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Mozarabs

(870 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the name given in the middle ages to those Christians who lived in districts under Muslim rule and bore the stamp of Spanish Moorish culture. The word comes from the Arabic mustaʿrib, the meaning of which is exactly that of the Spanish mozárabe; the Arabic form itself is found in documents in the archives of mediaeval Spain. We know that in principle at the time of conquest the new subjects of the Muslim conquerors could either adopt Islām or continue to profess their own faith, in the latter case falling into the category of tributaries ( d̲h̲immī; q. v.). The early Arab rulers of Spain …

Tamgrūt

(481 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the principal town in the Wādī Darʿa (Dra [q. v.]), in the south of Morocco and the site of the mother- zāwiya of the religious brotherhood of the Nāṣirīya [q.v.]. It is a fair-sized town with houses of red clay, surrounded by groves of palm and fruit trees, on the left bank of the Wādī Darʿa, which is here 120 to 250 feet broad but of no depth and runs between hills about 300 yards apart. Tamgrūt is surrounded by low walls pierced by 4 gates: in the north, Fumm (class, fam = mouth) al-Sūḳ, in the N. E., Fumm Tāʾurīrt, in the S. W., Bāb al-Rizḳ and to the east, Fumm al-Sūr. An import…

Navas de Tolosa

(317 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(las), a place in the south of Spain in the province of Jaen on the frontier of Andalusia, a short distance from the modern town of Carolina. Its site corresponds to that of a fortress called Ḥiṣn al-ʿIḳāb in the Muslim period. It was in the plain which lies in front of it that there was fought on the 15th Ṣafar 609 (July 16, 1212) the great battle between the Christians and the Almohads which ended in the rout of the latter. As a result of the defeat of Alarcos [q. v.], the king of Castille, Alfonso VIII, had concluded a truce with the Muslims. On its expiration at the end of the xiith century, the Christ…

Santarem

(830 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, in Arabic S̲h̲antarīn (ethnie: S̲h̲antarīnī), a town in Portugal in the region of the Estremadura, 41 miles N. N. E. of Lisbon, 350 feet above sea-level on the slope of a hill on the right bank of the Tagus. This town, the ancient Scalabis or Praesidium Iulium of the Romans, takes its name from St. Irene (Santa Irene) who was martyred in 653 and thrown into the river at Thomar 30 miles farther up the river; her body stopped before Santarem and the name of the saint became that of the place. Al…

Todmīr

(238 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the name given to the province ( kūra) of al-Andalus, of which Murcia was the capital down to the time of the breaking up of the Omaiyad caliphate. If we may believe the Arab authors, the word is an Arabic transcription of the name of the Visigoth governor Theodomir, who, at the time of the conquest of Spain by the Arabs, was the representative in Murcia of Roderick, king of Toledo. He is particularly known for the treaty which he made with Mūsā b. Nuṣair [q. v.], the Arabic text of which has been preserved by al-Ḍabbī and Ibn ʿAbd al-Munʿim al-Ḥimyarī. It was first published by Castri, Bibliotheca H…

Lisbon

(542 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Portuguese Lisboa, a city at the mouth of the Tagus, now the capital of Portugal, with 435,000 inhabitants; tradition ascribes its foundation to Ulysses and it originally bore the Phoenician name of Olisippo. Under the Romans it received the name of Felicitas Julia and formed a municipium. It was under the rule of the Alans from 407, of the Visigoths from 585 to 715 when it passed into the power of the Muslims. For the Arabic transcription of the name of Lisbon we find the two forms Lis̲h̲būna and Us̲h̲būna with or without the article (cf. especially, David Lopes, Os Arabes nas obras de Alex…

Medina-sidonia

(94 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, a little town in the S. W. of Spain, in the province of Cadiz, almost equidistant from Algeciras and Jerez de la Frontera. Under the name of S̲h̲ad̲h̲ūna it was in the Muslim period the capital of the district of this name; its territory formed part of the province of Seville and adjoined that of Moron. (E. Lévi-Provençal) Bibliography Idrīsī, Ṣifat al-Andalus, ed. Dozy and de Goeje, text 174, transl. 208, and note 6 Abu ’l-Fidāʾ, ed. Reinaud and de Slane, text 166, transl. 236 Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am al-buldān, ed. Wüstenfeld, iii. 267.

Segovia

(167 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, in Arabic S̲h̲aḳūbīya, an important and ancient town in Spain, now the capital of the province of the same name, situated in Old Castile, 60 miles N.W. of Madrid, 3,300 feet above sea-level, on an isolated rock near one of the last spurs of the Sierra de Guadarrama. This town is famous for its Roman (aqueduct) and Christian (alcazar) remains and was only under Muslim rule for a short time It was recaptured in 140 (757/758) by Alfonso I of Castile or his son Fruela I at the same time as Zamora,…

Mūsā b. Nuṣair

(673 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Zaid al-Lak̲h̲mī (or al-Bakrī) Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, Arab governor, conqueror of the western Mag̲h̲rib and of Spain. He was born in 19 (640); his father had been in the immediate entourage of Muʿāwiya [q. v.]. Mūsā was at first appointed by the caliph ʿAbd al-Malik to collect the k̲h̲arād̲j̲ at al-Baṣra, but having been suspected of embezzlement, he fled and took refuge with the caliph’s brother, the governor of Egypt ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Marwān; the latter took Mūsā to Syria to the caliph who fined him 100,000 dīnārs. ʿAbd al-ʿAzī…

Mag̲h̲rāwa

(2,149 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
a large confederation of Berber tribes, belonging to the Zanāta group and related to the confederations of the Banū Ifran [q. v.] and Banū Imīyān. These tribes, who led a nomadic life, in the middle ages roved over the country between the valley of the Chćlif as far as Tlemcen and the mountains inhabited by the Madyūna. They were easily converted to Islām and their chief Ṣūlāt b. Wazmār is to have gone to Madīna to the Caliph ʿUt̲h̲mān and been confirmed by him in his rule over the Mag̲h̲rāwa. …

Reiyo

(251 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the name given in Muslim Spain to the administrative circle ( kūra) comprising the south of the Peninsula, the capital of which was successively Archidona (Arabic: Urd̲j̲ud̲h̲ūna) and Malaga. The usual Arabic orthography is in particular this is the form found in the Muʿd̲j̲am al-Buldān of Yāḳūt; but some Spanish MSS. Give the true orthography , more in keeping with the local pronunciation Reiyo (Raiyu) attested by Ibn Ḥawḳal. It is only, as Dozy thought, a transcription of the Latin regio (no doubt Malacitana regio); the suggestion put forward by Gayangos of a connection with…

Manāḳib

(185 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(a.), plural of manḳaba, means the merits and doings of a miraculous nature of celebrated holy persons of Islām, heads of schools, saints and founders of ṭarīḳa. Other terms like karamāt, faḍāʾil are used with the same meaning but less frequently. We have the titles or manuscripts of several works on eastern manāḳib. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa gives a long list of them. Among the most notable may be mentioned the manāḳib of ʿUmar b. al-Ḵh̲aṭṭāb, of Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, of al-S̲h̲āfiʿī and of Abū Ḥanīfa. The literature of the manāḳib assumed a special development in Morocco from the end of th…

Niebla

(651 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(Ar. Labla), a little town in the S. W. of Spain, 45 miles W. of Seville on the right bank of the Rio Tinto. Now much decayed, it has less than 2,000 inhabitants and is in the judicial district of Moguer, in the province of Huelva. It is the ancient Ilipla. In the Visigothic period it was the see of a bishop. In the Muslim period it enjoyed considerable prosperity. It formed part of the district of al-S̲h̲araf ( Ajarafe) and was also called al-Ḥamrāʾ, “the red”, no doubt from the colour of its ramparts and of the water of its river. It was particularly an olivegrowing cent…

Lerida

(251 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the ancient Ilerda, the Arabic Lārida, a town in northern Spain, halfway between Saragossa and Barcelona, now the capital of the province of the same name, with a population of about 29,000. It lies at a height of about 600 feet on the right bank of the Segre (the Wādī S̲h̲īḳar of the Arabs; Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am al-Buldān, s.v., wrongly makes this another name of Lerida), and forms an important strategical point at the entrance to the plains of Aragon. Lerida, which is undoubtedly of Iberian origin, was taken by Julius Caesar in 49 b. c. in the first Civil War between him and Porapey. In 54…

Mak̲h̲lad

(457 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(Banū), a family of famous Cordovan jurists who, from father to son, during ten generations, distinguished themselves in the study of Fiḳh. The eponymous ancestor of the family was Mak̲h̲lad b. Yazīd, who was ḳāḍī of the province of Reiyoh (the kūra in the south-west of Spain, the capital of which was Malaga), in the reign of the Emīr ʿAbd al-Raḥmān II, in the first half of the third century a. h. His son, Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Baḳī b. Mak̲h̲lad, was a great jurist and traditionist. He was born in Ramaḍān 201 (April 817) and after being in Spain the pupil of Mālik b. …

al-Zallāḳa

(313 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the name given by the Muslim historians to the place near the town of Badajoz ([q. v.] Ar. Baṭalyaws) where the armies of the Almoravid sulṭān Yūsuf b. Tās̲h̲fīn [q. v.], assisted by Andalusian contingents, inflicted a memorable and severe defeat on the troops of Alfonso VI of Castille on Friday 12th Rad̲j̲ab 479 (Oct. 23, 1086). This famous battlefield is now known as Sagrajas on the banks of the Rio Guerrero about 8 miles N. E. of Badajoz. Almost all the Muslim historians of Spain devote a large space in their works to the account of the battle of al-Zallāḳa, but the mo…

Murcia

(1,239 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(Ar. Mursiya), atown in the S. E. of Spain, 140 feet above sea level in the centre of the famous huerta de Murcia (“gardens of Murcia”) watered by the river Segura (Ar. Wādī S̲h̲aḳūra [q. v.] or Wādi ’l-abyaḍ, “the white river”). The area of Murcia has a large population: over 150,000, although the town in the strict sense has barely 30,000. Murcia is the capital of the province of the same name and the see of a bishop; it has also a university. Its port, 40 miles to the south on the Mediterranean coast, is Cartagena, the Ḳarṭād̲j̲anna or Ḳarṭād̲j̲annat al-Ḵh̲ulafāʾ of the Arabs. The situation of M…

Rabaḍ

(248 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(a., pl. arbād), district of a town, quarter, situated outside the central part or madīna [q. v.]. The term, which is very frequently found in the Arab historians of the middle ages in east as well as west, is the original of the Spanish word arrabal which means the same. Rabaḍ also means the immediate vicinity of a town. The rabad usually had a name of its own. This is how there have been preserved for the Cordova of the caliphate of the xth century the names of twenty-one of the suburban districts. Rabaḍ S̲h̲aḳunda [q. v.] or al-Rabaḍ (for short) was the southern quarter of …

Maʿn b. Muḥammad

(206 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
b. Aḥmad b. Ṣūmādiḥ al-Tud̲j̲ībī Abu ’l-Aḥwaṣ or Abū Yaḥyā, founder of a dynasty in the little principality of Almeria, in Eastern Spain in the middle of the xith century a. d. The principality had been founded in 1025 by the two ʿĀmirid “Slavs” Ḵh̲airān and Zuhair. On the latter’s death in 1037, their overlord ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Abī ʿĀmir, king of Valencia, declared it his property and in 1041 placed his brother-inlaw Maʿn b. Ṣūmādiḥ as governor there. The latter belonged to a noble family of Arab origin; his father had been o…

Orihuela

(212 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Arab. Uryūla, a town in Eastern Spain (Levante), 15 miles N. E. of Murcia, the capital of an administrative area ( partido) and the see of a bishop, contains with its adjoining country, which is thickly populated, 35,000 inhabitants. It was conquered by the Muslims at the same time as the other towns of the kūra of Todmīr [q. v.] and was for a long time the capital of this kūra before it had to give way to Murcia. Its history was that of the latter town as long as it remained Muslim. It was however for a very brief period in the middle of the vith century a. h. (middle of the xiith century a. d.) the capital…
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