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(247 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(Arabie Tarrākūna), a little town in the north-east of Spain on the Mediterranean and capital of the province of the same name. This town, which now has a population of 23,300, occupies the site of the ancient acropolis of Tarraco, which became one of the centres of Roman domination in Spain and from the time of Augustus, the capital of the province of Hispania Tarraconensis. The Muslims when they occupied Tarragona retained its old name. They sacked it in 724, then occupied it for the whole of the Umaiyad Caliphate of Cordova, not without having twice to re…


(102 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
The study of the Latin and Catalan documents by R. Menéndez Pidal ( La España del Cid, Madrid 1929) as well as the discovery of new Arabic documents by E. Lévi-Provençal, have thrown new light on the story of the adventurous career of the Cid Campeador. Apart from the work cited above — which is fundamental, but too apologetical — the reader may be referred, for a survey of the question, to E. Lévi-Provençal, Le Cid de l’histoire (in Revue Historique, Paris 1937) and Nouveaux documents arabes sur le Cid, in Etudes d’histoire hispano-musulmane, first series [under the press]. (E. Lévi-Provença…

Tud̲j̲īb (Banū)

(414 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the name of an Arab family several members of which attained distinction during Muslim rule in Spain in the period of the Mulūk al-Ṭawāʾif as well as under the Omaiyad caliphs. The family became divided into two branches, the Banū Hās̲h̲im of Saragossa and the Banū Ṣumādiḥ of Almeria. The family of the Banū Tud̲j̲īb had settled in Aragon at the conquest In the reign of the emīr Muḥammad I (239—273 = 852—886), its head was ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Tud̲j̲ībī and his authority over his fellow-tribesmen was rec…

al-Sūs al-Aḳṣā

(2,555 words)

Author(s): Lévi Provençal, E.
, a district in the south of Morocco, forming a triangular plain about 120 miles long by 25 to 26 miles broad with an area of about 7,500 square miles. On the west it is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean and on the north by the last slopes of the Great Atlas and on the south by the Anti-Atlas, gradually narrowing till it reaches the junction of these two ranges. It is watered by the Wādī Sūs and its tributaries. The Arab geographers of the middle ages usually distinguish between al-Sūs al-aḳṣā, “Farther Sūs” and al-Sūs al-adnā “Hither Sūs”. Al-Sūs al-adnā seems in those days to have meant the whol…


(144 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
( nisba from S̲h̲āwiya; q. v.), Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad Muḥammad, one of the most popular saints ( saiyid) of Fās, died there on Muḥarram 26, 1014 = June 13, 1605 and was buried in the Zāwiya which still bears his name, in the al-Siyād̲j̲ (el-Siāj) quarter. Many notices of him are given by the Moroccan hagiographers, and a collection of his manāḳib was made by the famous Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Salām al-Ḳādirī (1058—1110/1648—1698), entitled Muʿtamad al-rāwī fī manāḳib walīy Allāh saiyidī Aḥmad al-S̲h̲āwī. (E. Lévi-Provençal) Bibliography al-Ifrānī, Ṣafwat man intas̲h̲ar, lith. Fas, p. 36 al-Ḳā…


(162 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Ḏj̲alīl Abū ʿAbd Allāh, Mag̲h̲ribī author of the xvth century, lived at the court of the Zaiyānid rulers of Tlemcen whose historiographer he became and died in Ḏj̲umādā II 899 (Feb. 1494). Besides several small works now lost and fatwās given by al-Wans̲h̲arīs̲h̲ī in his Miʿyār, we have from the pen of al-Tanasī a history of his patrons, Naẓm al-Durr wa ’l-ʿIḳyān fī S̲h̲araf Banī Zaiyān, ed. and partly transl. by Bargès, Histoire des Beni Zayan, rois de Tlemcen, Paris 1852 and Complément de Phistoire des Beni Zeiyan, rois de Tlemcen, ouvrage du cheîkhal-Ten…

S̲h̲ant Yāḳub

(348 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(Yāḳū, in Abu l-Fidāʾ), Arab transcription of the Spanish Santiago, in French St. Jacques de Compostelle, is the most celebrated place of pilgrimage in Christian Spain, the former ¶ capital of the kingdom of Galicia, situated 760 feet above sea-level, between Vigo and La Coruña, to the east of Cape Finisterre. It is there that according to the legend are the relics of the apostle St. James the Greater, the patron-saint of Spain, who landed on the coast near Santiago to convert the peninsula. There was, before the eleventh …


(296 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, leader of the first Muslim forces to land in Spain in 91 (710). The Arab historians are not agreed as to the origin of this client of the famous general Mūsā b. Nuṣair [q. v.]: some say he was a Berber, others an Arab. Al-Rāzī calls him: Abū Zurʿa Ṭarīf b. Mālik al-Maʿāfirī and Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn: Ṭarīf b. Mālik al-Nak̲h̲aʿī. He has also occasionally been confused with the other client of Mūsā b. Nuṣair, Ṭāriḳ b. Ziyād [q. v.]. We know that when Mūsā b. Nuṣair was urged by Count Julian to cross to Spain with an army he consulted his master, the Caliph al-Walīd; the latter order…


(455 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(Ar. Sammūra), a town in the N. W. of Spain, capital of the province of the same name, 2,130 feet above sea-level on the left bank of the Duero, has now a much reduced population (16,000). The Arab geographers of Spain describe it as a town in the country of the Galicians (al-Ḏj̲alāliḳa). It was, after the conquest of al-Andalus, peopled by Berbers and had to be evacuated at the beginning of the viiith century as a result of the territorial gains of the Christian kingdom of Leon. Retaken by the Muslims, it was reconquered and rebuilt in 280 (893) by Alfonso III. ʿAbd…


(870 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the name given in the middle ages to those Christians who lived in districts under Muslim rule and bore the stamp of Spanish Moorish culture. The word comes from the Arabic mustaʿrib, the meaning of which is exactly that of the Spanish mozárabe; the Arabic form itself is found in documents in the archives of mediaeval Spain. We know that in principle at the time of conquest the new subjects of the Muslim conquerors could either adopt Islām or continue to profess their own faith, in the latter case falling into the category of tributaries ( d̲h̲immī; q. v.). The early Arab rulers of Spain …


(481 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the principal town in the Wādī Darʿa (Dra [q. v.]), in the south of Morocco and the site of the mother- zāwiya of the religious brotherhood of the Nāṣirīya [q.v.]. It is a fair-sized town with houses of red clay, surrounded by groves of palm and fruit trees, on the left bank of the Wādī Darʿa, which is here 120 to 250 feet broad but of no depth and runs between hills about 300 yards apart. Tamgrūt is surrounded by low walls pierced by 4 gates: in the north, Fumm (class, fam = mouth) al-Sūḳ, in the N. E., Fumm Tāʾurīrt, in the S. W., Bāb al-Rizḳ and to the east, Fumm al-Sūr. An import…

Navas de Tolosa

(317 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(las), a place in the south of Spain in the province of Jaen on the frontier of Andalusia, a short distance from the modern town of Carolina. Its site corresponds to that of a fortress called Ḥiṣn al-ʿIḳāb in the Muslim period. It was in the plain which lies in front of it that there was fought on the 15th Ṣafar 609 (July 16, 1212) the great battle between the Christians and the Almohads which ended in the rout of the latter. As a result of the defeat of Alarcos [q. v.], the king of Castille, Alfonso VIII, had concluded a truce with the Muslims. On its expiration at the end of the xiith century, the Christ…


(830 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, in Arabic S̲h̲antarīn (ethnie: S̲h̲antarīnī), a town in Portugal in the region of the Estremadura, 41 miles N. N. E. of Lisbon, 350 feet above sea-level on the slope of a hill on the right bank of the Tagus. This town, the ancient Scalabis or Praesidium Iulium of the Romans, takes its name from St. Irene (Santa Irene) who was martyred in 653 and thrown into the river at Thomar 30 miles farther up the river; her body stopped before Santarem and the name of the saint became that of the place. Al…


(238 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the name given to the province ( kūra) of al-Andalus, of which Murcia was the capital down to the time of the breaking up of the Omaiyad caliphate. If we may believe the Arab authors, the word is an Arabic transcription of the name of the Visigoth governor Theodomir, who, at the time of the conquest of Spain by the Arabs, was the representative in Murcia of Roderick, king of Toledo. He is particularly known for the treaty which he made with Mūsā b. Nuṣair [q. v.], the Arabic text of which has been preserved by al-Ḍabbī and Ibn ʿAbd al-Munʿim al-Ḥimyarī. It was first published by Castri, Bibliotheca H…


(542 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Portuguese Lisboa, a city at the mouth of the Tagus, now the capital of Portugal, with 435,000 inhabitants; tradition ascribes its foundation to Ulysses and it originally bore the Phoenician name of Olisippo. Under the Romans it received the name of Felicitas Julia and formed a municipium. It was under the rule of the Alans from 407, of the Visigoths from 585 to 715 when it passed into the power of the Muslims. For the Arabic transcription of the name of Lisbon we find the two forms Lis̲h̲būna and Us̲h̲būna with or without the article (cf. especially, David Lopes, Os Arabes nas obras de Alex…


(94 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, a little town in the S. W. of Spain, in the province of Cadiz, almost equidistant from Algeciras and Jerez de la Frontera. Under the name of S̲h̲ad̲h̲ūna it was in the Muslim period the capital of the district of this name; its territory formed part of the province of Seville and adjoined that of Moron. (E. Lévi-Provençal) Bibliography Idrīsī, Ṣifat al-Andalus, ed. Dozy and de Goeje, text 174, transl. 208, and note 6 Abu ’l-Fidāʾ, ed. Reinaud and de Slane, text 166, transl. 236 Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am al-buldān, ed. Wüstenfeld, iii. 267.


(167 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, in Arabic S̲h̲aḳūbīya, an important and ancient town in Spain, now the capital of the province of the same name, situated in Old Castile, 60 miles N.W. of Madrid, 3,300 feet above sea-level, on an isolated rock near one of the last spurs of the Sierra de Guadarrama. This town is famous for its Roman (aqueduct) and Christian (alcazar) remains and was only under Muslim rule for a short time It was recaptured in 140 (757/758) by Alfonso I of Castile or his son Fruela I at the same time as Zamora,…

Mūsā b. Nuṣair

(673 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Zaid al-Lak̲h̲mī (or al-Bakrī) Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, Arab governor, conqueror of the western Mag̲h̲rib and of Spain. He was born in 19 (640); his father had been in the immediate entourage of Muʿāwiya [q. v.]. Mūsā was at first appointed by the caliph ʿAbd al-Malik to collect the k̲h̲arād̲j̲ at al-Baṣra, but having been suspected of embezzlement, he fled and took refuge with the caliph’s brother, the governor of Egypt ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Marwān; the latter took Mūsā to Syria to the caliph who fined him 100,000 dīnārs. ʿAbd al-ʿAzī…


(2,149 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
a large confederation of Berber tribes, belonging to the Zanāta group and related to the confederations of the Banū Ifran [q. v.] and Banū Imīyān. These tribes, who led a nomadic life, in the middle ages roved over the country between the valley of the Chćlif as far as Tlemcen and the mountains inhabited by the Madyūna. They were easily converted to Islām and their chief Ṣūlāt b. Wazmār is to have gone to Madīna to the Caliph ʿUt̲h̲mān and been confirmed by him in his rule over the Mag̲h̲rāwa. …


(251 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the name given in Muslim Spain to the administrative circle ( kūra) comprising the south of the Peninsula, the capital of which was successively Archidona (Arabic: Urd̲j̲ud̲h̲ūna) and Malaga. The usual Arabic orthography is in particular this is the form found in the Muʿd̲j̲am al-Buldān of Yāḳūt; but some Spanish MSS. Give the true orthography , more in keeping with the local pronunciation Reiyo (Raiyu) attested by Ibn Ḥawḳal. It is only, as Dozy thought, a transcription of the Latin regio (no doubt Malacitana regio); the suggestion put forward by Gayangos of a connection with…
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