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Abu ’l-Maḥāsin Yūsuf b. Muḥammad b. Yūsuf al-Fāsī

(322 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Moroccan scholar, and Ṣūfī s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ of repute, born in 938/1530-31, the ancestor of the Fāsiyyūn (vernacular Fāsiyyīn) family, which, since the 16th century, has provided the town of Fās with a long succession of scholars and jurists. ¶ Abū’l-Maḥāsin al-Fāsī himself belonged to the Fihrite branch of the Banu ’l-Ḏj̲add, which, about 880/1473, had emigrated from Malaga, in Spain, to Morocco. He was born at al-Ḳaṣr al-Kabīr (or, in the Spanish form, Alcázarquivir), where his grandfather Yūsuf had settled after …

S̲h̲aḳunda

(263 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, arabicised form of Secunda, name of a little town opposite Cordova on the left bank of the Guadalquivir. According to al-Maḳḳarī and Ibn G̲h̲ālib, it was originally surrounded by a rampart. It was here that a decisive battle was fought in 129/747 between the Maʿaddī clan under Yūsuf al-Fihrī [ q.v.] and al-Sumayl b. Ḥātim [ q.v.] and the Yamanī clan commanded by Abu ’l-K̲h̲aṭṭār, who was defeated. Later, at the zenith of the Umayyad caliphate, Secunda became one of the richest suburbs of Cordova and was also called the “southern suburb” ( al-rabaḍ al-d̲j̲anūbī ). Th…

Abū Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ

(191 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
b. Yanṣāran b. G̲h̲afiyyān al-Dukkālī al-Mād̲j̲irī , famous Moroccan saint of the 6th-7th century A. H., patron of the town of Āsfī [ q.v.], the present-day Safi. Born about 550/1155, his principal master was the famous Abū Madyan [ q.v.] al-G̲h̲awt̲h̲, patron of Tilimsān (Tlemcen). He went on pilgrimage to Mecca and is believed to have stayed in Alexandria twenty years to follow the teaching of the ṣūfī ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ al-Ḏj̲azūlī, who was of Moroccan origin. After his return to Morocco he became the propagandist among his fellow-countrymen of the ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ and ṭalab al-ʿilm

al-Muʿtaṣim

(286 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abū Yaḥyā Muḥammad b. Maʿn b. Muḥammad Ibn Ṣumādiḥ al-Tud̲j̲ībi , second ruler of the dynasty of Tud̲j̲ībids [ q.v.] of the kingdom of Almería [see al-mariyya ], reigned 443-484/1051-1091. Gifted like his contemporary al-Muʿtamid [ q.v.] of Seville with a certain amount of poetic talent, he made his capital during his long reign one of the great centres of culture in the Peninsula. But like the other mulūk al-ṭawāʿif [ q.v.] of Spain, he was for the most of his time at war with one or another of his neighbours. He was probably implicated in the conspiracy fomented…

Medina

(99 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, from Arabic madīna "town", is used in French ( médina ) to designate, above all in the Mag̲h̲rib, the ancient part of the great Islamic cities, beyond which have been constructed the modern quarters of the city. Moreover, Medina has survived in Spain in a certain number of toponyms. The main ones of these are: Medina de las Torres, in the province of Badajoz; Medina del Campo and Medina de Rioseco, in that of Valladolid; Medina de Pomar, in that of Burgos; and also, Medinaceli [see madināt salīm ] and Medina-Sidonia [see s̲h̲ad̲h̲ūna ]. (E. Lévi-Provençal)

Aḥmad al-Manṣūr

(950 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, sixth sovereign of the Moroccan dynasty of the Saʿdids [ q.v.], son of the second sultan of the dynasty, Muḥammad al-S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Mahdī (d. 964/1557), was born at Fez in 956/1549. He held various military commands, but was driven into exile at Algiers with his elder brother, ʿAbd al-Malik. The latter, on acceding to the throne in 983/1576, designated Aḥmad as his heir presumptive. Two years later Aḥmad took part in the famous battle of Wādi ’l-Mak̲h̲āzin, in the vicinity of al-Ḳaṣr al-Kabīr [ q.v.] in the N.W. of Morocco. This battle, which took place on the last day of Ḏj̲u…

Madīnat Sālim

(434 words)

Author(s): Lévi Provençal, E.
, the Arabic name, which has become Medinaceli , of a small town in north-eastern Spain, on the railway from Madrid to Saragossa, and almost equidistant from these two cities; it lies at an altitude of more than 3,280 feet/1,000 m., on the left bank of the Jalón. It owes its name to a Berber from the Maṣmūda, Sālim, who repaired a Roman fortress which Ṭāriḳ [ q.v.], according to Yāḳūt, iii, 13, had found in a ruinous state. The Arab geographers give brief descriptions of Medinaceli. According to al-Idrīsī, it was a large town built in a hollow with many large buildings, ga…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad b. Abī ʿĀmir

(278 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, nicknamed Sanchuelo (S̲h̲and̲j̲wilo), the "little Sancho" (as he was by his mother a grandson of Sancho Garcés II Abarca, Basque king of Pamplona), son of the famous "majordomo" al-Manṣūr [ q.v.] b. Abī ʿĀmir. He suceeded his elder brother ʿAbd al-Malik [ q.v.] al-Muẓaffar on his death, 16 Ṣafar 399/20 Oct. 1008, with the consent of the titular ¶ caliph, the Umayyad His̲h̲ām II al-Muʾayyad bi’llāh. Indifferently gifted, vain, debauched, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Sanchuelo, from the moment that he assumed power in Cordova, made one mistake after the other and alienated p…

S̲h̲aḳūra

(317 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, a Spanish Arabic place-name corresponding to the Spanish Segura. This last name is now only applied to the river which waters Murcia and Orihuela and flows into the Mediterranean near Guardamar. In the Muslim geographers, this river is usually called the “white river” ( al-nahr al-abyaḍ ). It rises, like the Guadalquivir, in the range called D̲j̲abal S̲h̲aḳūra, but on the eastern slope. The mountains to which this name was given are of considerable extent. They were, according to the Arab geographers, covered with for…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(2,967 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the name of the Marwānid prince who restored the Umayyad dynasty in al-Andalus, and of four of his successors. 1. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān I, called al-Dāk̲h̲il , ‘the Immigrant’, was the son of Muʿāwiya b. His̲h̲ām [ q.v.]. When his relatives were being hunted down by the ʿAbbāsids, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, still a youth—he was born in 113/731—contrived to escape secretly to Palestine, whence, accompanied by his freedman Badr, he made his way first to Egypt, and then to Ifrīḳiya. At Ḳayrawān, the hostile attitude of the governor, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b.…

Afṭasids

(982 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
( banu ’l-afṭas ), small Hispano-Muslim dynasty of the 5th/11th century, which reigned during the period of the mulūk al-ṭawāʾif of al-Andalus over a vast territory in the western part of the Iberian peninsula, with Badajoz (Baṭalyaws) as its capital. On the dismemberment of the caliphate of Cordova, the "Lower March" of al-Andalus ( al-t̲h̲ag̲h̲r al-adnā ), consisting of the middle valley of the Guadiana (Wādī Ānā) and the central portion of modern Portugal, passed into the possession of a liberated slave of al-Ḥakam II, Sābūr,…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad

(237 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
b. ʿabd al-raḥmān al-Marwānī , seventh Umayyad Amīr of Cordova. He succeeded his brother al-Mund̲h̲ir on the latter’s death before Bobastro, centre of ʿUmar b. Hafṣūn’s rebellion, on 15 Ṣafar 275/29 June 888. The circumstances of al-Mund̲h̲ir’s death arouse the suspicion that the new sovereign was not quite innocent of it. At his accession, ʿAbd Allāh, born in 229/844, was forty-four years old. His reign, which lasted for a quarter of a century, until his death on 1 Rabīʿ I 300/16 Oct. 912, was described in detail by the chronicler Ibn Ḥayyān, in that part of his Muḳtabis

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Marwān

(410 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
b. Yūnus , called ibn al-Ḏj̲illīḳī ("son of the Galician"), famous chief of insurgents in the West of al-Andalus in the second half of the 3rd/9th century. He belonged to a family of neo-Muslims ( muwalladūn ), originating from the North of Portugal and established in Merida. Although his father had been governor of this town on behalf of the sovereigns of Cordova, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān revolted against the Umayyad Amīr Muḥammad I in 254/868. The Amīr besieged him and forced him, after the capitulation of the city, …

ʿAbbās b. Firnās

(322 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
b. Wardūs , Abu ’l-Ḳāsim , Andalusi scholar and poet, belonging to the entourage of the Hispano-Umayyad amīrs al-Ḥakam I, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān II and Muḥammad I, in the 3rd/9th century. No biographical data about him are available, and we only know that he was an Umayyad mawlā of Berber origin, that he came from the kūra of Tākurunnā, i.e. the district of Ronda, and that he died in 274/887. His strong personality is now fully manifest, thanks to the newly found volume of Ibn Ḥayyān’s al-Muḳtabis concerning the Andalusi amirate, where a long passage is devoted to …

S̲h̲arḳāwa

(514 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
or S̲h̲erḳāwa , the common ethnie designation of a Marabout group in central Morocco, belonging to the S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī-D̲j̲azūlī brotherhood through the intermediary of the mystic Abū Fāris ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Tabbāʿ [ q.v.]. The singular is S̲h̲arḳāwī , synonym of s̲h̲arḳī ( s̲h̲argī , pl. s̲h̲rāga ), a geographical ethnic name (cf. on the other hand Tādilī , ethnic from Tādlā confined to the s̲h̲urafāʾ of this name, while the geographical ethnic is Tādlāwī ). The principal zāwiya of the S̲h̲arḳāwa is in the town ¶ of Abu ’l-D̲j̲aʿd (modern form, Boujad), in the Tādlā, between the M…

Maysara

(595 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, a Berber chief of the Mag̲h̲rib, who rebelled against Arab authority in 122/739-40. He belonged to the tribe of the Maṭg̲h̲āra/Madg̲h̲āra and the historians give him the surname of al-Ḥaḳīr "the low-born" because he was of humble origin and had been before his rebellion a water-seller in the market of al-Ḳayrawān. After the recall of Mūsā b. Nuṣayr [ q.v.] at the end of the 1st/opening of the 8th century in North Africa, under the influence of Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ite propaganda, incited by the Arabs’ financial exactions, ʿUmar b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Murādī, governor o…

Abū Ḥafṣ ʿUmar b. S̲h̲uʿayb al-Ballūtī

(344 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, native of Pedroche (Bitrawd̲j̲) in the Faḥṣ al-Ballūt, a district to the north of Cordova, founder of a minor dynasty which ruled over the island of Crete (Iḳrītis̲h̲ [ q.v.]) between 212/827 and 350/961, when his descendant ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. S̲h̲uʿayb was dethroned and the island recaptured by the general and future Byzantine emperor Nicephorus Phocas. After the celebrated revolt of the Suburb which broke out in Cordova in 202/818 and was harshly suppressed by the amīr Ḥakam I (cf. umayyads of spain), a group of Andalusians, several thousand in number, who had been expelled …

al-Tamgrūtī

(198 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad , a Moroccan writer, a native of Tamgrūt [ q.v.], died at Marrākus̲h̲ in 1003/1594-5 and was buried in the sanctuary of Ḳāḍī ʿIyāḍ. He held an official position at the court of the Saʿdian Sultan Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad al-Manṣūr al-D̲h̲ahabī (986-1012/1578-1602). He was placed by this ruler in charge of the embassy to Sultan Murād III in Istanbul along with another court dignitary, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Fis̲h̲tālī, d. 1021/1612-13. Al-Tamgrūtī prepared an account of his journey ( riḥla ) which he called al-Nafaḥāt al-miskiyya fi ’l…

al-S̲h̲ārāt

(289 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, from the Latin serra through the Spanish sierra , is the term applied by certain geographers of Muslim Spain to the mountains which stretch from east to west in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. The best definition is given by Ibn Faḍl Allāh al-ʿUmarī. According to this author, the mountain range called al-S̲h̲ārāt stretches from the country behind Madīnat Sālim (Medinaceli) to Coimbra. This term therefore describes the mountains now known under the names of Sierra de Guadarram…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Buluggīn

(560 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
b. Bādīs b. Ḥabūs b. Zīrī , third and last ruler of the kingdom of Granada, of the Ṣinhād̲jī Berber family of the Banū Zīrī [see zīrīds of spain ]. Born in 447/1056, he was appointed at the death of his father Buluggīn Sayf al-Dawla, in 456/1064, as the presumptive heir of his grandfather Bādīs b. Ḥabūs. He succeeded him on the throne of Granada, while his brother Tamīm al-Muʿizz became independent ruler of Malaga. His reign consisted of a long series of troubles inside his kingdom, of armed conflicts …
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