. Gifted like his contemporary al-Muʿtamid [ q.v.] of Seville with a certain amount of poetic talent, he made his capital during his long reign one of the great centres of culture in the Peninsula. But like the other mulūk al-ṭawāʿif [ q.v.] of Spain, he was for the most of his time at war with one or another of his neighbours. He was probably implicated in the conspiracy fomented…

Medina

(99 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, from Arabic madīna "town", is used in French ( médina ) to designate, above all in the Mag̲h̲rib, the ancient part of the great Islamic cities, beyond which have been constructed the modern quarters of the city. Moreover, Medina has survived in Spain in a certain number of toponyms. The main ones of these are: Medina de las Torres, in the province of Badajoz; Medina del Campo and Medina de Rioseco, in that of Valladolid; Medina de Pomar, in that of Burgos; and also, Medinaceli [see madināt salīm ] and Medina-Sidonia [see s̲h̲ad̲h̲ūna ]. (E. Lévi-Provençal)

Tamgrūt

(481 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, important town in the Wādī Darʿa (Dra), in the south of Morocco and the site of the mother zāwiya of the religious brotherhood of the Nāṣiriyya [ q.v.]. It is a fair-sized town with houses of red clay, surrounded by groves of palm and fruit trees, on the left bank of the Wādī Darʿa, which is here 120 to 250 feet wide but of no depth and runs between hills about 300 yards apart. Tamgrūt is surrounded by low walls pierced by 4 gates: in the north, Fumm (class, fam “mouth”) al-Sūḳ, in the northeast, Fumm Tāʾurīrt, in the southwest, Bāb al-Ri…

al-Mahdiyya

(933 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, formerly called al-Maʿmūra , a town of Morocco, on the Atlantic coast at the mouth of the Wādī Sabū (Sebou), built on a rocky promontory which dominates the valley of the river. Situated on the southern extremity of the plain of G̲h̲arb and 20 miles to the north-east of Salé (Salā), it enjoys a geographical position of the first importance. A port has been created here for ships of heavy tonnage, which cannot sail up the Wādī Sabū as far as the river port of Ḳnīṭra (al-Ḳunayṭira, Kénitra [see ḳanṭara ]) situated 6 miles as the crow flies from the mouth of the river. It is generally agreed that th…

Akanṣūs

(314 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
abū ʿabd allāh muḥammad b. aḥmad , Moroccan historian and man of letters originating from the Berber tribe of Idā ū-Kansūs which inhabited Sūs in southern Morocco, where he was born in 1211/1797. He studied at Fez under teachers of repute, and then obtained a post at the S̲h̲arīfīan court as secretary. Promoted to the rank of vizier in 1236/1820, he was entrusted by the Sulṭān Mawlāy Sulaymān (Mūlāy Slīmān) with several official missions, but lost his post on the ¶ latter’s death (1238/1822). He retired to Marrākus̲h̲, where he devoted his time to the composition of poetica…

Aḥmad b. Ḵh̲ālid b. Ḥammād al-Nāṣirī al-Salāwī

(1,071 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abu ’lʿabbās s̲h̲ihāb al-dīn , Moroccan historian, born at Salé (Salā) 22 Ḏh̲uʾl-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1250/20 April 1835, died in the same town 16 Ḏj̲umādā I 1315/13 Oct. 1897. The genealogy of this writer descends in a direct line from the founder of the Moroccan brotherhood of the Nāṣiriyya, Aḥmad b. Nāṣir, who was buried at his zāwiya at Tāmgrūt in the valley of Wādī Darʿa (Drā). He pursued his studies at Salé, and, without neglecting his religious and juridical studies, delved deeply into Arabic profane literature. At the age of ab…

ʿAbbās b. Nāṣih

(102 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
al-T̲h̲aḳafī , Andalusi poet of the 3rd/9th century. He stayed for a long time in Egypt, Ḥid̲j̲āz and ʿIrāḳ, acquiring a broad culture. A confidant of the amīr al-Ḥakam I, who appointed him as ḳāḍī of his native Algeciras, he soon made a name for himself both as a philologist and a jurist. The Muḳtabis of Ibn Ḥayyān has preserved numerous specimens of his poetry. He died at the end of the reign of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān II, circa 238/852. (E. Lévi-Provençal) Bibliography Ibn Ḥayyān, al-Muḳtabis, i (in press), fol. 129 f. Ibn al-Faraḍī, Tāʾrīk̲h̲, no. 879 Maḳḳarī, Nafḥ, index.

Abu ’l-K̲h̲aṭṭār

(267 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
al-Ḥuṣām b. Ḍirār al-Kalbī , governor of al-Andalus, who arrived in that country from Ifrīḳiya in 125/743, to replace the wālī T̲h̲aʿlaba b. Salāma al-ʿĀmilī. He carried out a liberal policy, and skilfully removed from Cordova the representatives of the Syrian d̲j̲unds , who had come to Spain under the leadership of Bald̲j̲ b. Bis̲h̲r [ q.v.]. On the advice of Count Ardabast (Arṭūbās), son of the Visigothic prince Witiza, he settled these d̲j̲undīs on fiefs, requiring from them in return that they should respond to mobilization appeals that migh…

Maʿn b. Muḥammad

(215 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, b. Aḥmad b. Ṣūmādīḥ al-Tud̲j̲ībī , Abu ’l-Aḥwas , founder of a branch of the dynasty of the Tud̲j̲ībids [ q.v.] in the little principality of Alméria [see al-mariyya ] in eastern Spain in the middle of the 5th/11th century. The principality had been founded in ca. 416/1025 by the two ʿĀmirid fatās K̲h̲ayān and Zuhayr. On the latter’s death m 428/1037, their overlord ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Abī ʿĀmir, king of Valencia, declared it his property and in 432 or 433/1041-2, placed his brotherin-law Maʿn b. Ṣūmādiḥ as governor there. The latter belonged to a noble family of Arab origin; his father ¶ had been…

Ālaba Wa ’l-ḳilāʿ

(155 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, “Alava and the forts”, a geographical expression used in the 2nd-3rd/8th-9th centuries by Arab chroniclers to denote that part of Christian Spain which was most exposed to the attacks of summer expeditions ( ṣāʾifa ) sent from Cordova by the Umayyad amīrs . The term Ālaba was used more especially to denote the northern part of the Iberian peninsula beyond the left bank of the upper valley of the Ebro. This region was bounded on the west by the territories of Bureba and Castilla la Vieja (“Old Castile” = al Ḳilāʿ ), which stretched from the left bank of the Ebro,…

al-Baṭalyawsī

(280 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, abū muḥammad ʿabd allāḥ b. muḥammad ibn al-sīd , celebrated Andalusian grammarian and philosopher, born at Badajoz (Baṭalyaws [ q.v.]) in 444/1052, died in the middle of Rad̲j̲ab 521/end of July 1127, at Valencia, where he had lived after having incurred the disgrace of Ibn Razīn [see razīn , banu ] and after having taken refuge for a time at Saragossa. Ibn al-Sīd who, at Valencia, had had a notable disciple in Ibn Bas̲h̲kuwāl [ q.v.], is the author of some twenty works, including his commentary on the Adab al-Kātib of Ibn Ḳutayba (under the title of al-Iḳtiḍāb fī S̲h̲arḥ Adab al-Kuttāb

Als̲h̲

(77 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, now Eloche, a small town in the Spanish Levant ( S̲h̲arḳ al-Andalūs ) 12 m. S-W of Alicante, noted for its palm groves, which still exist to-day, and which were described by Muslim authors such as Ibn Saʿīd and al-Ḳazwīnī. (E. Lévi-Provençal) Bibliography Ibn ʿAbd al-Munʿim al Ḥimyarī, Péninsule ibérique, no. 26, text, 31, trans., 39 H. Pérès, Le palmier en Espagne musulmane, in Mélanges Gaudefroy-Demombynes, Cairo 1938, 225-39 Lévi-Provençal, Hist. Esp. mus., iii, 283-4.

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Muḥammad

(182 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
b. Ibrahīm al-Ṣinhād̲j̲ī al-Fis̲h̲tālī , Moroccan writer, b. 956/1549, d. at Marrākus̲h̲ 1031/1621-2, was head of the chancery ( wazīr al-ḳalam al-aʿlā ) and official ¶ historiographer ( mutawallī taʾrik̲h̲ al-dawla ) of the Saʿdid sultan Aḥmad al-Manṣūr al-Ḏh̲ahabī [ q.v.]. Of his literary and historical works, which were considerable, there survive only lengthy quotations, especially by the chronicler al-Ifrānī [ q.v.] in his Nuzhat al-Ḥādī . Al-Fis̲h̲tālī, who was a contemporary and friend of al-Maḳḳarī [ q.v.], the author of Nafḥ al-Ṭīb , composed ann…
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